Identification

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Name
Phenylephrine
Accession Number
DB00388  (APRD00365)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Phenylephrine is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist used to treat hypotension,6,8 dilate the pupil,7 and induce local vasoconstriction.1 The action of phenylephrine, or neo-synephrine, was first described in literature in the 1930s.2

Phenylephrine was granted FDA approval in 1939.7

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (−)-m-hydroxy-α-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcohol
  • Fenilefrina
  • l-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-methylethanolamine
  • Phenylephrine
  • Phenylephrinum
  • R(-)-Phenylephrine
External IDs
J8.601K
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Phenylephrine bitartrate27O3Q5ML5717162-39-9NHKOTKKHHYKARN-NDAAPVSOSA-N
Phenylephrine hydrochloride04JA59TNSJ61-76-7OCYSGIYOVXAGKQ-FVGYRXGTSA-N
Phenylephrine tannateDU5ATO7HYP1416-03-1Not applicable
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Chloride ionionicQ32ZN4869816887-00-6VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BiorphenInjection, solution0.1 mg/1mLIntravenousEton Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2019-11-01Not applicableUs
Fresh ClearSolution / drops1.2 mg/1mLOphthalmicAllergan, Inc.2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Minims Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 10%Solution / dropsOphthalmicValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
MydfrinSolution25 mg/1mLOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1990-09-302014-04-30Us
MydfrinSolution25 mg/1mLOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1979-02-152014-04-30Us
Neo-SynephrineSolution10 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousPfizer Canada Ulc2002-11-01Not applicableCanada
Neo-SynephrineInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-08-012014-08-01Us
Neo-Synephrine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousHospira, Inc.2006-03-14Not applicableUs
Neo-synephrine Inj Liq 10mg/mlLiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousSterling Winthrop Inc.1992-12-311996-09-10Canada
Neo-synephrine Liq 1%LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousSanofi1996-09-142001-08-10Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousCardinal Health2018-07-07Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2019-03-01Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousAmneal Biosciences Llc2018-07-24Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2019-05-25Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousAmneal Biosciences Llc2018-07-24Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2018-07-07Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousCipla USA Inc.2018-06-01Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousAmneal Biosciences Llc2018-07-07Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.2019-07-23Not applicableUs
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2019-03-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
4 Way Fast ActingSpray10 mg/1mLNasalGlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare Holdings (US) LLC2010-01-01Not applicableUs
7 Select Nasal Decongestant PETablet, film coated10 mg/1Oral7-Eleven2016-10-072020-11-30Us
Assured Maximum Strength Nasal DecongestantTablet10 mg/1OralSpirit Pharmaceuticals LLC2019-02-26Not applicableUs
Assured Maximum Strength Nasal DecongestantTablet10 mg/1OralSpirit Pharmaceuticals LLC2019-02-26Not applicableUs
Benylin Cold StripsStripOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Benylin D for InfantsSolutionOralPfizer Canada Inc., Consumer Healthcare Division2007-09-142007-11-05Canada
Berkley and Jensen Nasal Decongestant PE Non-Drowsy Maximum StrengthTablet10 mg/1OralBJWC2009-06-052017-11-17Us
Better LivingSpray1 g/100mLNasalBetter Living Brands LLC2019-04-17Not applicableUs
Cabinet Nasal DecongestantTablet10 mg/1OralSpirit Pharmaceutical LLC2019-10-29Not applicableUs
Care One Nasal Decongestant PE Maximum Strength Non DrowsyTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralAmerican Sales Company2005-05-17Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
4248 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (110 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (162 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Caffeine (32.4 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Hydrocortisone acetate (1 g/100g) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Salicylamide (152 mg/1) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 g/100mL) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmicHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4356 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)OralHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4390 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100mL) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)OralHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4392 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100mL) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)OralHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
7 Select Cold and Allergy ChildrensPhenylephrine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/5mL) + Brompheniramine maleate (1 mg/5mL)LiquidOral7 Eleven2014-08-052016-02-19Us
7 Select Day Time ReliefPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/15mL) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/15mL) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide monohydrate (10 mg/15mL)SolutionOral7-Eleven2014-08-052020-10-31Us
7 Select Day Time ReliefPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Dextromethorphan hydrobromide monohydrate (10 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOral7-Eleven2014-04-222020-01-31Us
7 Select Hemorrhoidal Original StrengthPhenylephrine hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1g) + Mineral oil (140 mg/1g) + Petrolatum (749 mg/1g)OintmentTopical7-ELEVEN, INC.2016-12-07Not applicableUs
7 Select Night Time Severe Cold Cough and FluPhenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (650 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)Powder, for solutionOral7-Eleven2016-01-252021-01-01Us
7 Select Night Time severe cold, cough and fluPhenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (650 mg/1) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)Powder, for solutionOral7 Eleven2015-11-122017-08-01Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
4248 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (110 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (162 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Caffeine (32.4 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (0.5 mL/1mL) + Hydrocortisone acetate (1 g/100g) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (20 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Salicylamide (152 mg/1) + Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (0.05 g/100mL) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitOphthalmicHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4356 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (1.3 mg/1mL) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzethonium chloride (0.2 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Benzocaine (10 g/100g) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Levomenthol (0.33 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)OralHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4390 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100mL) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)OralHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
4392 First Aid KitPhenylephrine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Ammonia (0.045 g/0.3mL) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100mL) + Calcium carbonate (420 mg/1) + Ethanol (62 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (0.7 mL/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (24.64 mg/1mL) + Neomycin sulfate (3.5 mg/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)OralHoneywell Safety Products USA, Inc2018-10-18Not applicableUs
A-Tan 12X SuspensionPhenylephrine tannate (5 mg/5mL) + Guaifenesin (100 mg/5mL) + Mepyramine tannate (30 mg/5mL)SuspensionOralAmneal Pharmaceuticals2006-01-062008-12-05Us
AiracofPhenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 mg/5mL) + Codeine phosphate hemihydrate (7.5 mg/5mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (12.5 mg/5mL)LiquidOralCenturion Labs2010-01-082016-05-02Us
Allergy DN PEPhenylephrine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Chlorpheniramine maleate (8 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1)KitOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2008-11-012010-03-31Us
Allergy DN PEPhenylephrine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Chlorpheniramine maleate (8 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1)KitOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2008-11-012010-03-31Us
AlleRx Dose PackPhenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Chlorpheniramine maleate (8 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1) + Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (120 mg/1)KitOralCornerstone Therapeutics Inc.2008-02-012012-10-31Us
AlleRx Dose Pack PEPhenylephrine hydrochloride (40 mg/1) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Chlorpheniramine maleate (8 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1) + Methscopolamine nitrate (2.5 mg/1)KitOralCornerstone Therapeutics Inc.2006-09-012012-10-31Us
International/Other Brands
AK-Dilate / AK-Nefrin / Alconefrin / Mesatone / Minims Phenylephrine / Neofrin / Ocugestrin / Phenoptic / Phenylephrine Minims / Prefrin / Rhinall / Spersaphrine / Visadron
Categories
UNII
1WS297W6MV
CAS number
59-42-7
Weight
Average: 167.205
Monoisotopic: 167.094628665
Chemical Formula
C9H13NO2
InChI Key
SONNWYBIRXJNDC-VIFPVBQESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H13NO2/c1-10-6-9(12)7-3-2-4-8(11)5-7/h2-5,9-12H,6H2,1H3/t9-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
3-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenol
SMILES
CNC[C@H](O)C1=CC(O)=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Phenylephrine injections are indicated to treat hypotension caused by shock or anesthesia,6,8 an ophthalmic formulation is indicated to dilate pupils7 and induce vasoconstriction, an intranasal formulation is used to treat congestion, and a topical formulation is used to treat hemorrhoids.1 Off-label uses include situations that require local blood flow restriction such as the treatment of priapism.1

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Phenylephrine is an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that raises blood pressure,6,8 dilates the pupils,7 and causes local vasoconstriction.1 Ophthalmic formulations of phenylephrine act for 3-8 hours7 while intravenous solutions have an effective half life of 5 minutes and an elimination half life of 2.5 hours.3,6 Patients taking ophthalmic formulations of phenylephrine should be counselled about the risk of arrhythmia, hypertension, and rebound miosis.7 Patients taking an intravenous formulation should be counselled regarding the risk of bradycardia, allergic reactions, extravasation causing necrosis or tissue sloughing, and the concomitant use of oxytocic drugs.6,8

Mechanism of action

Phenylephrine is an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that mediates vasoconstriction1 and mydriasis7 depending on the route and location of administration. Systemic exposure to phenylephrine also leads to agonism of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, raising systolic and diastolic pressure as well as peripheral vascular resistance.6,8 Increased blood pressure stimulates the vagus nerve, causing reflex bradycardia.6,8

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
AAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
AAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor
agonist
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Phenylephrine is 38% orally bioavailable.3 Clinically significant systemic absorption of ophthalmic formulations is possible, especially at higher strengths and when the cornea is damaged.6

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of phenylephrine is 340L.6,8

Protein binding

Data regarding the protein binding of phenylephrine in serum is not readily available.6,7,8

Metabolism

Phenylephrine is mainly metabolized by monoamine oxidase A, monoamine oxidase B, and SULT1A3.4,5,6,8 The major metabolite is the inactive meta-hydroxymandelic acid, followed by sulfate conjugates.5,6,8 Phenylephrine can also be metabolized to phenylephrine glucuronide.5

Route of elimination

86% of a dose of phenylephrine is recovered in the urine3 with 16% as the unmetabolized drug, 57% as the inactive meta-hydroxymendelic acid, and 8% as inactive sulfate conjugates.6,8

Half life

Intravenous phenylephrine has an effective half life of 5 minutes and an elimination half life of 2.5 hours.3,6,8

Clearance

Phenylephrine has an average clearance of 2100mL/min.6,8

Toxicity

Patients experiencing and overdose may present with headache, hypertension, reflex bradycardia, tingling limbs, cardiac arrhythmias, and a feeling of fullness in the head.6,7,8 Overdose may be treated by supportive care and discontinuing phenylephrine, chronotropic medications, and vasodilators.1 Subcutaneous phentolamine may be used to treat tissue extravasation.1,7

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Phenylephrine.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
3,5-DiiodotyrosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 3,5-Diiodotyrosine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of Phenylephrine can be decreased when combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
Additional Data Available
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    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action
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Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Franz Dietrich Klinger, Lienhard Wolter, Wolfgang Dietrich, "Method for preparing of L-phenylephrine hydrochloride." U.S. Patent US6187956, issued February, 1976.

US6187956
General References
  1. Richards E, Maani CV: Phenylephrine . [PubMed:30521222]
  2. Prescott F: CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THE PRESSOR ACTIVITY OF METHEDRINE, NEO-SYNEPHRINE, PAREDRINE, AND PHOLEDRINE. Br Heart J. 1944 Oct;6(4):214-20. doi: 10.1136/hrt.6.4.214. [PubMed:18609981]
  3. Kanfer I, Dowse R, Vuma V: Pharmacokinetics of oral decongestants. Pharmacotherapy. 1993 Nov-Dec;13(6 Pt 2):116S-128S; discussion 143S-146S. [PubMed:7507589]
  4. Bairam AF, Rasool MI, Alherz FA, Abunnaja MS, El Daibani AA, Gohal SA, Alatwi ES, Kurogi K, Liu MC: Impact of SULT1A3/SULT1A4 genetic polymorphisms on the sulfation of phenylephrine and salbutamol by human SULT1A3 allozymes. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2019 Jul;29(5):99-105. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000371. [PubMed:31145702]
  5. Gelotte CK, Zimmerman BA: Pharmacokinetics, safety, and cardiovascular tolerability of phenylephrine HCl 10, 20, and 30 mg after a single oral administration in healthy volunteers. Clin Drug Investig. 2015 Sep;35(9):547-58. doi: 10.1007/s40261-015-0311-9. [PubMed:26267590]
  6. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Solution for Intravenous Injection [Link]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Ophthalmic Solution [Link]
  8. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Intravenous Injection (Ready to Use) [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0002182
KEGG Drug
D08365
KEGG Compound
C07441
PubChem Compound
6041
PubChem Substance
46506961
ChemSpider
5818
BindingDB
50067212
ChEBI
8093
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1215
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000224
PharmGKB
PA450935
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Phenylephrine
ATC Codes
S01FB01 — PhenylephrineR01AB01 — PhenylephrineC01CA06 — PhenylephrineR01AA04 — PhenylephrineS01FB51 — Phenylephrine and ketorolacR01BA53 — Phenylephrine, combinationsS01GA05 — PhenylephrineS01GA55 — Phenylephrine, combinationsR01BA03 — Phenylephrine
AHFS Codes
  • 12:12.04 — Alpha-adrenergic Agonists
  • 52:24.00 — Mydriatics
  • 12:12.00 — Sympathomimetic (Adrenergic) Agents
  • 52:32.00 — Vasoconstrictors
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticPostural Tachycardia Syndrome / Vasovagal Syncope1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Output,Low / Hemodynamics Instability / Obstetrical Complication of Anesthesia1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceVascular Diseases1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceVasoconstriction / Vasodilation1
0RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Cancer of the Breast / Neuropathy / Nipple disorder / Sexual arousal disorders / Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / Sexual Dysfunctions1
1Active Not RecruitingScreeningAutonomic Nervous System Diseases / Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency / Orthostatic Hypotension / Orthostatic Intolerance1
1CompletedBasic ScienceRespiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceRhinitis1
1CompletedOtherAcetaminophen Toxicity1
1CompletedOtherBioequivalence / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionIntraocular Pressure1
1CompletedTreatmentNasal Congestion1
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cardiovascular Risk Factors / Vasoconstriction1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular System Disease / Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions1
1RecruitingOtherHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypertension,Essential1
1RecruitingTreatmentBlood Loss,Surgical1
1TerminatedSupportive CareMucositis / Stomatitis1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentArterial hypoxia / Hypotension1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareOvarian Cysts1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
1, 2TerminatedSupportive CareNeoplasms / Oral Mucosa / Transplant-Related Disorder1
1, 2WithdrawnNot AvailableArrhythmia / Blood Pressures / Heart Rate1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Anesthesia Outcome1
2CompletedPreventionHypotension / Valve Surgery1
2CompletedPreventionObstetrical Anesthesia / Spinal Anaesthesia1
2CompletedPreventionOrthopedic Surgery of Lower Limb1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI)1
2CompletedTreatmentBronchiolitis1
2CompletedTreatmentGeriatric Hip Fracture Pain Management1
2CompletedTreatmentMydriasis1
2CompletedTreatmentPhysiology, Ocular / Regional Blood Flow1
2CompletedTreatmentRhinitis / Seasonal Rhinitis1
2CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic2
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
2RecruitingPreventionPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentHypotension / Spinal Anaesthesia1
2TerminatedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBleeding Hemorrhoids1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHypotension2
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCesarean Section Complications1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture / Muscle Weakness1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionSpinal Hypotension1
2, 3SuspendedPreventionPost-operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
3CompletedNot AvailableBlood Pressures / Human Experimentation1
3CompletedNot AvailableUpper Respiratory Tract Infection1
3CompletedDiagnosticMydriasis2
3CompletedTreatmentCongenital Cataract / Unilateral Cataract Extraction1
3CompletedTreatmentEye Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentFluid Therapy / Hypotension1
3CompletedTreatmentHerpes Simplex Labialis1
3CompletedTreatmentNasal Congestion and Inflammations / Rhinitis1
3CompletedTreatmentNasal Congestion / Rhinorrhoea / Sneezing / Upper Respiratory Tract Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentRhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal1
3CompletedTreatmentSeasonal Allergic Rhinitis (SAR)1
3CompletedTreatmentSeasonal Allergic Rhinitis (SAR) / Vasomotor Rhinitis1
3RecruitingTreatmentHypotension1
3RecruitingTreatmentProgressing Stroke / Stroke, Acute1
3SuspendedTreatmentCold1
3TerminatedTreatmentPremature Births / Retinal Anomalies1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Rhinitis / Influenza-like illness or flu-like symptoms1
3WithdrawnTreatmentCoughing / Inflammatory Reaction / Rhinitis1
3WithdrawnTreatmentFecal Incontinence1
3WithdrawnTreatmentRespiratory Tract Infections (RTI)2
3WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCorneal Transplant / Grafting, Corneal / Keratoplasty, Lamellar / Transplantation, Cornea / Transplantation, Corneal1
4CompletedNot AvailableAcute Rhinitis / Flu caused by Influenza1
4CompletedBasic ScienceEndotoxaemia1
4CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedDiagnosticPreterm, Infant1
4CompletedOtherEndovascular Carotid Surgery / Preoperative Hypotension1
4CompletedPreventionAdverse Effects / Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural / Complications, Cesarean Section / Hypotension1
4CompletedPreventionAnesthetic Complication Spinal1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia2
4CompletedPreventionEffects of; Anesthesia, in Labor and Delivery1
4CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedPreventionHypotension1
4CompletedPreventionHypotension Drug-Induced1
4CompletedPreventionInfluence of Vasoactive Medication on Spinal Oxygenation1
4CompletedPreventionIntraocular Pressure1
4CompletedPreventionSpinal Anaesthesia / Spinal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use1
4CompletedPreventionStreptococcal Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia / Arterial Hypotension1
4CompletedTreatmentBrain Microcirculation and Oxygenation / Neoplasms, Brain1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiac Output Change Following Ephedrine, Phenylephrine, Norepinephrine, Ondansetron / Cardiac Output, Low1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiac Output / Cesarean Section / Hypotension1
4CompletedTreatmentComplications; Cesarean Section1
4CompletedTreatmentHypotension3
4CompletedTreatmentOxygenation During One Lung Ventilation1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Hemodynamics Instability / Intravenous Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionNfuence of Vasoactive Medication on Spinal Oxygenation1
4RecruitingOtherAdverse Drug Events / Cataracts / Mydriasis1
4RecruitingOtherHorner's Syndrome1
4RecruitingPreventionCesarean Section Complications / Spinal Anaesthesia3
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Shivering1
4RecruitingSupportive CareArterial Hypotension1
4RecruitingTreatmentCataracts1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypotension2
4RecruitingTreatmentShock1
4RecruitingTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
4TerminatedOtherCataracts1
4TerminatedPreventionSpinal Induced Hypotension in Cesarean Delivery1
4TerminatedTreatmentArrhythmia / Sepsis / Shock / Shock, Septic / Tachycardia1
4TerminatedTreatmentCritical Illness1
4TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
4TerminatedTreatmentPregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticRefractive Errors1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLeiomyomas1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAssess Phenylephrine on EVP and IOP1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Sensitivity / Microcirculation1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticGulf War Syndrome / Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherVascular Reaction to Medications1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Disorder of Shoulder1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionElective Cesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension After Reperfusion in Liver Transplantation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHypotension / Nausea1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningRetinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnal Condyloma / Fissure in Ano / Hemorrhoids / Rectal Fistulas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Cesarean Section Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBlood Pressures / Epistaxis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBloodpressure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBrain Swelling / Craniotomy / Craniotomy [E04.525.190] / General Surgery / Intracranial Aneurysms / Neurosurgery / Scoliosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaesarean Sections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeart Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypotension / Preeclampsia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypotension / Shock1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentMaternal Haemodynamic Stability1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentVision, Low1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePostural Tachycardia Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCerebral Autoregulation1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceElective Craniotomy / General Anaesthesia / Neurosurgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAutonomic Nervous System Diseases / Cardiac Dysrhythmia / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Orthostatic Intolerance / Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) / Postural Tachycardia Syndrome / Primary Dysautonomias / Tachycardia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump / Intra-operative Hypotension / Intraoperative Care / Preventive Medicine1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionComplications; Cesarean Section / Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionElderly Patients / Hip Fractures / Lower Limb Surgery / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionHypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAging / Anaesthesia therapy / Blood Loss,Surgical / Blood Pressures / General Surgery / Postoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHypotension1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceProphylaxis of cardiomyopathy / Stress-induced (Takotsubo) Cardiomyopathy1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherCataracts1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableEchocardiography, Transesophageal / Endarterectomy, Carotid / Vasopressor Agents1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticPreeclampsia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCarotid Stenosis / Intra-operative Hypotension1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentArterial hypoxia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentComplications; Cesarean Section / Spinal Anesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Accutome Inc.
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Advent Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Aero Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • AG Marin Pharmaceuticals
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Alba Pharmacal
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • Allegis Pharmaceuticals
  • Allergy Laboratories Inc.
  • Altaire Pharmaceuticals
  • Ambi Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Amend
  • American Regent
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Anip Acquisition Co.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Athlon Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Auriga Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Baroli
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bayer Healthcare
  • Bio Pharm Inc.
  • Blansett Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Boca Pharmacal
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Brookstone Pharmaceuticals
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • BTA Pharmaceuticals
  • Burel Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Capellon Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Cardinal Health
  • Centurion Labs
  • Chain Drug
  • Chemins Co. Inc.
  • Claris Lifesciences Inc.
  • Conta Care Ophthalmics and Diagnostics
  • Contract Pharm
  • Cornerstone Pharmacy
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Deca Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Deltex Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Deston Therapeutics
  • Dexo LLC
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • DSC Laboratories
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • Econolab Inc.
  • Edwards Pharmaceuticals
  • Emerson Labs
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • Eye Care and Cure Corp.
  • Eye Supply Usa Inc.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Gayheart Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Gentex Pharma LLC
  • Gil Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • Gm Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Great Southern Laboratories
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • HUB Pharmaceuticals
  • International Ethical Labs Inc.
  • Invision Pharmaceuticals
  • Iopharm Laboratories Inc.
  • Irisys Inc.
  • Jaymac Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Kowa Pharmaceuticals America Inc.
  • Kylemore Pharmaceuticals
  • Lark Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Larken Laboratories Inc.
  • Laser Pharmaceuticals
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lunsco Inc.
  • Macoven Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Marnel Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • MCR American Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Med Tek Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Meda AB
  • Medique Products
  • Midland Healthcare LLC
  • Midland Pharmaceutical LLC
  • Midlothian Labs
  • Monte Sano Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nadin Co.
  • Neilgen Pharma Inc.
  • Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp.
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Nolco Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Norega Laboratories Inc.
  • Novis PR Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Numark Laboratories Inc.
  • Ocusoft
  • Optopics
  • Palm Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pamlab LLC
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Association
  • Pharmaceutical Generic Developers Inc.
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Poly Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Portal Inc.
  • Prasco Labs
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Provident Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Qualitest
  • Quality Home Products
  • Quality Research Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Respa Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Rico Pharmacal
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Rugby Laboratories
  • Rx Formulations Corp.
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
  • Scherer Labs
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
  • Scientific Laboratories Inc.
  • Seatrace Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Seyer Pharmatec Inc.
  • Silarx Pharmaceuticals
  • Sonar Products Inc.
  • Sorter Labs
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Sovereign Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Stesso Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Summa Rx Laboratories Inc.
  • Teral Laboratories
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • TG United Inc.
  • Tiber Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Tri Med Laboratories Inc.
  • Trigen Laboratories Inc.
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • US Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • Varsity Laboratories
  • Vertical Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vetco Pharma
  • Vindex Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vision Pharma LLC
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Wilson Ophthalmic Corp.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
  • WraSer Pharmaceuticals
  • Zyber Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitOphthalmic
SolutionOral
Capsule, liquid filledNot applicable
Tablet, effervescentOral
Granule, effervescentOral
CapsuleNot applicable
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
SolutionOral
Suspension / dropsOral
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.1 mg/1mL
LiquidTopical
ElixirOral
SolutionOral2.5 mg/5mL
LiquidAuricular (otic)
Tablet, coatedOral
Capsule, coated pelletsOral
SolutionNasal1.25 mg/1mL
GelRectal
CreamTopical
Kit; powder, for solutionOral
KitOral
KitOral97.5 mg/1
TabletOral5 1/1
Tablet, chewableOral
Powder, for solutionOral
LiquidOral2.5 mg/5mL
Aerosol, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)
SprayNasal21.73 mg/15mL
SprayNasal10 mg/1mL
SprayNasal1 g/100mL
Powder, for suspensionOral
Kit; tabletOral
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1.2 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsNasal
Solution / dropsOral
CreamRectal; Topical
TabletOral5 mg
GelTopical
OintmentTopical
SprayTopical
Kit; powderOral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
LiquidNasal1 g/100mL
Tablet, multilayerOral
LiquidNasal0.125 %
LiquidNasal1.25 mg/1mL
LiquidNasal0.00125 mg/1mL
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
OintmentRectal; Topical
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
CapsuleOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
SolutionOphthalmic2.5 %
TabletOral10 mg
Tablet, coatedOral10 mg/1
Solution / dropsTopical0.25 g/100mL
SprayTopical0.25 g/100mL
Solution / dropsNasal
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg
SprayNasal0.25 g/100mL
SprayNasal0.5 g/100mL
StripOral
Capsule, coatedOral
Solution / dropsNasal1 g/100mL
LiquidOral
LotionOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic
Injection, solution, concentrateIntraocular
Granule, for solutionOral
Injection, solutionIntraocular; Ophthalmic
TabletOral10 mg/1
LiquidOral
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.08 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous160 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous300 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous40 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 ug/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/1 mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous10 mg/1mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
SolutionOphthalmic25 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic100 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic2.5 mg/1mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic25 mg/1mL
SuppositoryRectal
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous
TabletOral
LiquidOphthalmic
GelRectal; Topical
SuspensionOral
SyrupOral
SuppositoryRectal
ClothTopical
KitTopical
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral
CreamRectal
TabletOral750 mg/1
OintmentTopical
SprayNasal
TabletOral
TabletOral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
PowderOral
OintmentRectal
LiquidNasal1 mg/100mL
StripOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
SuspensionOral1000 mg/1
Capsule, liquid filledOral12.5 mg/5mL
InjectionIntravenous10 mg/1mL
SprayNasal0.0005 g/1mL
SprayNasal0.004975 g/1mL
LiquidOphthalmic
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Mydfrin 2.5% Solution 5ml Bottle37.1USD bottle
Neo-synephrine 10 mg/ml amp5.68USD ml
Mydfrin 2.5% eye drops5.28USD ml
Phenylephrine 10 mg/ml vial3.0USD ml
Phenylephrine 2.5% eye drop2.09USD ml
Neofrin 10% eye drops1.93USD ml
Ak-dilate 10% eye drops1.34USD ml
Phenylephrine hcl crystals1.34USD g
Phenylephrine 10% eye drops1.25USD ml
Phenylephrine-ns 0.8 mg/10 ml1.2USD ml
Phenylephrine-ns 0.4 mg/10 ml1.17USD ml
Mydfrin 2.5 % Solution1.09USD ml
Neofrin 2.5% eye drops0.6USD ml
Ak-dilate 2.5% eye drops0.45USD ml
Neo-synephrine 0.25% drops0.36USD ml
Hemorrhoidal suppository0.28USD suppository
Neo-synephrine 12 hour spray0.28USD ml
Neo-synephrine 1% drops0.26USD ml
Sudafed pe 10 mg tablet0.25USD tablet
Neo-synephrine 0.5% drops0.23USD ml
Little noses decon nose drp0.22USD ml
Wal-phed pe 10 mg tablet0.22USD tablet
Tur-bi-kal nose drops0.21USD ml
Industrial 0.12% eye drops0.17USD ml
Ephrine 1% nose drops0.15USD ml
Phenylephrine 10 mg tablet0.08USD tablet
Rhinall 0.25% nose drops0.07USD ml
Non-pseudo sinus decongest tablet0.05USD tablet
Pv nasal decongestant 5 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8173707Yes2012-05-082024-01-30Us
US9278101Yes2016-03-082024-01-30Us
US8586633Yes2013-11-192024-01-30Us
US9066856Yes2015-06-302034-04-23Us
US8859623No2014-10-142033-11-14Us
US9399040Yes2016-07-262024-01-30Us
US9486406Yes2016-11-082034-04-23Us
US9855246No2018-01-022033-10-23Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)140-145 °CNot Available
water solubilityFreely soluble in waterNot Available
logP-0.31HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.97SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility22.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.69ALOGPS
logP-0.07ChemAxon
logS-0.88ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.69ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.49 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity47.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.2 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9943
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9115
Caco-2 permeable-0.7294
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5308
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9527
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9109
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.856
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7882
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7756
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6946
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9646
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9088
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.858
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9594
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8841
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7647
Rat acute toxicity2.6480 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5164
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8717
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.12 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-b11a2a880d1683fa6cae
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-01b9-6900000000-bbdd210a846be116dbcd
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-b11a2a880d1683fa6cae
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-01b9-6900000000-bbdd210a846be116dbcd
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-d95a741ffcfe3f7bb7e9
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9800000000-7695881b36499169fb71
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-054o-9200000000-888fce606d860cd39be2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-edfcbc18ccdb6872b791
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-15132688bbc7ac0be42f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2900000000-34ccc7192518d4c14210
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-3900000000-e619f4210f81c11f61be
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-6900000000-3178337a019ac9bf313d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0900000000-e738818606836c1d6d1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-36b72327f64f1355a502
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052o-4900000000-935a9659fe39602b138d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-9800000000-7d83555b537d6fec673b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-054o-9400000000-5ef2f6d1da57087e6ac7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-4a910a2109ba191b96e7
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-edfcbc18ccdb6872b791
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-15132688bbc7ac0be42f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2900000000-34ccc7192518d4c14210
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-3900000000-e8a5a4f1aae0796866a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-6900000000-3178337a019ac9bf313d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-c0d824f22be752d523b4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-4fb67ae2344d097c3abb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-113e95fddc78edd9df82
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0zg3-2900000000-a52b0d450061f2762c71
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052o-4900000000-1919f188c550710ea860
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-6900000000-93a02b958e60eadd5bfb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0gb9-0900000000-e738818606836c1d6d1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-36b72327f64f1355a502
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052o-4900000000-5c34ff7c978e4b607f00
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-9800000000-036a3eb2e3b11f203fd4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-054o-9400000000-284961abd6764baa0d1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-4a910a2109ba191b96e7
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids. These are phenols that are unsubstituted at the 4-position.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenols
Sub Class
1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Direct Parent
1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Secondary alcohols / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Aromatic alcohols
Substituents
1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / 1,2-aminoalcohol / Secondary alcohol / Secondary aliphatic amine / Secondary amine / Alcohol / Organopnictogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
phenylethanolamines, secondary amino compound (CHEBI:8093)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Martinez-Salas SG, Campos-Peralta JM, Pares-Hipolito J, Gallardo-Ortiz IA, Ibarra M, Villalobos-Molina R: Alpha1A-adrenoceptors predominate in the control of blood pressure in mouse mesenteric vascular bed. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;27(3):137-42. [PubMed:17584443]
  2. Tomiyama Y, Kobayashi K, Tadachi M, Kobayashi S, Inada Y, Kobayashi M, Yamazaki Y: Expressions and mechanical functions of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in hamster ureter. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 14;573(1-3):201-5. Epub 2007 Jul 6. [PubMed:17658513]
  3. Hein, L. (2004). alpha-Adrenergic system. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 27-30). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328]
  4. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Solution for Intravenous Injection [Link]
  5. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Ophthalmic Solution [Link]
  6. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Intravenous Injection (Ready to Use) [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID
P35368
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Hein, L. (2004). alpha-Adrenergic system. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 27-30). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Solution for Intravenous Injection [Link]
  4. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Ophthalmic Solution [Link]
  5. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Intravenous Injection (Ready to Use) [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID
P25100
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Hein, L. (2004). alpha-Adrenergic system. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 27-30). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328]
  2. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Solution for Intravenous Injection [Link]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Ophthalmic Solution [Link]
  4. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Intravenous Injection (Ready to Use) [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Raffel DM, Corbett JR, del Rosario RB, Gildersleeve DL, Chiao PC, Schwaiger M, Wieland DM: Clinical evaluation of carbon-11-phenylephrine: MAO-sensitive marker of cardiac sympathetic neurons. J Nucl Med. 1996 Dec;37(12):1923-31. [PubMed:8970507]
  2. Raffel DM, Corbett JR, del Rosario RB, Mukhopadhyay SK, Gildersleeve DL, Rose P, Wieland DM: Sensitivity of [11C]phenylephrine kinetics to monoamine oxidase activity in normal human heart. J Nucl Med. 1999 Feb;40(2):232-8. [PubMed:10025828]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Solution for Intravenous Injection [Link]
  4. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Intravenous Injection (Ready to Use) [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Gelotte CK, Zimmerman BA: Pharmacokinetics, safety, and cardiovascular tolerability of phenylephrine HCl 10, 20, and 30 mg after a single oral administration in healthy volunteers. Clin Drug Investig. 2015 Sep;35(9):547-58. doi: 10.1007/s40261-015-0311-9. [PubMed:26267590]
  2. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Solution for Intravenous Injection [Link]
  3. FDA Approved Drug Products: Phenylephrine Intravenous Injection (Ready to Use) [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Specific Function
Amine sulfotransferase activity
Gene Name
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID
P0DMM9
Uniprot Name
Sulfotransferase 1A3
Molecular Weight
34195.96 Da
References
  1. Bairam AF, Rasool MI, Alherz FA, Abunnaja MS, El Daibani AA, Gohal SA, Alatwi ES, Kurogi K, Liu MC: Impact of SULT1A3/SULT1A4 genetic polymorphisms on the sulfation of phenylephrine and salbutamol by human SULT1A3 allozymes. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2019 Jul;29(5):99-105. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000371. [PubMed:31145702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Konstandi M, Kostakis D, Harkitis P, Johnson EO, Marselos M, Adamidis K, Lang MA: Benzo(alpha)pyrene-induced up-regulation of CYP1A2 gene expression: role of adrenoceptor-linked signaling pathways. Life Sci. 2006 Jun 20;79(4):331-41. Epub 2006 Feb 28. [PubMed:16510159]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 20, 2019 12:15