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Identification
NameCalcium
Accession NumberDB01373
Typesmall molecule
Groupsnutraceutical
Description

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Calcium acetate
Thumb Not applicable DBSALT001052
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number7440-70-2
WeightAverage: 40.078
Monoisotopic: 39.962591155
Chemical FormulaCa
InChI KeyInChIKey=OYPRJOBELJOOCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Ca
IUPAC Name
calcium
SMILES
[Ca]
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomNot Available
SuperclassNot Available
ClassNot Available
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentNot Available
Alternative parentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Classification descriptionNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationCalcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. It is vital in cell signaling, muscular contractions, bone health, and signalling cascades.
PharmacodynamicsCalcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. It plays an important role in signal transduction pathways, where it acts as a second messenger, in neurotransmitter release from neurons, contraction of all muscle cell types, and fertilization. Many enzymes require calcium ions as a cofactor, those of the blood-clotting cascade being notable examples. Extracellular calcium is also important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, as well as proper bone formation.
Mechanism of actionCalcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. More than 500 human proteins are known to bind or transport calcium. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Parathyroid hormone (secreted from the parathyroid gland) regulates the resorption of Ca2+ from bone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast. The currently recommended calcium intake is 1,500 milligrams per day for women not taking estrogen and 800 milligrams per day for women on estrogen. There is close to 300 milligrams of calcium in one cup of fluid milk. Calcium carbonate is currently the best and least expensive form of calcium supplement available.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationThe kidney excretes 250 mmol a day in urine, and resorbs 245 mmol, leading to a net loss in the urine of 5 mmol/d.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
GLUT-1 deficiency syndromeDiseaseSMP00580
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00356
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)DiseaseSMP00369
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)DiseaseSMP00370
Homocystinuria due to defect of N(5,10)-methylene THF deficiencyDiseaseSMP00543
Acebutolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00296
Acenocoumarol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00269
Acetylsalicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00083
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00018
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00075
Aminocaproic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00286
Tranexamic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00287
Mefanamic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00109
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00003
UMP Synthase Deiciency (Orotic Aciduria)DiseaseSMP00219
Fondaparinux Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00273
Piroxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00077
Heparin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00274
Ardeparin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00275
Argatroban Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00276
Bivalirudin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00277
Lepirudin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00278
Ximelagatran Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00279
Alteplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00280
Thioguanine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00430
Bupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00393
Chloroprocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00394
Cocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00395
Dibucaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00396
Levobupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00397
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00398
Sufentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00417
Imipramine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00422
Desipramine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00423
Citalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00424
Escitalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00425
Fluoxetine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00426
Oxycodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00409
Hydromorphone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00410
Hydrocodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00411
Oxymorphone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00412
Alfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00413
Carfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00414
Fentanyl Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00415
Remifentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00416
Dicumarol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00270
Phenprocoumon Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00271
Proparacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00403
Ropivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00404
Codeine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00405
Mepivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00399
Oxybuprocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00400
Prilocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00401
Procaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00402
Reteplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00285
Aprotinin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00288
Anistreplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00281
Streptokinase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00282
Tenecteplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00283
Urokinase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00284
Morphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00406
Heroin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00407
Methadone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00408
Celecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00096
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00098
Rofecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00087
Diclofenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00093
Sulindac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00094
Suprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00101
Etodolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00084
Ketoprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00085
Etoposide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00442
Teniposide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00443
Nabumetone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00114
Naproxen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00120
Diflunisal Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00289
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Bromfenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00102
Indomethacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00104
Oxaprozin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00113
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00106
Mercaptopurine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00428
Methotrexate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00432
Ibuprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00086
Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00326
Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00327
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00328
Mexiletine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00329
Tocainide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00330
Flecainide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00331
Ibutilide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00332
Diltiazem Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00359
Propranolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00307
Quinidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00323
Betaxolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00299
Valdecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00116
Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00324
Bisoprolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00300
Metoprolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00302
Nadolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00303
Disopyramide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00325
Oxprenolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00304
Penbutolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00305
Pindolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00306
Alprenolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00297
Atenolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00298
Verapamil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00375
Enoxaparin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00272
Clopidogrel Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00260
Isradipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00378
Nifedipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00379
Nimodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00380
Carvedilol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00367
Labetalol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00368
Nisoldipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00381
Nitrendipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00382
Benzocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00392
Amlodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00376
Felodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00377
Nebivolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00366
Nicotine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00431
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Nateglinide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00453
Repaglinide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00454
Glibenclamide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00460
Gliclazide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00461
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00144
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
AICA-RibosiduriaDiseaseSMP00168
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson diseaseDiseaseSMP00554
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolicSMP00068
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
Aromatase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00565
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolicSMP00129
Beta Ureidopropionase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00172
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
Phospholipid BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00025
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00027
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00353
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00002
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaDiseaseSMP00493
Congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-IIdDiseaseSMP00579
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophyDiseaseSMP00348
Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast CellsSignalingSMP00358
Citrullinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00001
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00610
Coagulation PhysiologicalSMP00586
Molybdenium Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Muscle/Heart ContractionPhysiologicalSMP00588
Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori disease, Debrancher glycogenosisDiseaseSMP00553
Urea CycleMetabolicSMP00059
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00537
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00351
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)DiseaseSMP00220
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Dihydropyrimidinase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00178
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00205
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00557
Glycogen synthetase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00552
Ureidopropionase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00492
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
Gaucher DiseaseDiseaseSMP00349
Fabry diseaseDiseaseSMP00525
Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers diseaseDiseaseSMP00555
Krabbe diseaseDiseaseSMP00526
MNGIE (Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy)DiseaseSMP00202
Etoposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00601
Folate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00053
Pancreas FunctionPhysiologicalSMP00643
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
Histidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00044
HistidinemiaDiseaseSMP00191
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Xanthinuria type IDiseaseSMP00512
Xanthinuria type IIDiseaseSMP00513
Inositol MetabolismMetabolicSMP00011
Intracellular Signalling Through Prostacyclin Receptor and ProstacyclinSignalingSMP00354
Joubert syndromeDiseaseSMP00582
Lactose SynthesisMetabolicSMP00444
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)DiseaseSMP00364
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)DiseaseSMP00347
Riboflavin MetabolismMetabolicSMP00070
Purine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00050
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00008
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00463
Sphingolipid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00034
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismMetabolicSMP00058
Teniposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00602
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
Pyrimidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00046
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly syndromeDiseaseSMP00556
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
PhenylketonuriaDiseaseSMP00206
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption Not Available Not Available
Blood Brain Barrier Not Available Not Available
Caco-2 permeable Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein substrate Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Not Available Not Available
Renal organic cation transporter Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 1A2 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C19 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Not Available Not Available
Ames test Not Available Not Available
Carcinogenicity Not Available Not Available
Biodegradation Not Available Not Available
Rat acute toxicity Not Available Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Not Available Not Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Not Available Not Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
LiquidDental
LiquidIntravenous
LiquidOral
LiquidSublingual
PasteDental
PowderOral
Powder, for solutionOral
SolutionIntramuscular
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionOral
Solution / dropsOral
SyrupOral
TabletOral
Tablet, chewableOral
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point839°CMSDS
boiling point1484°CMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility0.00e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-0.57ChemAxon
logS1.08ALOGPS
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceUS5667761
General Reference
  1. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. Pubmed
  2. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. Pubmed
  3. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O’Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. Pubmed
  4. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. Pubmed
  5. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC00076
ChEBI22984
ChEMBL
PharmGKBPA448718
WikipediaCalcium
ATC CodesD11AX03V03AF04C05BX01B02BC08B01AC08R01AX01N02BA15A12AA03A11HA31V08AC10A12AA11D03AX04A12AA06J04AA03A12AA30A06AC08A12AA02A12AA05A12AA09N07BB02A07XA03A12AA10V03AE01A02AC01A12AA04A02AC02A12AA08A12AA01A12AA20
AHFS Codes
  • 34:00.00
  • 88:29.00*
  • 56:04.00
  • 56:12.00
  • 92:02.00*
  • 40:18.17
  • 88:12.00
  • 40:18.19
  • 40:12.00
  • 88:08.00
  • 40:34.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(25.6 KB)
MSDSshow(47.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AlendronateFormation of non-absorbable complexes
AmprenavirThe antiacid decreases the absorption of amprenavir
AtazanavirThis gastric pH modifier decreases the levels/effects of atazanavir
ChloroquineThe antiacid decreases the absorption of chloroquine
CiprofloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
ClodronateFormation of non-absorbable complexes
DapsoneFormation of non-absorbable complexes
DeferiproneDeferiprone serum concentrations may be decreased by calcium salts.
DelavirdineThe antiacid decreases the effect of delavirdine
DemeclocyclineFormation of non-absorbable complexes
DoxycyclineFormation of non-absorbable complexes
EnoxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
Etidronic acidFormation of non-absorbable complexes
FosamprenavirThe antiacid decreases the absorption of amprenavir
GrepafloxacinCalcium may decrease the absorption of grepafloxacin. Doses should be spaced apart by at least 2 hours.
IbandronateFormation of non-absorbable complexes
IndinavirCalcium may decrease the absorption of indinavir.
ItraconazoleCalcium-containing antacids may decrease the effect of itraconazole.
KetoconazoleCalcium-containing antacids may decrease the absorption of ketoconazole.
LevofloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
LevothyroxineCalcium decreases absorption of levothyroxine
LomefloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
MethacyclineFormation of non-absorbable complexes
MinocyclineFormation of non-absorbable complexes
MoxifloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
Mycophenolate mofetilFormation of non-absorbable complexes
NorfloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
OfloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
OxytetracyclineFormation of non-absorbable complexes
PefloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
Polystyrene sulfonateFormation of non-absorbable complexes
RisedronateFormation of non-absorbable complexes
TemafloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
TetracyclineFormation of non-absorbable complexes
TrovafloxacinFormation of non-absorbable complexes
Food InteractionsNot Available

1. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: ligand

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C Q13936 Details

References:

  1. Boda D, Giri J, Henderson D, Eisenberg B, Gillespie D: Analyzing the components of the free-energy landscape in a calcium selective ion channel by Widom’s particle insertion method. J Chem Phys. 2011 Feb 7;134(5):055102. Pubmed

2. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1 P98194 Details

References:

  1. Shi X, Chen M, Huvos PE, Hardwicke PM: Amino acid sequence of a Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cross-striated part of the adductor muscle of the deep sea scallop: comparison to serca enzymes of other animals. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Jun;120(2):359-74. Pubmed
  2. Bonza MC, Martin H, Kang M, Lewis G, Greiner T, Giacometti S, Van Etten JL, De Michelis MI, Thiel G, Moroni A: A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses. J Gen Virol. 2010 Oct;91(Pt 10):2620-9. Epub 2010 Jun 23. Pubmed

3. Troponin C, skeletal muscle

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Troponin C, skeletal muscle P02585 Details

References:

  1. Martin SR, Avella G, Adrover M, de Nicola GF, Bullard B, Pastore A: Binding Properties of the Calcium-Activated F2 Isoform of Lethocerus Troponin C. Biochemistry. 2011 Feb 10. Pubmed
  2. Kreutziger KL, Piroddi N, McMichael JT, Tesi C, Poggesi C, Regnier M: Calcium binding kinetics of troponin C strongly modulate cooperative activation and tension kinetics in cardiac muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Jan;50(1):165-74. Epub 2010 Oct 28. Pubmed
  3. Robertson IM, Sun YB, Li MX, Sykes BD: A structural and functional perspective into the mechanism of Ca2+-sensitizers that target the cardiac troponin complex. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Dec;49(6):1031-41. Epub 2010 Aug 27. Pubmed
  4. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. Epub 2010 Apr 6. Pubmed

4. Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles P63316 Details

References:

  1. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. Epub 2010 Apr 6. Pubmed
  2. Swindle N, Tikunova SB: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutation D145E drastically alters calcium binding by the C-domain of cardiac troponin C. Biochemistry. 2010 Jun 15;49(23):4813-20. Pubmed
  3. Parvatiyar MS, Pinto JR, Liang J, Potter JD: Predicting cardiomyopathic phenotypes by altering Ca2+ affinity of cardiac troponin C. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 3;285(36):27785-97. Epub 2010 Jun 21. Pubmed
  4. Baylor SM, Hollingworth S: Calcium indicators and calcium signalling in skeletal muscle fibres during excitation-contraction coupling. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2010 Jun 25. Pubmed

5. Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1 Q01082 Details

References:

  1. Wallis CJ, Wenegieme EF, Babitch JA: Characterization of calcium binding to brain spectrin. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 5;267(7):4333-7. Pubmed

6. Protein S100-B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Protein S100-B P04271 Details

References:

  1. Lee TS, Mane S, Eid T, Zhao H, Lin A, Guan Z, Kim JH, Schweitzer J, King-Stevens D, Weber P, Spencer SS, Spencer DD, de Lanerolle NC: Gene expression in temporal lobe epilepsy is consistent with increased release of glutamate by astrocytes. Mol Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1-2):1-13. Pubmed
  2. Marlatt NM, Shaw GS: Amide exchange shows calcium-induced conformational changes are transmitted to the dimer interface of S100B. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7478-87. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed
  3. Liang J, Luo G, Ning X, Shi Y, Zhai H, Sun S, Jin H, Liu Z, Zhang F, Lu Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Zhang H, Guo X, Wu K, Fan D: Differential expression of calcium-related genes in gastric cancer cells transfected with cellular prion protein. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Jun;85(3):375-83. Pubmed
  4. Friel LA, Romero R, Edwin S, Nien JK, Gomez R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kusanovic JP, Tolosa JE, Hassan SS, Espinoza J: The calcium binding protein, S100B, is increased in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation and preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. J Perinat Med. 2007;35(5):385-93. Pubmed

7. Calpastatin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calpastatin P20810 Details

References:

  1. Hanna RA, Garcia-Diaz BE, Davies PL: Calpastatin simultaneously binds four calpains with different kinetic constants. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2894-8. Epub 2007 May 25. Pubmed
  2. De Tullio R, Averna M, Stifanese R, Parr T, Bardsley RG, Pontremoli S, Melloni E: Multiple rat brain calpastatin forms are produced by distinct starting points and alternative splicing of the N-terminal exons. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Sep 1;465(1):148-56. Epub 2007 May 30. Pubmed

8. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein P49747 Details

References:

  1. Chen FH, Herndon ME, Patel N, Hecht JT, Tuan RS, Lawler J: Interaction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin 5 with aggrecan. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24;282(34):24591-8. Epub 2007 Jun 22. Pubmed

9. Calmodulin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calmodulin P62158 Details

References:

  1. Sosa V, Carbo R, Guarner V: Participation of glucose transporters on atrial natriuretic peptide-induced glucose uptake by adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes under oxygenation and hypoxia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 30;568(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Apr 30. Pubmed
  2. Zhou Z, Yin J, Dou Z, Tang J, Zhang C, Cao Y: The calponin homology domain of Vav1 associates with calmodulin and is prerequisite to T cell antigen receptor-induced calcium release in Jurkat T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23737-44. Epub 2007 Jun 5. Pubmed
  3. Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NC, Zothner C, Abou Elloof MM, Wood JM: Hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress disrupts calcium binding on calmodulin: more evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Aug 17;360(1):70-5. Epub 2007 Jun 11. Pubmed
  4. Caride AJ, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT, Strehler EE: The plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoform 4a differs from isoform 4b in the mechanism of calmodulin binding and activation kinetics: implications for Ca2+ signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 31;282(35):25640-8. Epub 2007 Jun 26. Pubmed
  5. Lo LW, Chen YC, Chen YJ, Wongcharoen W, Lin CI, Chen SA: Calmodulin kinase II inhibition prevents arrhythmic activity induced by alpha and beta adrenergic agonists in rabbit pulmonary veins. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct 1;571(2-3):197-208. Epub 2007 Jun 13. Pubmed

Comments
Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:28 / Updated on March 14, 2014 14:36