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Identification
NameCalcium
Accession NumberDB01373
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsNutraceutical
Description

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Calcium acetate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001052
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number7440-70-2
WeightAverage: 40.078
Monoisotopic: 39.962591155
Chemical FormulaCa
InChI KeyOYPRJOBELJOOCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Ca
IUPAC Name
calcium
SMILES
[Ca]
Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Pharmacology
IndicationCalcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. It is vital in cell signaling, muscular contractions, bone health, and signalling cascades.
PharmacodynamicsCalcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. It plays an important role in signal transduction pathways, where it acts as a second messenger, in neurotransmitter release from neurons, contraction of all muscle cell types, and fertilization. Many enzymes require calcium ions as a cofactor, those of the blood-clotting cascade being notable examples. Extracellular calcium is also important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, as well as proper bone formation.
Mechanism of actionCalcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. More than 500 human proteins are known to bind or transport calcium. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Parathyroid hormone (secreted from the parathyroid gland) regulates the resorption of Ca2+ from bone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast. The currently recommended calcium intake is 1,500 milligrams per day for women not taking estrogen and 800 milligrams per day for women on estrogen. There is close to 300 milligrams of calcium in one cup of fluid milk. Calcium carbonate is currently the best and least expensive form of calcium supplement available.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationThe kidney excretes 250 mmol a day in urine, and resorbs 245 mmol, leading to a net loss in the urine of 5 mmol/d.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Coagulation PhysiologicalSMP00586
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00463
Fondaparinux Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00273
Anistreplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00281
Aminocaproic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00286
Aprotinin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00288
Gliclazide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00461
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00610
Dicoumarol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00656
Clopidogrel Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00260
Argatroban Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00276
Ximelagatran Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00279
Urokinase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00284
Dicumarol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00270
Repaglinide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00454
Joubert syndromeDiseaseSMP00582
Heparin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00274
Streptokinase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00282
Tranexamic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00287
Warfarin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00268
Pancreas FunctionPhysiologicalSMP00643
Ardeparin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00275
Lepirudin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00278
Tenecteplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00283
Acenocoumarol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00269
Nateglinide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00453
Muscle/Heart ContractionPhysiologicalSMP00588
Enoxaparin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00272
Bivalirudin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00277
Alteplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00280
Reteplase Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00285
Phenprocoumon Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00271
Glibenclamide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00460
Phenindione Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00655
Alprenolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00297
Oxprenolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00304
Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00324
Flecainide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00331
Labetalol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00368
Amlodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00376
Nisoldipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00381
Sotalol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00660
Metipranolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00667
Bisoprolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00300
Metoprolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00302
Propranolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00307
Mexiletine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00329
Nebivolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00366
Nifedipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00379
Intracellular Signalling Through Prostacyclin Receptor and ProstacyclinSignalingSMP00354
Amiodarone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00665
Bupranolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00670
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00018
Atenolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00298
Penbutolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00305
Disopyramide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00325
Ibutilide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00332
Felodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00377
Nitrendipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00382
Bopindolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00657
Epinephrine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00661
Isoprenaline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00663
Bevantolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00668
Betaxolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00299
Pindolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00306
Diltiazem Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00359
Isradipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00378
Carteolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00658
Dobutamine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00662
Arbutamine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00664
Practolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00669
Acebutolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00296
Esmolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00301
Nadolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00303
Quinidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00323
Tocainide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00330
Carvedilol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00367
Verapamil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00375
Nimodipine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00380
Timolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00659
Levobunolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00666
Proparacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00403
Hydromorphone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00410
Sufentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00417
Propoxyphene Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00672
Anileridine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00674
Pentazocine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00686
Nalbuphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00691
3-Methylthiofentanyl Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00679
Bupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00393
Dibucaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00396
Prilocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00401
Alfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00413
Fentanyl Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00415
Levomethadyl Acetate Action Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00677
Buprenorphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00684
Dihydromorphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00689
Teniposide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00443
Chloroprocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00394
Mepivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00399
Morphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00406
Hydrocodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00411
Diphenoxylate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00675
Dimethylthiambutene Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00680
Naltrexone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00687
Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00326
Benzocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00392
Cocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00395
Oxybuprocaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00400
Oxymorphone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00412
Carfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00414
Desipramine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00423
Dezocine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00676
Ethylmorphine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00681
Levallorphan Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00683
Naloxone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00688
Levobupivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00397
Procaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00402
Ropivacaine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00404
Oxycodone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00409
Remifentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00416
Escitalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00425
Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast CellsSignalingSMP00358
Teniposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00602
Tramadol Action Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00671
Levorphanol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00673
Methadyl Acetate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00678
Alvimopan Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00685
Ketobemidone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00690
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolicSMP00129
Inositol MetabolismMetabolicSMP00011
Phospholipid BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00025
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00353
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophyDiseaseSMP00348
Etoposide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00442
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00398
Fluoxetine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00426
Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori disease, Debrancher glycogenosisDiseaseSMP00553
Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers diseaseDiseaseSMP00555
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00027
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00075
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)DiseaseSMP00347
Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00327
Imipramine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00422
Fabry diseaseDiseaseSMP00525
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly syndromeDiseaseSMP00556
Methadone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00408
Etoposide Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00601
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00328
Heroin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00407
Krabbe diseaseDiseaseSMP00526
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00557
Glycogen synthetase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00552
Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson diseaseDiseaseSMP00554
Thyroid hormone synthesisMetabolicSMP00716
Riboflavin MetabolismMetabolicSMP00070
Sphingolipid MetabolismMetabolicSMP00034
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismMetabolicSMP00058
Gaucher DiseaseDiseaseSMP00349
Folate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00053
Histidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00044
HistidinemiaDiseaseSMP00191
Piroxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00077
Rofecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00087
Naproxen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00120
Meloxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00106
Codeine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00405
Nicotine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00431
Congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-IIdDiseaseSMP00579
Antrafenine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00693
Magnesium salicylate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00698
Tiaprofenic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00705
Acetaminophen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00710
Lactose SynthesisMetabolicSMP00444
Celecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00096
Suprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00101
Indomethacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00104
Diflunisal Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00289
Valdecoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00116
GLUT-1 deficiency syndromeDiseaseSMP00580
Antipyrine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00692
Carprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00694
Lumiracoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00699
Tenoxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00706
Oxaprozin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00113
Citalopram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00424
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaDiseaseSMP00493
Aromatase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00565
Fenoprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00696
Phenylbutazone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00701
Trisalicylate-choline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00703
Salicylate-sodium Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00708
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00351
Acetylsalicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00083
Ketoprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00085
Diclofenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00093
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolicSMP00068
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00098
Bromfenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00102
Mefenamic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00109
Ureidopropionase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00492
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)DiseaseSMP00543
Etoricoxib Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00695
Lornoxicam Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00700
Salsalate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00707
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)DiseaseSMP00369
Flurbiprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00697
Nepafenac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00702
Tolmetin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00704
Salicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00709
Folate malabsorption, hereditaryDiseaseSMP00724
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00356
Etodolac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00084
Ibuprofen Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00086
Sulindac Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00094
Nabumetone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00114
Methotrexate Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00432
PhenylketonuriaDiseaseSMP00206
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)DiseaseSMP00370
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
Citrullinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00001
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00003
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00002
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Beta Ureidopropionase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00172
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00008
Urea CycleMetabolicSMP00059
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00205
UMP Synthase Deiciency (Orotic Aciduria)DiseaseSMP00219
MNGIE (Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy)DiseaseSMP00202
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
Pyrimidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00046
Dihydropyrimidinase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00178
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00144
AICA-RibosiduriaDiseaseSMP00168
Thioguanine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00430
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00537
Mercaptopurine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00428
Xanthinuria type IDiseaseSMP00512
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
Xanthinuria type IIDiseaseSMP00513
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)DiseaseSMP00364
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)DiseaseSMP00220
Purine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00050
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal AbsorptionNot AvailableNot Available
Blood Brain BarrierNot AvailableNot Available
Caco-2 permeableNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein substrateNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINot AvailableNot Available
Renal organic cation transporterNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 1A2 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C19 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityNot AvailableNot Available
Ames testNot AvailableNot Available
CarcinogenicityNot AvailableNot Available
BiodegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Rat acute toxicityNot AvailableNot applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Not AvailableNot Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Not AvailableNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point839°CMSDS
boiling point1484°CMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-0.57ChemAxon
logS1.08ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceUS5667761
General Reference
  1. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6. Pubmed
  2. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548. Pubmed
  3. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O’Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. Pubmed
  4. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8. Pubmed
  5. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 34:00.00
  • 40:12.00
  • 40:18.17
  • 40:18.19
  • 40:34.00*
  • 56:04.00
  • 56:12.00
  • 88:08.00
  • 88:12.00
  • 88:29.00*
  • 92:02.00*
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (25.6 KB)
MSDSDownload (47.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: ligand

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C Q13936 Details

References:

  1. Boda D, Giri J, Henderson D, Eisenberg B, Gillespie D: Analyzing the components of the free-energy landscape in a calcium selective ion channel by Widom’s particle insertion method. J Chem Phys. 2011 Feb 7;134(5):055102. Pubmed

2. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1 P98194 Details

References:

  1. Shi X, Chen M, Huvos PE, Hardwicke PM: Amino acid sequence of a Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cross-striated part of the adductor muscle of the deep sea scallop: comparison to serca enzymes of other animals. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Jun;120(2):359-74. Pubmed
  2. Bonza MC, Martin H, Kang M, Lewis G, Greiner T, Giacometti S, Van Etten JL, De Michelis MI, Thiel G, Moroni A: A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses. J Gen Virol. 2010 Oct;91(Pt 10):2620-9. Epub 2010 Jun 23. Pubmed

3. Troponin C, skeletal muscle

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Troponin C, skeletal muscle P02585 Details

References:

  1. Martin SR, Avella G, Adrover M, de Nicola GF, Bullard B, Pastore A: Binding Properties of the Calcium-Activated F2 Isoform of Lethocerus Troponin C. Biochemistry. 2011 Feb 10. Pubmed
  2. Kreutziger KL, Piroddi N, McMichael JT, Tesi C, Poggesi C, Regnier M: Calcium binding kinetics of troponin C strongly modulate cooperative activation and tension kinetics in cardiac muscle. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Jan;50(1):165-74. Epub 2010 Oct 28. Pubmed
  3. Robertson IM, Sun YB, Li MX, Sykes BD: A structural and functional perspective into the mechanism of Ca2+-sensitizers that target the cardiac troponin complex. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Dec;49(6):1031-41. Epub 2010 Aug 27. Pubmed
  4. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. Epub 2010 Apr 6. Pubmed

4. Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles P63316 Details

References:

  1. Dweck D, Reynaldo DP, Pinto JR, Potter JD: A dilated cardiomyopathy troponin C mutation lowers contractile force by reducing strong myosin-actin binding. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17371-9. Epub 2010 Apr 6. Pubmed
  2. Swindle N, Tikunova SB: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-linked mutation D145E drastically alters calcium binding by the C-domain of cardiac troponin C. Biochemistry. 2010 Jun 15;49(23):4813-20. Pubmed
  3. Parvatiyar MS, Pinto JR, Liang J, Potter JD: Predicting cardiomyopathic phenotypes by altering Ca2+ affinity of cardiac troponin C. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 3;285(36):27785-97. Epub 2010 Jun 21. Pubmed
  4. Baylor SM, Hollingworth S: Calcium indicators and calcium signalling in skeletal muscle fibres during excitation-contraction coupling. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2010 Jun 25. Pubmed

5. Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Spectrin beta chain, non-erythrocytic 1 Q01082 Details

References:

  1. Wallis CJ, Wenegieme EF, Babitch JA: Characterization of calcium binding to brain spectrin. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 5;267(7):4333-7. Pubmed

6. Protein S100-B

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Protein S100-B P04271 Details

References:

  1. Lee TS, Mane S, Eid T, Zhao H, Lin A, Guan Z, Kim JH, Schweitzer J, King-Stevens D, Weber P, Spencer SS, Spencer DD, de Lanerolle NC: Gene expression in temporal lobe epilepsy is consistent with increased release of glutamate by astrocytes. Mol Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1-2):1-13. Pubmed
  2. Marlatt NM, Shaw GS: Amide exchange shows calcium-induced conformational changes are transmitted to the dimer interface of S100B. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 26;46(25):7478-87. Epub 2007 May 31. Pubmed
  3. Liang J, Luo G, Ning X, Shi Y, Zhai H, Sun S, Jin H, Liu Z, Zhang F, Lu Y, Zhao Y, Chen X, Zhang H, Guo X, Wu K, Fan D: Differential expression of calcium-related genes in gastric cancer cells transfected with cellular prion protein. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Jun;85(3):375-83. Pubmed
  4. Friel LA, Romero R, Edwin S, Nien JK, Gomez R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kusanovic JP, Tolosa JE, Hassan SS, Espinoza J: The calcium binding protein, S100B, is increased in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation and preterm labor with intact or ruptured membranes. J Perinat Med. 2007;35(5):385-93. Pubmed

7. Calpastatin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calpastatin P20810 Details

References:

  1. Hanna RA, Garcia-Diaz BE, Davies PL: Calpastatin simultaneously binds four calpains with different kinetic constants. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 26;581(16):2894-8. Epub 2007 May 25. Pubmed
  2. De Tullio R, Averna M, Stifanese R, Parr T, Bardsley RG, Pontremoli S, Melloni E: Multiple rat brain calpastatin forms are produced by distinct starting points and alternative splicing of the N-terminal exons. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Sep 1;465(1):148-56. Epub 2007 May 30. Pubmed

8. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein P49747 Details

References:

  1. Chen FH, Herndon ME, Patel N, Hecht JT, Tuan RS, Lawler J: Interaction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin 5 with aggrecan. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24;282(34):24591-8. Epub 2007 Jun 22. Pubmed

9. Calmodulin

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calmodulin P62158 Details

References:

  1. Sosa V, Carbo R, Guarner V: Participation of glucose transporters on atrial natriuretic peptide-induced glucose uptake by adult and neonatal cardiomyocytes under oxygenation and hypoxia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 30;568(1-3):83-8. Epub 2007 Apr 30. Pubmed
  2. Zhou Z, Yin J, Dou Z, Tang J, Zhang C, Cao Y: The calponin homology domain of Vav1 associates with calmodulin and is prerequisite to T cell antigen receptor-induced calcium release in Jurkat T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23737-44. Epub 2007 Jun 5. Pubmed
  3. Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NC, Zothner C, Abou Elloof MM, Wood JM: Hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress disrupts calcium binding on calmodulin: more evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Aug 17;360(1):70-5. Epub 2007 Jun 11. Pubmed
  4. Caride AJ, Filoteo AG, Penniston JT, Strehler EE: The plasma membrane Ca2+ pump isoform 4a differs from isoform 4b in the mechanism of calmodulin binding and activation kinetics: implications for Ca2+ signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 31;282(35):25640-8. Epub 2007 Jun 26. Pubmed
  5. Lo LW, Chen YC, Chen YJ, Wongcharoen W, Lin CI, Chen SA: Calmodulin kinase II inhibition prevents arrhythmic activity induced by alpha and beta adrenergic agonists in rabbit pulmonary veins. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct 1;571(2-3):197-208. Epub 2007 Jun 13. Pubmed

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Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:28 / Updated on March 14, 2014 14:36