Blood Substitutes and Perfusion Solutions

DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00123L-LysineSupplemental L-lysine has putative anti-herpes simplex virus activity. There is preliminary research suggesting that it may have some anti-osteoporotic activity.
DB00125L-ArginineUsed for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
DB00145GlycineSupplemental glycine may have antispastic activity. Very early findings suggest it may also have antipsychotic activity as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
DB00653Magnesium sulfateUsed for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia. Also used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant.
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateSodium bicarbonate is used for the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis. Also is indicated in severe diarrhea which is often accompanied by a significant loss of bicarbonate. Further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturateprotein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of blood pigments.
DB01638SorbitolUsed as a non-stimulant laxative via an oral suspension or enema.
DB03754TromethamineFor the prevention and correction of metabolic acidosis.
DB06767Ammonium chloride1. Expectorant in cough syrups. 2. The ammonium ion (NH4+) in the body plays an important role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. The kidney uses ammonium (NH4+) in place of sodium (Na+) to combine with fixed anions in maintaining acid-base balance, especially as a homeostatic compensatory mechanism in metabolic acidosis. The therapeutic effects of Ammonium Chloride depend upon the ability of the kidney to utilize ammonia in the excretion of an excess of fixed anions and the conversion of ammonia to urea by the liver, thereby liberating hydrogen (H+) and chloride (Cl–) ions into the extracellular fluid. Ammonium Chloride Injection, USP, after dilution in isotonic sodium chloride injection, may be indicated in the treatment of patients with: (1) hypochloremic states and (2) metabolic alkalosis.
DB09106Hydroxyethyl StarchAn intravenous solution of hydroxyethyl starch is used to prevent shock following severe blood loss caused by trauma, surgery, or other issues.
DB09153Sodium chlorideThis intravenous solution is indicated for use in adults and pediatric patients as a source of electrolytes and water for hydration. Also, designed for use as a diluent and delivery system for intermittent intravenous administration of compatible drug additives.
DB09154Sodium citrateUsed as an anticoagulant during plasmophoresis as well as a neutralizing agent in the treatment of upset stomach and acidic urine [FDA Label] [L788] [L789].
DB09255DextranDextran is used as the restoration of blood mass during surgical interventions if there is hypovolemia due to trauma or dehydration. It is as well used after the presence of hemorrhage in cases of blood loss to a level inferior to 15% of the blood mass, if compatibility test cannot be completed or when blood lots need to be tested for pathogen detection. Dextran is also used for the prevention of profound postoperative venous thrombosis.[L1455] Dextran as well presents ophthalmic applications as solutions or ointments for the temporary relief of xerophthalmia or minor ocular irritations.[L1461]
DB09393Amino acidsNot Available
DB09395Sodium acetateInjection, USP 40 mEq is indicated as a source of sodium, for addition to large volume intravenous fluids to prevent or correct hyponatremia in patients with restricted or no oral intake. It is also useful as an additive for preparing specific intravenous fluid formulas when the needs of the patient cannot be met by standard electrolyte or nutrient solutions. Sodium acetate and other bicarbonate precursors are alkalinising agents, and can be used to correct metabolic acidosis, or for alkalinisation of the urine.
DB09407Magnesium chlorideMagnesium chloride is used in several medical and topical (skin related) applications. Magnesium chloride usp, anhydrous uses as electrolyte replenisher, pharmaceutic necessity for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis fluids.
DB09483Potassium lactateNot Available
DB09561Sodium glycerophosphateSodium glycerophosphate is indicated for use as a source of phosphate in total parenteral nutrition [FDA Label]. It is used in combination with amino acids, dextrose, lipid emulsions, and other electrolytes.
DB11876Alanyl GlutamineNot Available
DB12473TaurolidineNot Available
DB13218Mandelic acidNot Available
DB13658Hemoglobin raffimerNot Available
DB13838NoxytiolinNot Available
DB13862Magnesium phosphateNot Available
DB13864Hemoglobin crosfumarilNot Available
DB00336NitrofuralFor the treatment of bacterial skin infections including pyodermas, infected dermatoses and infections of cuts, wounds, burns and ulcers due to susceptible organisms.
DB00576SulfamethizoleFor the treatment of urinary tract infection
DB00742MannitolUsed for the promotion of diuresis before irreversible renal failure becomes established, the reduction of intracranial pressure, the treatment of cerebral edema, and the promotion of urinary excretion of toxic substances.
DB00761Potassium chlorideFor use as an electrolyte replenisher and in the treatment of hypokalemia.
DB00878ChlorhexidineFor reduction of pocket depth in patients with adult periodontitis, used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing procedures. Also for prevention of dental caries, oropharyngeal decontamination in critically ill patients, hand hygiene in health-care personnel, general skin cleanser, and catheter site preparation and care.
DB00994NeomycinTopical uses include treatment for superficial eye infections caused by susceptible bacteria (used in combination with other antiinfectives), treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible bacteria, treatment or prevention of bacterial infections in skin lesions, and use as a continuous short-term irrigant or rinse to prevent bacteriuria and gram negative rod bacteremia in abacteriuric patients with indwelling catheters. [F3634,F3637,F3640,F3643] May be used orally to treat hepatic encephalopathy, as a perioperative prophylactic agent, and as an adjunct to fluid and electrolyte replacement in the treatment of diarrhea caused to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). [F3643]
DB01164Calcium ChlorideFor the treatment of hypocalcemia in those conditions requiring a prompt increase in blood plasma calcium levels, for the treatment of magnesium intoxication due to overdosage of magnesium sulfate, and used to combat the deleterious effects of hyperkalemia as measured by electrocardiographic (ECG), pending correction of the increased potassium level in the extracellular fluid.
DB11073CetylpyridiniumTypically employed as the cetylpyridinium chloride salt, this compound is commonly used as an active ingredient in various over-the-counter mouthwashes, toothpastes, lozenges, and mouth sprays where it is generally indicated for antiseptic actions, gingivitis and plaque prevention, as well as action or prevention against some other oropharyngeal bacterial infections [A24813, L2754, L2755].
DB11110Magnesium citrateMagnesium citrate has been used in bowel preparations prior to a colonoscopy as a cathartic agent.[T215] It is also used in over-the-counter products to relieve occasional constipation.[L2841] Magnesium citrate can be one of the forms used for the administration of dietary supplements.[L2842]
DB13366Hydrochloric acidNot Available
DB14498Potassium acetatePotassium is used to regulate hypokalemia as a primary condition or secondary to other medical conditions.
DB14533Zinc chlorideZinc can be used for the treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency/its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slowed wound healing. It is also utilized for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, as well as preventing lower respiratory tract infections [L2172].
DB03904Urea
  • 10% hydrate skin
  • 15% accelerate fibrin degradation
  • 20-30% are antipruritic, break down keratin, decrease the thickness of the stratum corneum and are used in scaling conditions such as ichthysosis
  • 40% are proteolytic and may be used to dissolve and peel dystrophic nails

[Patient Self Care, 2010]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00123L-LysineHigh affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1target
DB00123L-LysineCationic amino acid transporter 4target
DB00123L-LysineCationic amino acid transporter 3target
DB00123L-LysineLow affinity cationic amino acid transporter 2target
DB00123L-LysineLysine--tRNA ligasetarget
DB00123L-LysineMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB00123L-LysineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00125L-ArginineCationic amino acid transporter 3target
DB00125L-ArginineArginine decarboxylasetarget
DB00125L-ArginineArgininosuccinate lyasetarget
DB00125L-ArginineNitric oxide synthase, inducibletarget
DB00125L-ArginineHigh affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1target
DB00125L-ArginineArginase-2, mitochondrialtarget
DB00125L-ArginineCationic amino acid transporter 4target
DB00125L-ArginineArgininosuccinate synthasetarget
DB00125L-ArginineNitric oxide synthase, endothelialtarget
DB00125L-ArginineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00125L-ArginineMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB00125L-ArginineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB00145GlycineGlutathione synthetasetarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00145GlycineSerine--pyruvate aminotransferasetarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine receptor subunit betatarget
DB00145GlycineSerine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytosolictarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00145GlycineGlycine receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00145GlycineGlycine N-methyltransferasetarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00145GlycineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Btarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine dehydrogenase [decarboxylating], mitochondrialtarget
DB00145GlycineSodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1target
DB00145Glycine2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00145Glycine5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrialtarget
DB00145Glycine5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrialtarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine cleavage system H protein, mitochondrialtarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine--tRNA ligasetarget
DB00145GlycineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
DB00145GlycineBile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferasetarget
DB00145GlycineN-arachidonyl glycine receptortarget
DB00145GlycineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Ctarget
DB00145GlycineSerine hydroxymethyltransferasetarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine N-acyltransferasetarget
DB00145GlycineProton-coupled amino acid transporter 1target
DB00145GlycineSerine hydroxymethyltransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00145GlycineGlycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 2target
DB00145GlycineGlycine N-acyltransferase-like protein 1target
DB00145GlycineAlanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialtarget
DB00145GlycineVesicular inhibitory amino acid transportertarget
DB00145GlycinePeroxisomal sarcosine oxidasetarget
DB00145GlycineSodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2target
DB00145GlycineMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunittarget
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Ctarget
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2target
DB00653Magnesium sulfateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Starget
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateElectrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1transporter
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateSodium bicarbonate cotransporter 3transporter
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateElectroneutral sodium bicarbonate exchanger 1transporter
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateElectrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 4transporter
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateHydrogen ionstarget
DB01390Sodium bicarbonateSodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchangertransporter
DB01638SorbitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB01638SorbitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB01638SorbitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB01638SorbitolMalate synthase Gtarget
DB03754TromethamineCholera enterotoxin subunit Btarget
DB03754TromethamineS-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzymetarget
DB03754TromethamineBiotin synthasetarget
DB03754TromethamineVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
DB03754Tromethamine6-phosphogluconolactonasetarget
DB03754TromethamineDecorintarget
DB03754TromethamineAutolysintarget
DB03754TromethamineCytochrome c4target
DB03754TromethamineSoluble calcium-activated nucleotidase 1target
DB03754TromethamineLipoprotein NlpItarget
DB03754TromethamineDNA protection during starvation proteintarget
DB03754TromethaminePutative glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerasetarget
DB03754TromethamineEndonuclease 8-like 1target
DB09154Sodium citrateMitochondrial 2-oxodicarboxylate carriertransporter
DB09154Sodium citrateSolute carrier family 13 member 2transporter
DB09154Sodium citrateSolute carrier family 13 member 5transporter
DB09154Sodium citrateTricarboxylate transport protein, mitochondrialtransporter
DB09395Sodium acetateAcetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmicenzyme
DB00336NitrofuralPyruvate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone]target
DB00336NitrofuralGlutathione reductasetarget
DB00336NitrofuralMalate dehydrogenasetarget
DB00336Nitrofural[Citrate [pro-3S]-lyase] ligasetarget
DB00336NitrofuralXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
DB00576SulfamethizoleDihydropteroate synthasetarget
DB00576SulfamethizoleSerum albumincarrier
DB00576SulfamethizoleCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00742MannitolMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00742MannitolMannitol dehydrogenaseenzyme
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 2target
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 1target
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 5target
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 6target
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 7target
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 4target
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 2transporter
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 1transporter
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 5transporter
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 6transporter
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 7transporter
DB00761Potassium chlorideSolute carrier family 12 member 4transporter
DB00878ChlorhexidineBacterial outer membranetarget
DB00878ChlorhexidineHistamine N-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00878ChlorhexidineChloramphenicol acetyltransferaseenzyme
DB00994Neomycin30S ribosomal protein S12target
DB00994Neomycin16S rRNAtarget
DB00994NeomycinExtracellular calcium-sensing receptortarget
DB01164Calcium ChlorideProtein S100-A13target
DB14498Potassium acetateSodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideB1 bradykinin receptortarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideMethylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideFructose-bisphosphate aldolase Atarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideElongation factor 1-alpha 1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlpha-enolasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specifictarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideNucleoside diphosphate kinase Atarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideProtein disulfide-isomerasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideProtein disulfide-isomerase A3target
DB14533Zinc chloridePeroxiredoxin-1target
DB14533Zinc chloridePhosphoserine phosphatasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideTriosephosphate isomerasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideElongation factor Tu, mitochondrialtarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideInterleukin-3target
DB14533Zinc chlorideMetallothionein-2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideCopper chaperone for superoxide dismutasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideHistone deacetylase 1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideHistone deacetylase 4target
DB14533Zinc chlorideDNA-3-methyladenine glycosylasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideSemenogelin-1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]target
DB14533Zinc chlorideHistone deacetylase 8target
DB14533Zinc chlorideApoptosis regulatory protein Sivatarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideInsulintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideUtrophintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAspartoacylasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideProtein S100-A8target
DB14533Zinc chlorideProtein S100-A9target
DB14533Zinc chlorideMatrix metalloproteinase-9target
DB14533Zinc chlorideTumor protein p73target
DB14533Zinc chlorideProtein S100-A2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideCellular tumor antigen p53target
DB14533Zinc chlorideMetallothionein-3target
DB14533Zinc chlorideProgrammed cell death protein 6target
DB14533Zinc chlorideDAN domain family member 5target
DB14533Zinc chlorideMetallothionein-1Atarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlpha-1B-glycoproteintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlpha-2-macroglobulintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAngiotensinogentarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlpha-2-HS-glycoproteintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideSerum amyloid P-componenttarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideApolipoprotein A-Itarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideApolipoprotein A-IItarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideApolipoprotein A-IVtarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideApolipoprotein B receptortarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideApolipoprotein Etarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideApolipoprotein L1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Btarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement C1q subcomponent subunit Ctarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement C1r subcomponenttarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement C1s subcomponenttarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement C3target
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement C4-Btarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideC4b-binding protein alpha chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideC4b-binding protein beta chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement C5target
DB14533Zinc chlorideLys-63-specific deubiquitinase BRCC36target
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement component C8 alpha chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement component C8 beta chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement component C8 gamma chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement factor Btarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement factor Htarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideComplement factor Itarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideClusterintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideCeruloplasmintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideCarboxypeptidase N catalytic chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideCarboxypeptidase N subunit 2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideDermcidintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideDesmoplakintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideCoagulation factor XIItarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideCoagulation factor XIII B chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideProthrombintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideFicolin-3target
DB14533Zinc chlorideFibrinogen alpha chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideFibronectintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideGelsolintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideHemoglobin subunit alphatarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideHemoglobin subunit betatarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideHaptoglobin-related proteintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideHornerintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunittarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideIg alpha-1 chain C regiontarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideIg mu chain C regiontarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideImmunoglobulin kappa variable 1-17target
DB14533Zinc chlorideIg kappa chain V-III region GOLtarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideImmunoglobulin lambda variable 3-21target
DB14533Zinc chlorideInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3target
DB14533Zinc chlorideInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4target
DB14533Zinc chlorideImmunoglobulin J chaintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideJunction plakoglobintarget
DB14533Zinc chloridePlasma kallikreintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideKininogen-1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 10target
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 14target
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 16target
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 2 epidermaltarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 5target
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 6Atarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 9target
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideN-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidasetarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideSerum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1target
DB14533Zinc chloridePregnancy zone proteintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideProtein S100-A7target
DB14533Zinc chlorideSelenoprotein Ptarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlpha-1-antitrypsintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlpha-1-antichymotrypsintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideKallistatintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideCorticosteroid-binding globulintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideHeparin cofactor 2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideSex hormone-binding globulintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideSerotransferrintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideTransthyretintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideVitronectintarget
DB14533Zinc chlorideAmyloid-like protein 1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideAmyloid-like protein 2target
DB14533Zinc chlorideAmyloid beta A4 proteintarget
DB14533Zinc chloridePoly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1target
DB14533Zinc chlorideCarbonic anhydrase 1enzyme
DB14533Zinc chlorideCarboxypeptidase Eenzyme
DB14533Zinc chlorideAlcohol dehydrogenase 1Cenzyme
DB14533Zinc chlorideInsulin-degrading enzymeenzyme
DB14533Zinc chlorideSuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]enzyme
DB03904UreaArginase-1target
DB03904UreaCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB03904UreaStructural polyproteintarget
DB03904UreaCatenin beta-1target
DB03904UreaSulfoxide reductase catalytic subunit YedYtarget
DB03904UreaDihydrofolate reductasetarget
DB03904UreaUrea transporter 2transporter
DB03904UreaUrea transporter 1transporter