Magnesium citrate

Identification

Name
Magnesium citrate
Accession Number
DB11110
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Magnesium citrate is a low volume and osmotic cathartic agent. The cathartic action works primarily through the high osmolarity of the solution which draws large amounts of fluid into space where is used.[5] Magnesium citrate is considered by the FDA as an approved inactive ingredient for approved drug products under the specifications of oral administration of a maximum concentration of 237 mg.[7] It is also considered as an active ingredient in over-the-counter products.[6]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Magnesium dicitrate
  • Trimagnesium citrate
  • Trimagnesium dicitrate
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Magnesium cationionicT6V3LHY83822537-22-0JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
MagnesiumunknownI38ZP9992A7439-95-4RSHAOIXHUHAZPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BET-R-PREP Magnesium Citrate OralSolution1.745 g/1mLTopicalSatius Pharmaceuticals, Llc2017-11-18Not applicableUs
Citrate of MagnesiumLiquid1.745 g/29.6mLOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-01-29Not applicableUs
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.61mLOralSupervalue, Inc2001-11-18Not applicableUs
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.6mLOralKroger2001-05-03Not applicableUs
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.6mLOralBetter Living Brands2018-02-18Not applicableUs
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.6mLOralMajor Pharmaceuticals2018-02-182018-03-28Us
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.6mLOralSupervalu2018-02-18Not applicableUs
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.6mLOralWalgreens Co2000-07-14Not applicableUs
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.61mLOralHarris Teeter2017-05-03Not applicableUs
CitromaLiquid1.745 g/29.6mLOralKrogers2018-02-18Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Calcium Magnesium Plus Vitamin D LiquidMagnesium citrate (3 mg) + Calcium gluconate (6 mg) + Ergocalciferol (2 unit) + Inositol (.6 mg)LiquidOralJamp Pharma Corporation2002-04-222003-02-05Canada
PEN Prep PlusMagnesium citrate (17 g/100g) + Dimethicone (.08 g/100g)Powder, for solutionOralPen Prep Llc2010-07-01Not applicableUs
Royvac Bowel Evacuant KitMagnesium citrate (17.46 g) + Bisacodyl (10 mg) + Bisacodyl (15 mg)KitOral; RectalWaymar Pharmaceuticals Inc.1995-12-312010-08-01Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PCP 100 KitMagnesium citrate (1.745 g/29.6mL) + Bisacodyl (5 mg/1) + Metoclopramide hydrochloride monohydrate (10 mg/1) + Petrolatum (0.76 g/1g) + Polyethylene glycol (17 g/17g)KitOral; TopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.2014-01-02Not applicableUs
Prenatal Chelated MineralMagnesium citrate (75 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (30 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (32.5 mg/1) + Copper gluconate (0.5 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (7 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (75 ug/1) + Zinc citrate (5 mg/1)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.2012-04-11Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
RHO26O1T9V
CAS number
3344-18-1
Weight
Average: 451.113
Monoisotopic: 449.9621801
Chemical Formula
C12H10Mg3O14
InChI Key
PLSARIKBYIPYPF-UHFFFAOYSA-H
InChI
InChI=1S/2C6H8O7.3Mg/c2*7-3(8)1-6(13,5(11)12)2-4(9)10;;;/h2*13H,1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12);;;/q;;3*+2/p-6
IUPAC Name
trimagnesium(2+) bis(2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate)
SMILES
[Mg++].[Mg++].[Mg++].OC(CC([O-])=O)(CC([O-])=O)C([O-])=O.OC(CC([O-])=O)(CC([O-])=O)C([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Magnesium citrate has been used in bowel preparations prior to a colonoscopy as a cathartic agent.[5]

It is also used in over-the-counter products to relieve occasional constipation.[8]

Magnesium citrate can be one of the forms used for the administration of dietary supplements.[9]

Pharmacodynamics

The onset of action can be as early as 30 minutes after administration with a mean onset time of approximately 2 hours and a maximum action of 4 hours. The effect of magnesium citrate is highly dependent on the individual's hydration status.[5]

Mechanism of action

It mainly works through its property of high osmolality which will draw large amounts of fluid into the colonic lumen. There is also a possible stimulation of fluid excretion by cholecystokinin release and activation of muscle peristalsis.[5]

Absorption

Mean plasma concentration of magnesium after administration of oral doses of magnesium citrate are reported to be of around 0.7 mmol/L and the concentration in saliva rested in 0.28 mmol/L. In reports, it has also been proven that the absorption and bioavailability of magnesium are greater when administered in the form of magnesium citrate when compared with other forms such as magnesium ocude.[1]

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Magnesium, once ionized, is highly bound to plasma proteins and it can represent even 90% of the magnesium found in blood plasma.[3]

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination

After oral administration of magnesium citrate, there is a 40% increase in urine excretion of magnesium.[2] Magnesium citrate is also widely eliminated via the feces because, when present in the bowel, it relaxes the bowel and pulls water into the intestine which increases bowel movement and a significant portion of this agent gets excreted by this via.[10]

Half life

The study of the half-life of magnesium citrate is very difficult due to the half-life of the available isotopes for magnesium.[4]

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The occurrence of overdose with magnesium citrate is very unlikely but some of the signs of the presence of overdose are diarrhea or severe stomach pain.[8]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodideThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with (2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodide.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium citrate is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Methoxyamphetamine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium citrate is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Magnesium citrate.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is combined with Magnesium citrate.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M: Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study. Magnes Res. 2003 Sep;16(3):183-91. [PubMed:14596323]
  2. Rylander R, Megevand Y, Lasserre B, Amstutz W, Granbom S: Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2001;61(5):401-5. [PubMed:11569488]
  3. Nielsen SP: Free and protein-bound magnesium in normal human plasma determined by ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1969 May;23(3):219-25. [PubMed:5383308]
  4. Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M: Magnesium basics. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Feb;5(Suppl 1):i3-i14. doi: 10.1093/ndtplus/sfr163. [PubMed:26069819]
  5. Kim D. and Pickhardt P. (2010). CT Colonography. Elsevier.
  6. Health Canada [Link]
  7. FDA Inactive ingredient search [Link]
  8. Dailymed [Link]
  9. Supplements manufacturer [Link]
  10. Magnesium citrate [File]
External Links
PubChem Compound
6099959
PubChem Substance
347827901
ChemSpider
2925651
ChEBI
131391
ChEMBL
CHEMBL3989480
Wikipedia
Magnesium_citrate_(3:2)
ATC Codes
B05CB03 — Magnesium citrateA12CC04 — Magnesium citrateA06AD19 — Magnesium citrate
MSDS
Download (231 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3RecruitingPreventionExtreme Immaturity / Magnesium Deficiency / Premature Births1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypomagnesaemia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionTopical1.745 g/1mL
LiquidOral
LiquidOral1.745 g/29.61mL
SolutionOral1.745 g/29.61mL
Powder, for solutionOral17 g/17g
LiquidOral1.745 g/29.6mg
LiquidOral1.745 g/29.6mL
LiquidOral2.62 g/100mL
LiquidOral2.65 mg/100mL
SolutionOral1.745 g/29.6mL
LiquidOral2.65 g/100mL
LiquidOral1.75 g
KitOral; Topical
Powder, for solutionOral17 g/100g
Powder, for solutionOral
TabletOral
KitOral; Rectal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)184 ºC'MSDS'
water solubilityPartially soluble in cold water'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.34 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.08ALOGPS
logP-1.3ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.05ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area140.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity68.14 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.25 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tricarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are carboxylic acids containing exactly three carboxyl groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Tricarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Tricarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Tertiary alcohols / Carboxylic acid salts / Carboxylic acids / Organic salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives / Tertiary alcohol / Carboxylic acid salt / Carboxylic acid / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic salt / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on August 02, 2018 06:21