Identification

Name
Baclofen
Accession Number
DB00181  (APRD00551)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Baclofen is a gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) derivative used as a skeletal muscle relaxant. Baclofen stimulates GABA-B receptors leading to decreased frequency and amplitude of muscle spasms. It is especially useful in treating muscle spasticity associated with spinal cord injury. It appears to act primarily at the spinal cord level by inhibiting spinal polysynaptic afferent pathways and, to a lesser extent, monosynaptic afferent pathways.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-Baclofen
  • 4-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butyric acid
  • Baclofene
  • Baclofeno
  • Baclofenum
  • beta-(4-Chlorophenyl)gaba
  • beta-(Aminomethyl)-4-chlorobenzenepropanoic acid
  • beta-(Aminomethyl)-P-chlorohydrocinnamic acid
  • beta-(P-Chlorophenyl)-gamma-aminobutyric acid
  • DL-4-Amino-3-P-chlorophenylbutanoic acid
  • DL-Baclofen
  • gamma-Amino-beta-(P-chlorophenyl)butyric acid
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Baclofen hydrochloride64OSE3996V28311-31-1WMNUVYYLMCMHLU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BaclofenTablet20 mgOralSanis Health Inc2010-02-25Not applicableCanada
BaclofenTablet20 mgOralApotex Corporation1994-12-312014-08-23Canada
BaclofenTablet10 mgOralSanis Health Inc2010-02-25Not applicableCanada
BaclofenTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation1994-12-312014-08-23Canada
Baclofen InjectionSolution10 mgIntrathecalSterimax Inc2014-06-06Not applicableCanada
Baclofen InjectionSolution2 mgIntrathecalTeligent Ou2017-08-25Not applicableCanada
Baclofen InjectionSolution0.5 mgIntrathecalTeligent Ou2017-08-25Not applicableCanada
Baclofen InjectionSolution10 mgIntrathecalSterimax Inc2014-06-06Not applicableCanada
Baclofen InjectionSolution0.05 mgIntrathecalTeligent Ou2017-08-25Not applicableCanada
Baclofen InjectionSolution0.05 mgIntrathecalSterimax Inc2014-06-06Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-baclofen Tablets - 10mgTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-baclofen Tablets - 20mgTablet20 mgOralApotex Corporation1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ava-baclofenTablet10 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-10-112014-08-21Canada
Ava-baclofenTablet20 mgOralAvanstra Inc2011-10-112014-08-21Canada
BaclofenTablet10 mg/1OralNew Horizon Rx Group, LLC2013-08-25Not applicableUs
BaclofenTablet20 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2010-07-15Not applicableUs
BaclofenTablet20 mg/1OralNorth Star Rx Llc2011-01-01Not applicableUs
BaclofenTablet10 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2005-08-30Not applicableUs
BaclofenTablet20 mg/1OralMed Pharma Co., Ltd.2011-01-01Not applicableUs
BaclofenTablet10 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2012-09-032015-12-29Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Equipto - Baclofen External Cream Compounding KitBaclofenKitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2015-01-202018-03-14Us
Gapeam BudibacBaclofen + Amantadine hydrochloride + Bupivacaine hydrochloride + Cyclobenzaprine Hydrochloride + Diclofenac sodium + Gabapentin + PentoxifyllineKitTopicalAlvix Laboratories2014-12-052018-03-14Us
International/Other Brands
Baclon (Uniao Quimica (Brazil)) / Kemstro (Schwarz (United States)) / Lioresal Intrathecal (Novartis Pharmaceuticals) / Nu-Baclofen (Nu-Pharm)
Categories
UNII
H789N3FKE8
CAS number
1134-47-0
Weight
Average: 213.661
Monoisotopic: 213.05565634
Chemical Formula
C10H12ClNO2
InChI Key
KPYSYYIEGFHWSV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H12ClNO2/c11-9-3-1-7(2-4-9)8(6-12)5-10(13)14/h1-4,8H,5-6,12H2,(H,13,14)
IUPAC Name
4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid
SMILES
NCC(CC(O)=O)C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the alleviation of signs and symptoms of spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, particularly for the relief of flexor spasms and concomitant pain, clonus, and muscular rigidity.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Baclofen is a muscle relaxant and antispastic. Baclofen is useful for the alleviation of signs and symptoms of spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, particularly for the relief of flexor spasms and concomitant pain, clonus, and muscular rigidity. Although Baclofen is an analog of the putative inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), there is no conclusive evidence that actions on GABA systems are involved in the production of its clinical effects. In studies with animals, Baclofen has been shown to have general CNS depressant properties as indicated by the production of sedation with tolerance, somnolence, ataxia, and respiratory and cardiovascular depression. Baclofen is rapidly and extensively absorbed and eliminated. Absorption may be dose-dependent, being reduced with increasing doses. Baclofen is excreted primarily by the kidney in unchanged form and there is relatively large intersubject variation in absorption and/or elimination.

Mechanism of action

Baclofen is a direct agonist at GABAB receptors. The precise mechanism of action of Baclofen is not fully known. It is capable of inhibiting both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal level, possibly by hyperpolarization of afferent terminals, although actions at supraspinal sites may also occur and contribute to its clinical effect.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
agonist
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2
agonist
Human
Absorption

Rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the GI tract.

Volume of distribution
  • 59 L
Protein binding

30%

Metabolism

~ 15% of the dose is metabolized in the liver, primarily by deamination. 70-80% of the dose is excreted unchanged or as metabolites in urine and the remainder is excreted in feces.

Route of elimination

In a study using radiolabeled baclofen, approximately 85% of the dose was excreted unchanged in the urine and feces. Baclofen is excreted primarily by the kidney as unchanged drug; 70 - 80% of a dose appears in the urine as unchanged drug. The remainder is excreted as unchanged drug in the feces or as metabolites in the urine and feces.

Half life

2.5-4 hours

Clearance
  • 180 mL/min
Toxicity

LD50=45 mg/kg (male mice, IV); LD50=78 mg/kg (male rat, IV)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Azaperone.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Benperidol.Approved, Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Benzocaine.Approved, Investigational
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved, Investigational
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Bromperidol.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Bupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Butamben.Approved, Withdrawn
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Canertinib.Investigational
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clemastine.Approved, Investigational
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
CyclopropaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Cyclopropane.Experimental
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dantrolene.Approved, Investigational
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Baclofen.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Desipramine.Approved, Investigational
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved, Investigational
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Doxepin.Approved, Investigational
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with DPDPE.Experimental
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
EthanolBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ethchlorvynol.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ethyl chloride.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Etifoxine.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Etomidate.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ezogabine.Approved, Investigational
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved, Investigational
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Flibanserin.Approved, Investigational
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved, Investigational
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Baclofen.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydrocodoneBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
LacidipineBaclofen may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levocabastine.Approved, Investigational
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Baclofen.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
Lithium cationThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Lithium.Experimental
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofexidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Baclofen can be increased when used in combination with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Loratadine.Approved, Investigational
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Baclofen can be increased when used in combination with Lorpiprazole.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Baclofen can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Maprotiline.Approved, Investigational
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Melperone.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved, Investigational
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Baclofen.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Baclofen.Approved
MethotrimeprazineBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved, Investigational
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methylecgonine.Experimental
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetyrosineBaclofen may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Milnacipran.Approved, Investigational
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
NordazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Nordazepam.Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Norflurane.Approved, Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ondansetron.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Baclofen.Approved
ParaldehydeBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Perazine.Approved, Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Baclofen.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Pipamperone.Approved, Investigational
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved, Investigational
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Piritramide.Approved, Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleBaclofen may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe therapeutic efficacy of Baclofen can be increased when used in combination with Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Prilocaine.Approved
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Promethazine.Approved, Investigational
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Quinisocaine.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Baclofen.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleBaclofen may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineBaclofen may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Baclofen.Approved
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Scopolamine.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Sepranolone.Investigational
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Sulpiride.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SuvorexantBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Baclofen.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved, Investigational
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Baclofen.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tiagabine.Approved, Investigational
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tizanidine.Approved, Investigational
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved, Investigational
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Trichloroethylene.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved, Investigational
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Xenon.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Baclofen.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Baclofen.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Zotepine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Baclofen.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Wayne Levadoux, Denis Groleau, Michael Trani, Robert Lortie, "Streptomyces microorganism useful for the preparation of (R)-baclofen from the racemic mixture." U.S. Patent US5843765, issued April, 1994.

US5843765
General References
  1. Dzitoyeva S, Dimitrijevic N, Manev H: Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 mediates behavior-impairing actions of alcohol in Drosophila: adult RNA interference and pharmacological evidence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 29;100(9):5485-90. Epub 2003 Apr 11. [PubMed:12692303]
  2. Mezler M, Muller T, Raming K: Cloning and functional expression of GABA(B) receptors from Drosophila. Eur J Neurosci. 2001 Feb;13(3):477-86. [PubMed:11168554]
  3. See S, Ginzburg R: Skeletal muscle relaxants. Pharmacotherapy. 2008 Feb;28(2):207-13. doi: 10.1592/phco.28.2.207. [PubMed:18225966]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014327
KEGG Drug
D00241
PubChem Compound
2284
PubChem Substance
46508181
ChemSpider
2197
BindingDB
24182
ChEBI
2972
ChEMBL
CHEMBL701
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000257
PharmGKB
PA448533
IUPHAR
1084
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Baclofen
ATC Codes
M03BX01 — Baclofen
AHFS Codes
  • 12:20.12 — Gaba-derivative Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
FDA label
Download (135 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentAtaxia Telangiectasia (AT)1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Hands1
0RecruitingTreatmentDrug Abuse1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Obese, Otherwise Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAlcohol Dependence1
1CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
1CompletedTreatmentBaclofen Withdrawal Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentCheyne Stokes Respiration1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentSafety and Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Baclofen1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Spasticity1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntravenous Baclofen1
2CompletedBasic ScienceMarijuana Dependence1
2CompletedOtherAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Drinking / Alcohol Drinking Related Problems / Alcoholism / Anxiety Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism2
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders3
2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Spasticity1
2CompletedTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Muscle Cramps1
2CompletedTreatmentMarijuana Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentNicotine Dependence1
2CompletedTreatmentSpastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
2TerminatedPreventionAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS) / Alcoholism1
2TerminatedTreatmentCerebral Anoxia / Comatose / Dysautonomia / Hypertonia / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2TerminatedTreatmentNicotine Dependence1
2TerminatedTreatmentNicotine Dependence / Nicotine Use Disorder / Smoking / Tobacco Use Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFemale Genital Diseases1
3CompletedSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Leukemias / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Neurotoxicity / Pain / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Severe alcoholic liver disease1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Spasticity1
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis2
3CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Spasticity1
3CompletedTreatmentGastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
3CompletedTreatmentSevere Spasticity1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcoholism1
3TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorders (AUD) / Hepatitis C Viral Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Crying Spells1
4CompletedTreatmentRumination Disorders / Supra-gastric Belching1
4RecruitingOtherAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareMuscle Spasticity1
4RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4SuspendedTreatmentSleep1
4TerminatedBasic ScienceLower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) / Occasional Constipation / Overactive Bladder1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareCerebral Palsy (CP)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBrain GABA-B Function / No Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticGastroesophageal Reflux Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAlcohol Withdrawal Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBulimia Nervosa (BN) / Eating Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Floor Dyssynergia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNon-Cardiac Chest Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Muscle Cramps1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Tactile Defensiveness1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Medtronic inc
  • Schwarz pharma inc
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Lannett holdings inc
  • Matrix laboratories ltd
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Northstar healthcare holdings ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Aidarex Pharmacuticals LLC
  • Alphapharm Party Ltd.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Caraco Pharmaceutical Labs
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Genpharm LP
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Medtronic
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Northstar Rx LLC
  • Novartis AG
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Packaging Center
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Piramal Healthcare
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Prescription Dispensing Service Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • UDL Laboratories
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • USL Pharma Inc.
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntrathecal10 mg/20mL
InjectionIntrathecal40 mg/20mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral20 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
InjectionIntrathecal.05 mg/mL
SolutionIntrathecal10 mg
KitTopical
InjectionIntrathecal1000 ug/mL
InjectionIntrathecal2000 ug/mL
InjectionIntrathecal50 ug/mL
InjectionIntrathecal500 ug/mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal1000 ug/mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal2000 ug/mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal50 ug/mL
Injection, solutionIntrathecal500 ug/mL
KitTopical
InjectionIntrathecal.5 mg/mL
InjectionIntrathecal2 mg/mL
InjectionIntrathecal10 mg/5mL
SolutionIntrathecal0.05 mg
SolutionIntrathecal0.5 mg
SolutionIntrathecal2 mg
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral20 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lioresal it 0.05 mg/1 ml amp84.0USD ml
Lioresal it 10 mg/5 ml kit51.6USD ml
Lioresal Intrathecal 2 mg/ml44.64USD ml
Lioresal Intrathecal 0.05 mg/ml14.89USD ml
Baclofen powder14.38USD g
Lioresal it 10 mg/20 ml kit12.9USD ml
Lioresal Intrathecal 0.5 mg/ml11.16USD ml
Lioresal D.S. 20 mg Tablet1.4USD tablet
Baclofen 20 mg tablet0.92USD tablet
Lioresal 10 mg Tablet0.72USD tablet
Apo-Baclofen 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Mylan-Baclofen 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Nu-Baclo 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Phl-Baclofen 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Pms-Baclofen 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Ratio-Baclofen 20 mg Tablet0.59USD tablet
Baclofen 10 mg tablet0.51USD tablet
Apo-Baclofen 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Mylan-Baclofen 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Nu-Baclo 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Phl-Baclofen 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Pms-Baclofen 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
Ratio-Baclofen 10 mg Tablet0.3USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6221392No1998-04-092018-04-09Us
US6024981No1998-04-092018-04-09Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)206-208 °CKeberle, H., Faigle, J.W. and Wilhelm, M.; U.S. Patent 3,471,548; October 7, 1969; assigned to Ciba Corporation. Keberle, H., Faigle, J.W. and Wilhelm, M.; U.S. Patent 3,634,428; January 11, 1972; assigned to Ciba Corporation.
water solubility2090 mg/LNot Available
logP1.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.712 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.82ALOGPS
logP-0.78ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.79ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity54.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.13 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.978
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9339
Caco-2 permeable+0.5668
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7373
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9825
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9842
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8435
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8746
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8426
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7618
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.736
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8215
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9204
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8621
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7401
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7362
Rat acute toxicity3.1364 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9478
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8578
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-2900000000-963f049a4367a1d5a5f5
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dr-0950000000-33d21cbb6740c1f1aee1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-1590000000-8a64733764308ba98f9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0900000000-6647c58db763b4df68a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-72d6d878c9c2f29d846a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-18f69033596a03ee643a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-997473c303f07afcdf4e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-d1da4625d180fe0af521
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-bd0fff49defde62ed0fa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ik9-0790000000-1a50b0b7f24aaaf6a87e

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gamma amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the gamma carbon atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Gamma amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenylpropanoic acids / Chlorobenzenes / Aralkylamines / Amino fatty acids / Aryl chlorides / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides
show 4 more
Substituents
Gamma amino acid or derivatives / 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Amino fatty acid / Chlorobenzene / Aralkylamine / Halobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Fatty acyl
show 18 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid, primary amino compound, monochlorobenzenes, gamma-amino acid (CHEBI:2972)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coup...
Gene Name
GABBR1
Uniprot ID
Q9UBS5
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1
Molecular Weight
108319.4 Da
References
  1. Bowery NG: GABAB receptor pharmacology. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993;33:109-47. [PubMed:8388192]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  3. Garcia-Gil L, de Miguel R, Romero J, Perez A, Ramos JA, Fernandez-Ruiz JJ: Perinatal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure augmented the magnitude of motor inhibition caused by GABA(B), but not GABA(A), receptor agonists in adult rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1999 May-Jun;21(3):277-83. [PubMed:10386831]
  4. Lehmann A: GABAB receptors as drug targets to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jun;122(3):239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.02.008. Epub 2009 Mar 19. [PubMed:19303900]
  5. Motalli R, Louvel J, Tancredi V, Kurcewicz I, Wan-Chow-Wah D, Pumain R, Avoli M: GABA(B) receptor activation promotes seizure activity in the juvenile rat hippocampus. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Aug;82(2):638-47. [PubMed:10444662]
  6. Mott DD, Li Q, Okazaki MM, Turner DA, Lewis DV: GABAB-Receptor-mediated currents in interneurons of the dentate-hilus border. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Sep;82(3):1438-50. [PubMed:10482760]
  7. Ogasawara T, Itoh Y, Tamura M, Mushiroi T, Ukai Y, Kise M, Kimura K: Involvement of cholinergic and GABAergic systems in the reversal of memory disruption by NS-105, a cognition enhancer. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Sep;64(1):41-52. [PubMed:10494996]
  8. Pittman QJ: The action is at the terminal. J Physiol. 1999 Nov 1;520 Pt 3:629. [PubMed:10545129]
  9. Stringer JL, Lorenzo N: The reduction in paired-pulse inhibition in the rat hippocampus by gabapentin is independent of GABA(B) receptor receptor activation. Epilepsy Res. 1999 Feb;33(2-3):169-76. [PubMed:10094428]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled gaba receptor activity
Specific Function
Component of a heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor for GABA, formed by GABBR1 and GABBR2. Within the heterodimeric GABA receptor, only GABBR1 seems to bind agonists, while GABBR2 mediates coup...
Gene Name
GABBR2
Uniprot ID
O75899
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2
Molecular Weight
105820.52 Da
References
  1. Belley M, Sullivan R, Reeves A, Evans J, O'Neill G, Ng GY: Synthesis of the nanomolar photoaffinity GABA(B) receptor ligand CGP 71872 reveals diversity in the tissue distribution of GABA(B) receptor forms. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999 Dec;7(12):2697-704. [PubMed:10658574]
  2. Braun M, Wendt A, Buschard K, Salehi A, Sewing S, Gromada J, Rorsman P: GABAB receptor activation inhibits exocytosis in rat pancreatic beta-cells by G-protein-dependent activation of calcineurin. J Physiol. 2004 Sep 1;559(Pt 2):397-409. Epub 2004 Jul 2. [PubMed:15235087]
  3. Bowery NG: GABAB receptor pharmacology. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993;33:109-47. [PubMed:8388192]
  4. Filippov AK, Couve A, Pangalos MN, Walsh FS, Brown DA, Moss SJ: Heteromeric assembly of GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 receptor subunits inhibits Ca(2+) current in sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci. 2000 Apr 15;20(8):2867-74. [PubMed:10751439]
  5. Jones KA, Tamm JA, Craig DA, Ph D, Yao W, Panico R: Signal transduction by GABA(B) receptor heterodimers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Oct;23(4 Suppl):S41-9. [PubMed:11008066]
  6. Lehmann A: GABAB receptors as drug targets to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jun;122(3):239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.02.008. Epub 2009 Mar 19. [PubMed:19303900]
  7. Martin SC, Russek SJ, Farb DH: Molecular identification of the human GABABR2: cell surface expression and coupling to adenylyl cyclase in the absence of GABABR1. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1999 Mar;13(3):180-91. [PubMed:10328880]
  8. Pittman QJ: The action is at the terminal. J Physiol. 1999 Nov 1;520 Pt 3:629. [PubMed:10545129]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenad...
Gene Name
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID
Q8TCC7
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 8
Molecular Weight
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Asaba H, Takanaga H, Deguchi T, Hosoya K, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Role of blood-brain barrier organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) in the efflux of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin: its involvement in neurotransmitter metabolite clearance from the brain. J Neurochem. 2002 Oct;83(1):57-66. [PubMed:12358729]
  2. Mori S, Takanaga H, Ohtsuki S, Deguchi T, Kang YS, Hosoya K, Terasaki T: Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) is responsible for brain-to-blood efflux of homovanillic acid at the abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Apr;23(4):432-40. [PubMed:12679720]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 18, 2018 19:22