|DB00181||Baclofen||Baclofen is administered for the relief of signs and symptoms of spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis, particularly for the relief of flexor spasms and associated pain and clonus, in addition to muscular rigidity [FDA label].
Patients receiving this drug should have reversible spasticity for baclofen to promote the restoration of residual function. This drug is not indicated in the treatment of skeletal muscle spasm caused by rheumatic disorders. The efficacy of baclofen in stroke, cerebral palsy, and Parkinson's disease has not been determined and, therefore, baclofen is not recommended for these conditions [FDA label].
|DB00186||Lorazepam||Lorazepam is FDA-approved for the short-term relief of anxiety symptoms related to anxiety disorders and anxiety associated with depressive symptoms such as anxiety-associated insomnia. It is as well used as an anesthesia premedication in adults to relieve anxiety or to produce sedation/amnesia and for the treatment of status epilepticus.[T385]
Some off-label indications of lorazepam include rapid tranquilization of an agitated patient, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, insomnia, panic disorder, delirium, chemotherapy-associated anticipatory nausea and vomiting, and psychogenic catatonia.[T385]|
|DB00231||Temazepam||Temazepam is specifically indicated only for the short-term management of insomnia [FDA Label], [L5539]. Furthermore, such management is generally predominantly associated with the symptomatic relief of transient and short-term insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings and/or early morning awakenings [F3718]. In particular, the official prescribing information for temazepam typically specifies that the instructions issued for dispensed prescriptions of the medication should indicate specifically that patients are only expected to use the therapy for short periods of time - usually 7-10 days in general [FDA Label, F3718]. Subsequently, treatment with temazepam should usually not exceed 7 to 10 consecutive days and nor should it be prescribed in quantities exceeding a one-month supply [F3718].
Some regional prescribing information also notes that temazepam may be used for premedication prior to minor surgery or other related procedures [L5539].|
|DB00312||Pentobarbital||For the short-term treatment of insomnia.|
|DB00313||Valproic Acid||**Indicated** for:[Label]
1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures.
2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches.
4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder.
**Off-label** uses include:
1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919]
2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934]
3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]|
|DB00363||Clozapine||For use in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.|
|DB00404||Alprazolam||Alprazolam is indicated for the management of anxiety disorder, anxiety associated with depression, panic disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia.[Label] Alprazolam may also be prescribed off label for insomnia, premenstrual syndrome, and depression.[A177973]|
|DB00418||Secobarbital||For the Short-term treatment of intractable insomnia for patients habituated to barbiturates|
|DB00425||Zolpidem||This drug is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia in adults characterized by difficulties with sleep initiation [FDA label]. |
|DB00466||Picrotoxin||Used internally for relieving respiratory distress. Also for use as an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially barbiturates.|
|DB00475||Chlordiazepoxide||For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety, withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism, and preoperative apprehension and anxiety.|
|DB00599||Thiopental||For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders.|
|DB00628||Clorazepic acid||For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Also used as adjunctive therapy in the management of partial seizures and for the symptomatic relief of acute alcohol withdrawal.|
Indicated for promoting preoperative sedation, anxiolysis, anesthesia induction, or amnesia.[F2434]
Indicated for the treatment of status epilepticus in adults.[FDA label]
Indicated for the acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (i.e., seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) that are distinct from a patient’s usual seizure pattern in patients with epilepsy 12 years of age and older.[L6559]|
|DB00690||Flurazepam||For short-term and intermittent use in patients with recurring insomnia and poor sleeping habits|
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB00837||Progabide||Indicated for the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB00842||Oxazepam||For the treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol withdrawal. |
|DB00849||Methylphenobarbital||For the relief of anxiety, tension, and apprehension, also used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB00897||Triazolam||For the short-term treatment of insomnia.|
|DB00906||Tiagabine||For the treatment of partial seizures|
|DB00962||Zaleplon||For the treatment of short-term treatment of insomnia in adults.|
|DB01068||Clonazepam||Clonazepam is indicated as monotherapy or as an adjunct in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic, and myoclonic seizures [FDA Label] [F3787]. Furthermore, clonazepam may also be of some value in patients with absence spells (petit mal) who have failed to respond to succinimides [FDA Label] [F3787]. Additionally, clonazepam is also indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in the DSM-V [FDA Label].
Alternatively, some regional prescribing information note that clonazepam is indicated for all clinical forms of epileptic disease and seizures in adults, especially absence seizures (petit mal) including atypical absence; primary or secondarily generalised tonic-clonic (grand mal), tonic or clonic seizures; partial (focal) seizures with elementary or complex symptomatology; various forms of myoclonic seizures, myoclonus and associated abnormal movements [L5572, F3796]. Such regional label data also has clonazepam indicated for most types of epilepsy in infants and children, especially absences (petit mal), myoclonic seizures and tonic-clonic fits, whether due to primary generalized epilepsy or to secondary generalization of partial epilepsy [F3796]. |
|DB01080||Vigabatrin||For use as an adjunct in treatment resistant epilepsy, refractory complex partial seizures, and secondary generalized seizures. It is also used as monotherapy in infantile spasms in West syndrome.|
|DB01154||Thiamylal||Used for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.|
|DB01174||Phenobarbital||For the treatment of all types of seizures except absence seizures.|
|DB01205||Flumazenil||For the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines in cases where general anesthesia has been induced and/or maintained with benzodiazepines, and where sedation has been produced with benzodiazepines for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Also for the management of benzodiazepine overdose as an adjunct for appropriate supportive and symptomatic measures.|
|DB01215||Estazolam||For the short-term management of insomnia characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and/or early morning awakenings.|
|DB01355||Hexobarbital||For the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.|
|DB01544||Flunitrazepam||For short-term treatment of severe insomnias, that are not responsive to other hypnotics.|
|DB01558||Bromazepam||For the short-term treatment of insomnia, short-term treatment of anxiety or panic attacks, if a benzodiazepine is required, and the alleviation of the symptoms of alcohol- and opiate-withdrawal.|
|DB01588||Prazepam||For the treatment of anxiety disorders.|
|DB01595||Nitrazepam||Used to treat short-term sleeping problems (insomnia), such as difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night, and early-morning awakening.|
|DB02079||Aminooxyacetic acid||Not Available|
|DB04903||Pagoclone||For the potential treatment of panic and anxiety disorders.|
|DB05010||SGS-742||Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), memory loss, and schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.|
|DB05404||AZD 3355||Investigated for use/treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).|
|DB06470||Clomethiazole||Investigated for use/treatment in strokes.|
|DB06527||Tramiprosate||Investigated for use/treatment in strokes and alzheimer's disease.|
|DB06554||Gaboxadol||Investigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders and insomnia.|
|DB06579||Adipiplon||Investigated for use/treatment in insomnia and sleep disorders.|
|DB08892||Arbaclofen Placarbil||Investigated for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, acute back spasms, and GERD. |
|DB02530||gamma-Aminobutyric acid||Not Available|