Identification

Name
Butalbital
Accession Number
DB00241  (APRD00266)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit
Description

Butalbital, 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate with an intermediate duration of action. It has the same chemical formula as talbutal but a different structure. Butalbital is often combined with other medications, such as acetaminophen or aspirin, and is commonly prescribed for the treatment of pain and headache. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 5-(2-methylpropyl)-5-prop-2-enyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
  • 5-Allyl-5-(2-methylpropyl)barbituric acid
  • 5-Allyl-5-(2'-methyl-N-propyl) barbituric acid
  • 5-Allyl-5-isobutyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
  • 5-Allyl-5-isobutyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione
  • 5-Allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid
  • 5-isobutyl-5-allylbarbituric acid
  • allylbarbital
  • allylbarbitone
  • Allylbarbituric acid
  • Butalbarbital
  • Butalbitalum
  • Iso-butylallylbarbituric acid
  • Itobarbital
  • Tetrallobarbital
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Butalbital sodiumBBH31P2ABJ23554-70-3LIZXGILRVOONMO-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acetaminophen, Butalbital and CaffeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1)TabletOralStat Rx USA1988-02-16Not applicableUs
Alagesic LQButalbital (50 mg/15mL) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/15mL) + Caffeine (40 mg/15mL)SyrupOralPoly Pharmaceuticals2010-02-152015-02-06Us
AllzitalButalbital (25 mg/1mg) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1mg)TabletOralKeswick Labs, Llc2015-12-042017-03-13Us
AllzitalButalbital (25 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1)TabletOralPhlight Pharma, Llc2018-10-16Not applicableUs
AllzitalButalbital (25 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1)TabletOralSkylar Laboratories, Llc2015-12-04Not applicableUs
Ascomp with CodeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1) + Codeine phosphate hemihydrate (30 mg/1)CapsuleOralNexgen Pharma, Inc.2001-11-30Not applicableUs
Ascomp with CodeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1) + Codeine phosphate hemihydrate (30 mg/1)CapsuleOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-05-01Not applicableUs51991 0074 01 nlmimage10 58062c61
BupapButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (650 mg/1)TabletOralECR Pharmaceuticals Co., Inc.1994-12-012013-07-15Us
BupapButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (300 mg/1)TabletOralECR Pharmaceuticals Co., Inc.2013-06-24Not applicableUs
Butalbital Acetaminophen and CaffeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1)TabletOralLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2010-10-11Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Sandoptal
Categories
UNII
KHS0AZ4JVK
CAS number
77-26-9
Weight
Average: 224.2563
Monoisotopic: 224.116092388
Chemical Formula
C11H16N2O3
InChI Key
UZVHFVZFNXBMQJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H16N2O3/c1-4-5-11(6-7(2)3)8(14)12-10(16)13-9(11)15/h4,7H,1,5-6H2,2-3H3,(H2,12,13,14,15,16)
IUPAC Name
5-(2-methylpropyl)-5-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CC(C)CC1(CC=C)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used in combination with acetaminophen or aspirin and caffeine for its sedative and relaxant effects in the treatment of tension headaches, migraines, and pain.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Butalbital is a short to intermediate-acting barbiturate. Barbiturates act as nonselective depressants of the central nervous system (CNS), capable of producing all levels of CNS mood alteration from excitation to mild sedation, hypnosis, and deep coma. In sufficiently high therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia.

Mechanism of action

Butalbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
antagonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor 2
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
antagonist
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
Absorption

Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is expected to distribute to most tissues in the body.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

45%

Metabolism

Hepatic, although most of the dose is eliminated via the kidney (59 to 88%). Urinary excretion products included parent drug (about 3.6% of the dose), 5-isobutyl-5-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) barbituric acid (about 24% of the dose), 5-allyl-5(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl) barbituric acid (about 4.8%).

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

35 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of acute barbiturate poisoning include drowsiness, confusion, coma, respiratory depression, hypotension, and shock.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butalbital can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when it is combined with Butalbital.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014386
PubChem Compound
2481
PubChem Substance
46505876
ChemSpider
2387
ChEBI
102524
ChEMBL
CHEMBL454
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000668
PharmGKB
PA448695
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Butalbital
ATC Codes
N05CB01 — Combinations of barbiturates

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Atley Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Chattem Chemicals Inc.
  • D.M. Graham Laboratories Inc.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • ECR Pharmaceuticals
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • International Ethical Labs Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Marnel Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • MCR American Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Merz Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Mikart Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Savage Labs
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Valeant Ltd.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SyrupOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Butalbital powder3.83USD g
Butalbital compound tablet1.04USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)138.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility1700 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.23 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP1.59ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity58.05 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9112
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9703
Caco-2 permeable-0.5936
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5365
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5179
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9678
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9331
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7999
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8708
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6804
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8535
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8768
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9324
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8354
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9074
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9626
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5716
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8861
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9833
Rat acute toxicity3.0783 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9898
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9711
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-5925121d468ddb9f8890
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-3900000000-b4be8a2b661834f34c86
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Barbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
N-acyl ureas / Diazinanes / Dicarboximides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Barbiturate / N-acyl urea / Ureide / 1,3-diazinane / Dicarboximide / Urea / Carbonic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid derivative / Azacycle / Organic nitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
barbiturates (CHEBI:102524)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
  4. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  5. Cutrer FM, Mitsikostas DD, Ayata G, Sanchez del Rio M: Attenuation by butalbital of capsaicin-induced c-fos-like immunoreactivity in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Headache. 1999 Nov-Dec;39(10):697-704. [PubMed:11279945]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  8. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK2
Uniprot ID
Q13002
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Molecular Weight
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 09:06