Identification

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Logo pink
Stay in the know!
As part of our commitment to providing the most up-to-date drug information, we will be releasing #DrugBankUpdates with our newly added curated drug pages.
#DrugBankUpdates
Name
Butalbital
Accession Number
DB00241  (APRD00266)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit
Description

Butalbital, or 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid, is a derivative of barbituric acid which the hydrogens at position 5 are substituted by an allyl group and an isobutyl group. It is a short-to-intermediate acting member of barbiturates that exhibit muscle-relaxing and anti-anxiety properties that produce central nervous system (CNS) depression that ranges from mild sedation to general anesthesia.1 Butalbital has a low degree of selectivity and a narrow therapeutic index.1 Typically indicated to manage tension (or muscle contraction) headaches, butalbital is often combined with one or more therapeutic agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. There have not been clinical trials that evaluate the clinical efficacy of butalbital in migraines 1 thus it is not indicated for such condition. As with other barbiturates, butalbital carries a risk of abuse or misuse potential, intoxication, hangover, tolerance, dependence, and overdosage possibly leading to death.10 Butalbital‐containing analgesics can also produce a drug‐induced headache in addition to tolerance and dependence. Due to these risks, the use of butalbital-containing combination products is typically limited for use only in cases where other medications are deemed ineffective and such usage is advised to be carefully monitored.1

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 5-(2-methylpropyl)-5-prop-2-enyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
  • 5-allyl-5-(2-methylpropyl)barbituric acid
  • 5-allyl-5-(2'-methyl-n-propyl) barbituric acid
  • 5-allyl-5-isobutyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
  • 5-Allyl-5-isobutyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione
  • 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid
  • 5-isobutyl-5-allylbarbituric acid
  • Allylbarbital
  • Allylbarbitone
  • Allylbarbituric acid
  • Butalbarbital
  • Butalbital
  • Butalbitalum
  • iso-butylallylbarbituric acid
  • Itobarbital
  • Tetrallobarbital
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Butalbital sodiumBBH31P2ABJ23554-70-3LIZXGILRVOONMO-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Product Images
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acetaminophen, Butalbital and CaffeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1)TabletOralStat Rx USA1988-02-16Not applicableUs
Alagesic LQButalbital (50 mg/15mL) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/15mL) + Caffeine (40 mg/15mL)SyrupOralPoly Pharmaceuticals2010-02-152015-02-06Us
AllzitalButalbital (25 mg/1mg) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1mg)TabletOralKeswick Labs, Llc2015-12-042017-03-13Us
AllzitalButalbital (25 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1)TabletOralPhlight Pharma, Llc2018-10-16Not applicableUs
AllzitalButalbital (25 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1)TabletOralSkylar Laboratories, Llc2015-12-04Not applicableUs
Ascomp with CodeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1) + Codeine phosphate hemihydrate (30 mg/1)CapsuleOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2009-05-01Not applicableUs51991 0074 01 nlmimage10 58062c61
Ascomp with CodeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1) + Codeine phosphate hemihydrate (30 mg/1)CapsuleOralNexgen Pharma, Inc.2001-11-30Not applicableUs
BupapButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (300 mg/1)TabletOralBausch Health Americas Inc.2013-06-24Not applicableUs
BupapButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (650 mg/1)TabletOralECR Pharmaceuticals Co., Inc.1994-12-012013-07-15Us
Butalbital Acetaminophen and CaffeineButalbital (50 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Caffeine (40 mg/1)TabletOralNorthwind Pharmaceuticals2015-05-13Not applicableUs46672 0053 50 nlmimage10 6c3e3601
International/Other Brands
Sandoptal (Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporations)
Categories
UNII
KHS0AZ4JVK
CAS number
77-26-9
Weight
Average: 224.2563
Monoisotopic: 224.116092388
Chemical Formula
C11H16N2O3
InChI Key
UZVHFVZFNXBMQJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H16N2O3/c1-4-5-11(6-7(2)3)8(14)12-10(16)13-9(11)15/h4,7H,1,5-6H2,2-3H3,(H2,12,13,14,15,16)
IUPAC Name
5-(2-methylpropyl)-5-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
SMILES
CC(C)CC1(CC=C)C(=O)NC(=O)NC1=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for the management of the symptom complex of tension (or muscle contraction) headache, when other non-opioid analgesics and alternative treatments are inadequate, in various combinations with acetaminophen, aspirin, caffeine, and codeine .10

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Butalbital is a short to intermediate-acting barbiturate that reversibly depresses the activity of excitable tissues, including the central nervous system in a nonselective manner.1 Barbiturates exhibit muscle-relaxing and anti-anxiety properties 3 and they are capable of producing all levels of CNS mood alteration from excitation to mild sedation, hypnosis, and deep coma.11 The sedative dose of butalbital in nontolerant individuals is 5-100 mg and the hypnotic dose is 100-200 mg.8 Pain perception and reaction are relatively unimpaired until the moment of unconsciousness.1 In some cases, an unwanted paradoxical response of excitement may be observed instead of sedation with barbiturate treatment, which may be due to their depressant effects on inhibitory centers of the CNS.1 At sufficiently high therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia; however, barbiturates are reported to lose their effectiveness for sleep induction and sleep maintenance after 2 weeks.11 Barbiturates are habit-forming; they can produce tolerance and both dependence and addiction, which is partly explained by decreased drug concentration at the site of action due to enhanced drug metabolism by induced enzymes, or to cellular adaptive changes. In addition, butalbital may lead to analgesic overuse headache.1

While butalbital is expected to mediate similar actions as other members of the barbiturate drug class, the effects of butalbital in isolation are not well understood.3 It is suggested that butalbital is added in combination products to antagonize the unwanted central stimulating effect of stimulatory ingredients such as caffeine.3 Butalbital may decrease blood pressure and heart rate when administered at sedative and hypnotic doses.10

Mechanism of action

Butalbital is a CNS depressant that suppresses neuronal excitability, impulse conduction, and the release of neurotransmitters, similar to actions of other barbiturates.8 Barbiturates primarily mediate suppressive actions on polysynaptic neuronal responses by diminishing facilitation while enhancing inhibition.1 Inhibition occurs at GABAergic synapses that express GABA-A receptors, which are transmembrane chloride ion channels that bind an inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, neurosteroids, and ethanol.1 Upon activation, GABA-A receptors allow Cl- influx and K+ efflux into the postjunctional terminal, resulting in inhibition of the postsynaptic neuron. It is suggested that barbiturates, including butalbital, enhances GABA binding to the GABA-A receptors 11 by binding to the α+/β− interface in the intracellular domain (ICD) as an allosteric modulator.4 Additionally, barbiturates promote benzodiazepine binding to the receptor.1 Barbiturates potentiate GABA-induced increases in chloride conductance and depress voltage-activated calcium currents while prolonging the duration of GABA-induced chloride channel opening.1 Butalbital may also inhibit the excitatory effects mediated by AMPA receptors by reducing glutamate-induced depolarizations of the receptor. It is also proposed that barbiturates and opioids may potentiate the analgesic effects of each other when co-administered, although there are inconsistencies across preclinical data.1

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Humans
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Humans
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
antagonist
Humans
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
antagonist
Humans
UGlutamate receptor 2
antagonist
Humans
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
antagonist
Humans
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

Learn more
Absorption

Butalbital gets readily and rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.11 The time to reach the peak plasma concentrations is reported to be approximately 2 hours.1 Typical blood concentrations of butalbital peaked at 2.1 mg/L and declined to 1.5 mg/L at 24 hr.7 Plasma concentrations of 10 to 20 μg/mL have been associated with toxicity; coma and fatalities have occurred with concentrations of 25 to 30 μg/mL.1

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of butalbital is reported to be approximately 0.8 L/kg.8 Butalbital is expected to distribute to most of the tissues in the body 11, including the mamillary glands and placenta.11 The plasma-to-blood concentration ratio was almost unity indicating that there is no preferential distribution of butalbital into either plasma or blood cells.10

Protein binding

The in vitro plasma protein binding of butalbital is 45% over the concentration range of 0.5-20 mcg/mL. This falls within the range of plasma protein binding (20%-45%) reported with other barbiturates such as phenobarbital, pentobarbital, and secobarbital sodium.10

Metabolism

Butalbital is expected to undergo nearly complete hepatic metabolism.1 It primarily undergoes C5 oxidation to form 5-isobutyl-5-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) barbituric acid, which is the major metabolite. Butalbital may also undergo omega-hydroxylation to form 5-allyl-5(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl) barbituric acid.6,10,8

Route of elimination

Butalbital predominantly undergoes renal elimination with 59 to 88% of the total dose administered being excreted from the kidneys as unchanged parent drug or metabolites.9,10 Urinary excretion products included parent drug (about 3.6% of the dose), 5-isobutyl-5-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) barbituric acid (about 24% of the dose), 5-allyl-5(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl) barbituric acid (about 4.8%), products with the barbituric acid ring hydrolyzed with excretion of urea (about 14% of the dose), as well as unidentified materials.10 Of the material excreted in the urine, 32% is conjugated.10 Elimination is not complete within 24 hours, and the drug accumulates with frequent administration.1

Half life

The plasma half-life is about 35 hours. In a study of 5 healthy volunteers receiving 100 mg butalbital in combination with aspirin and caffeine, the mean plasma elimination half-life of butalbital was 61 hours, with the range of 35 to 88 hours.7,8

Clearance

There is limited data on the clearance of butalbital.

Toxicity

Reported oral TDLO (woman) is 400 mg/kg and subcutaneous LD50 in rat is 160 mg/kg.MSDS The lowest acute dose of butalbital alone associated with death in adults is 2.0 g.1 Symptoms of acute barbiturate poisoning include drowsiness, confusion, coma, respiratory depression, hypotension, and shock. Due to the CNS depressant effects, an overdose of barbiturates may lead to death.10 Barbiturates are also associated with withdrawal reactions, which may lead to death if severe.1

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Butalbital can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when it is combined with Butalbital.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Butalbital.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
6-O-benzylguanineThe serum concentration of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when it is combined with Butalbital.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
No interactions found.

References

General References
  1. Silberstein SD, McCrory DC: Butalbital in the treatment of headache: history, pharmacology, and efficacy. Headache. 2001 Nov-Dec;41(10):953-67. [PubMed:11903523]
  2. Wenzel RG, Sarvis CA: Do butalbital-containing products have a role in the management of migraine? Pharmacotherapy. 2002 Aug;22(8):1029-35. [PubMed:12173787]
  3. Bryczkowski C, Geib AJ: Combined butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine overdose: case files of the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Toxicology Service. J Med Toxicol. 2012 Dec;8(4):424-31. doi: 10.1007/s13181-012-0261-z. [PubMed:23011802]
  4. Puthenkalam R, Hieckel M, Simeone X, Suwattanasophon C, Feldbauer RV, Ecker GF, Ernst M: Structural Studies of GABAA Receptor Binding Sites: Which Experimental Structure Tells us What? Front Mol Neurosci. 2016 Jun 16;9:44. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2016.00044. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27378845]
  5. Poyant JO, Albright R, Clain J, Pandompatam G, Barreto EF: Extracorporeal elimination of butalbital in acute aspirin-butalbital-caffeine-codeine (Fiorinal with Codeine) poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Jun;56(6):439-441. doi: 10.1080/15563650.2017.1400554. Epub 2017 Nov 10. [PubMed:29124988]
  6. Dain JG, Bhuta SI, Coombs RA, Talbot KC, Dugger HA: Metabolism of butalbital, 5-allyl-5-isobutylbarbituric acid, in the dog. Drug Metab Dispos. 1980 Jul-Aug;8(4):247-52. [PubMed:6105059]
  7. Drost ML, Walter L: Blood and plasma concentrations of butalbital following single oral doses in man. J Anal Toxicol. 1988 Nov-Dec;12(6):322-4. [PubMed:3244271]
  8. 23. (2012). In Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. (pp. 474-476). Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. [ISBN:978-0-471-72760-6]
  9. Butalbital - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database [Link]
  10. Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules - FDA Label [Link]
  11. N-FIORINAL®-C 1/4, 1/2 (acetylsalicylic acid-caffeine-codeine-butalbital) Product Information - Novartis Canada [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014386
KEGG Drug
D03182
PubChem Compound
2481
PubChem Substance
46505876
ChemSpider
2387
RxNav
19860
ChEBI
102524
ChEMBL
CHEMBL454
ZINC
ZINC000003830347
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000668
PharmGKB
PA448695
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Butalbital
ATC Codes
N05CB01 — Combinations of barbiturates
MSDS
Download (23.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Migraine / Migraine Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Atley Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Chattem Chemicals Inc.
  • D.M. Graham Laboratories Inc.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • ECR Pharmaceuticals
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • International Ethical Labs Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Marnel Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • MCR American Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Merz Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Mikart Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Savage Labs
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Va Cmop Dallas
  • Valeant Ltd.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SyrupOral
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral
CapsuleOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Butalbital powder3.83USD g
Butalbital compound tablet1.04USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)138.5Barceloux, Donald G. Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Internet resource.
water solubility1700 mg/L (at 25 °C)Barceloux, Donald G. Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Internet resource.
logP1.87Barceloux, Donald G. Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Internet resource.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.23 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.47ALOGPS
logP1.59ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area75.27 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity58.05 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9112
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9703
Caco-2 permeable-0.5936
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5365
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5179
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9678
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9331
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7999
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8708
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6804
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8535
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8768
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9324
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8354
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9074
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9626
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5716
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8861
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9833
Rat acute toxicity3.0783 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9898
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9711
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-5925121d468ddb9f8890
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-3900000000-b4be8a2b661834f34c86
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as barbituric acid derivatives. These are compounds containing a perhydropyrimidine ring substituted at C-2, -4 and -6 by oxo groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Barbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
N-acyl ureas / Diazinanes / Dicarboximides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Barbiturate / N-acyl urea / Ureide / 1,3-diazinane / Dicarboximide / Urea / Carbonic acid derivative / Carboxylic acid derivative / Azacycle / Organic nitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
barbiturates (CHEBI:102524)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
  4. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  5. Cutrer FM, Mitsikostas DD, Ayata G, Sanchez del Rio M: Attenuation by butalbital of capsaicin-induced c-fos-like immunoreactivity in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Headache. 1999 Nov-Dec;39(10):697-704. [PubMed:11279945]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  8. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK2
Uniprot ID
Q13002
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Molecular Weight
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 06, 2020 10:50