Identification

Name
Diethylstilbestrol
Accession Number
DB00255  (APRD00920, EXPT01164)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (E)-3,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hexene
  • (e)-4,4'-(1,2-Diethyl-1,2-ethenediyl)bisphenol
  • 4,4'-Dihydroxy-alpha,beta-diethylstilbene
  • 4,4'-dihydroxy-α,β-diethylstilbene
  • alpha,Alpha'-diethyl-(e)-4,4'-stilbenediol
  • DES
  • Diethylstilbestrol
  • Diethylstilbestrolum
  • Dietilestilbestrol
  • Distilbene
  • Stilboestrol
  • trans-4,4'-(1,2-diethyl-1,2-ethenediyl)bisphenol
  • trans-Diethylstilbesterol
  • trans-Diethylstilbestrol
  • trans-Diethylstilboesterol
  • α,α'-diethyl-(E)-4,4'-stilbenediol
External IDs
RCRA waste number U089
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Diethylstilbestrol diphosphateA0E0NMA80F522-40-7NLORYLAYLIXTID-ISLYRVAYSA-N
Diethylstilbestrol diphosphate sodiumNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Honvol Ampoules 250mgLiquid250 mgIntravenousCarter Horner Corp.1956-12-312000-11-17Canada
Honvol Tablets 100mgTablet100 mgOralCarter Horner Corp.1958-12-312001-05-22Canada
Stilbestrol 0.5mg TabletTablet.5 mgOralGlaxo Canada Inc1993-12-311998-07-30Canada
Stilbestrol 1.0mg TabletTablet1 mgOralGlaxo Canada Inc1991-12-311996-09-10Canada
Stilbestrol Tab 1mgTablet1 mgOralEverest Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1980-12-311999-07-14Canada
Stilbestrol Tablets 0.1 mgTablet0.105 mgOralWell Spring Pharmaceutical Corporation1996-07-302009-02-23Canada
Stilbestrol Tablets 0.5 mgTablet0.51 mgOralWell Spring Pharmaceutical Corporation1997-04-022009-02-23Canada
Stilbestrol Tablets 1.0 mgTablet1.0 mgOralWell Spring Pharmaceutical Corporation1996-07-302009-02-23Canada
Stilboestrol Tab 0.1mgTablet.1 mgOralAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.1951-12-311996-09-10Canada
Stilboestrol Tab 0.5mgTablet.5 mgOralAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.1951-12-311996-09-20Canada
International/Other Brands
Distilbene (Gerda) / Stilbestrol (Nysco) / Stilbetin (Bristol Myers-Squibb)
Categories
UNII
731DCA35BT
CAS number
56-53-1
Weight
Average: 268.3502
Monoisotopic: 268.146329884
Chemical Formula
C18H20O2
InChI Key
RGLYKWWBQGJZGM-ISLYRVAYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H20O2/c1-3-17(13-5-9-15(19)10-6-13)18(4-2)14-7-11-16(20)12-8-14/h5-12,19-20H,3-4H2,1-2H3/b18-17+
IUPAC Name
4-[4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hex-3-en-3-yl]phenol
SMILES
CCC(=C(CC)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Previously used in the prevention of miscarriage or premature delivery in pregnant women prone to miscarriage or premature delivery.

Pharmacodynamics

Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic estrogen that was developed to supplement a woman's natural estrogen production. In 1971, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Drug Bulletin advising physicians to stop prescribing DES to pregnant women because it was linked to a rare vaginal cancer in female offspring.

Mechanism of action

Estrogens diffuse into their target cells and interact with a protein receptor, the estrogen receptor. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. The effect of Estrogen binding their receptors causes downstream increases the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. The combination of an estrogen with a progestin suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary system, decreasing the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

TargetActionsOrganism
AEstrogen receptor alpha
agonist
Human
AEstrogen-related receptor gamma
agonist
Human
AEstrogen receptor beta
agonist
Human
USteroid hormone receptor ERR1Not AvailableHuman
USteroid hormone receptor ERR2Not AvailableHuman
UNuclear receptor coactivator 2Not AvailableHuman
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHuman
UAndrogen receptor
antagonist
Human
USex hormone-binding globulinNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinDiethylstilbestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinDiethylstilbestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of (S)-Warfarin.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Diethylstilbestrol.
3,5-DinitrocatecholThe metabolism of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when combined with 3,5-Dinitrocatechol.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Diethylstilbestrol.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Diethylstilbestrol.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Diethylstilbestrol can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Diethylstilbestrol.
AbaloparatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Abaloparatide can be decreased when used in combination with Diethylstilbestrol.
AbciximabDiethylstilbestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Adler, E.,Gie, G.J. and von Euler, H.; US. Patent 2,421,401; June 3, 1947; assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.

General References
  1. Authors unspecified: Leuprolide versus diethylstilbestrol for metastatic prostate cancer. The Leuprolide Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1984 Nov 15;311(20):1281-6. [PubMed:6436700]
  2. DIECKMANN WJ, DAVIS ME, RYNKIEWICZ LM, POTTINGER RE: Does the administration of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy have therapeutic value? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1953 Nov;66(5):1062-81. [PubMed:13104505]
  3. Ingle JN, Ahmann DL, Green SJ, Edmonson JH, Bisel HF, Kvols LK, Nichols WC, Creagan ET, Hahn RG, Rubin J, Frytak S: Randomized clinical trial of diethylstilbestrol versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jan 1;304(1):16-21. [PubMed:7001242]
  4. Kuchera LK: Postcoital contraception with diethylstilbestrol. JAMA. 1971 Oct 25;218(4):562-3. [PubMed:5171004]
  5. Herbst AL, Ulfelder H, Poskanzer DC: Adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Association of maternal stilbestrol therapy with tumor appearance in young women. N Engl J Med. 1971 Apr 15;284(15):878-81. [PubMed:5549830]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00577
KEGG Compound
C07620
PubChem Compound
3054
PubChem Substance
46507453
ChemSpider
395306
BindingDB
20625
ChEBI
41922
ChEMBL
CHEMBL411
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001011
PharmGKB
PA449307
HET
DES
Wikipedia
Diethylstilbestrol
ATC Codes
L02AA01 — DiethylstilbestrolG03CC05 — DiethylstilbestrolL02AA04 — FosfestrolG03CB02 — Diethylstilbestrol
PDB Entries
1s9p / 1tt6 / 1tz8 / 3erd / 4zn7
MSDS
Download (73.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedPreventionOrthopedic Disorders1
3CompletedPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingDiagnosticAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Laryngeal Masks / Respiratory System Abnormalities1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIschemia, Cerebral1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOptic Nerve Sheath Diameter / Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherPancreatic Cancer or Distal CBD Cancer1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Bristol myers squibb
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
Packagers
  • Medisca Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous250 mg
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral1 mg
TabletOral0.105 mg
TabletOral0.51 mg
TabletOral1.0 mg
TabletOral.1 mg
TabletOral.5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Diethylstilbestrol powder13.77USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)172Adler, E.,Gie, G.J. and von Euler, H.; US. Patent 2,421,401; June 3, 1947; assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc.
water solubility12 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP5.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-4.35ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0109 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.62ALOGPS
logP5.19ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity83.24 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability30.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9973
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5559
Caco-2 permeable+0.8264
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5737
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6542
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8478
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8465
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8149
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5107
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.9064
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7017
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.9198
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.8361
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9488
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9579
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6772
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9111
Rat acute toxicity1.9462 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6894
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6408
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.87 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Class
Stilbenes
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Stilbenes
Alternative Parents
Phenylpropanes / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Stilbene / Phenylpropane / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Phenol / Benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Details
1. Estrogen receptor alpha
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Munoz G, Ovilo C, Estelle J, Silio L, Fernandez A, Rodriguez C: Association with litter size of new polymorphisms on ESR1 and ESR2 genes in a Chinese-European pig line. Genet Sel Evol. 2007 Mar-Apr;39(2):195-206. Epub 2007 Feb 17. [PubMed:17306201]
  2. Dixon A, Wells CC, Singh S, Babayan R, Maric C: Renoprotective effects of a selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, in an animal model of diabetic nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27(2):120-8. Epub 2007 Feb 15. [PubMed:17308373]
  3. Hart SA, Snyder MA, Smejkalova T, Woolley CS: Estrogen mobilizes a subset of estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive vesicles in inhibitory presynaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1. J Neurosci. 2007 Feb 21;27(8):2102-11. [PubMed:17314305]
  4. Baron S, Escande A, Alberola G, Bystricky K, Balaguer P, Richard-Foy H: Estrogen receptor alpha and the activating protein-1 complex cooperate during insulin-like growth factor-I-induced transcriptional activation of the pS2/TFF1 gene. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11732-41. Epub 2007 Feb 22. [PubMed:17317669]
  5. Bains M, Cousins JC, Roberts JL: Neuroprotection by estrogen against MPP+-induced dopamine neuron death is mediated by ERalpha in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalon. Exp Neurol. 2007 Apr;204(2):767-76. Epub 2007 Jan 25. [PubMed:17320868]
  6. Kwok KC, Cheung NH: Measuring binding kinetics of ligands with tethered receptors by fluorescence polarization and total internal reflection fluorescence. Anal Chem. 2010 May 1;82(9):3819-25. doi: 10.1021/ac1002245. [PubMed:20387803]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response ...
Gene Name
ESRRG
Uniprot ID
P62508
Uniprot Name
Estrogen-related receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Greschik H, Flaig R, Renaud JP, Moras D: Structural basis for the deactivation of the estrogen-related receptor gamma by diethylstilbestrol or 4-hydroxytamoxifen and determinants of selectivity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33639-46. Epub 2004 May 24. [PubMed:15161930]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
  3. Tremblay GB, Kunath T, Bergeron D, Lapointe L, Champigny C, Bader JA, Rossant J, Giguere V: Diethylstilbestrol regulates trophoblast stem cell differentiation as a ligand of orphan nuclear receptor ERR beta. Genes Dev. 2001 Apr 1;15(7):833-8. [PubMed:11297507]
Details
3. Estrogen receptor beta
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent m...
Gene Name
ESR2
Uniprot ID
Q92731
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor beta
Molecular Weight
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Authors unspecified: Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products. Int J Toxicol. 2008;27 Suppl 4:1-82. doi: 10.1080/10915810802548359. [PubMed:19101832]
  2. Geistlinger TR, McReynolds AC, Guy RK: Ligand-selective inhibition of the interaction of steroid receptor coactivators and estrogen receptor isoforms. Chem Biol. 2004 Feb;11(2):273-81. [PubMed:15123288]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Binds to an ERR-alpha response element (ERRE) containing a single consensus half-site, 5'-TNAAGGTCA-3'. Can bind to the medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) response element NRRE-1 and...
Gene Name
ESRRA
Uniprot ID
P11474
Uniprot Name
Steroid hormone receptor ERR1
Molecular Weight
45509.11 Da
References
  1. Tremblay GB, Kunath T, Bergeron D, Lapointe L, Champigny C, Bader JA, Rossant J, Giguere V: Diethylstilbestrol regulates trophoblast stem cell differentiation as a ligand of orphan nuclear receptor ERR beta. Genes Dev. 2001 Apr 1;15(7):833-8. [PubMed:11297507]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor, may regulate ESR1 transcriptional activity. Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name
ESRRB
Uniprot ID
O95718
Uniprot Name
Steroid hormone receptor ERR2
Molecular Weight
56207.085 Da
References
  1. Tremblay GB, Kunath T, Bergeron D, Lapointe L, Champigny C, Bader JA, Rossant J, Giguere V: Diethylstilbestrol regulates trophoblast stem cell differentiation as a ligand of orphan nuclear receptor ERR beta. Genes Dev. 2001 Apr 1;15(7):833-8. [PubMed:11297507]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription coactivator activity
Specific Function
Transcriptional coactivator for steroid receptors and nuclear receptors. Coactivator of the steroid binding domain (AF-2) but not of the modulating N-terminal domain (AF-1). Required with NCOA1 to ...
Gene Name
NCOA2
Uniprot ID
Q15596
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor coactivator 2
Molecular Weight
159155.645 Da
References
  1. Geistlinger TR, McReynolds AC, Guy RK: Ligand-selective inhibition of the interaction of steroid receptor coactivators and estrogen receptor isoforms. Chem Biol. 2004 Feb;11(2):273-81. [PubMed:15123288]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Kretschmer XC, Baldwin WS: CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters? Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Aug 15;155(3):111-28. [PubMed:16054614]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription ...
Gene Name
AR
Uniprot ID
P10275
Uniprot Name
Androgen receptor
Molecular Weight
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Tamura H, Ishimoto Y, Fujikawa T, Aoyama H, Yoshikawa H, Akamatsu M: Structural basis for androgen receptor agonists and antagonists: interaction of SPEED 98-listed chemicals and related compounds with the androgen receptor based on an in vitro reporter gene assay and 3D-QSAR. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Nov 1;14(21):7160-74. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [PubMed:16876421]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Hong H, Branham WS, Ng HW, Moland CL, Dial SL, Fang H, Perkins R, Sheehan D, Tong W: Human sex hormone-binding globulin binding affinities of 125 structurally diverse chemicals and comparison with their binding to androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, and alpha-fetoprotein. Toxicol Sci. 2015 Feb;143(2):333-48. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu231. Epub 2014 Oct 27. [PubMed:25349334]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
O-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOP...
Gene Name
COMT
Uniprot ID
P21964
Uniprot Name
Catechol O-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
30036.77 Da
References
  1. Engel LL, Weidenfield J, Merriam GR: Metabolism of diethylstilbestrol by rat liver: a preliminary report. J Toxicol Environ Health Suppl. 1976;1:37-44. [PubMed:11352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID
P11511
Uniprot Name
Aromatase
Molecular Weight
57882.48 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654]
  2. Kuzbari O, Peterson CM, Franklin MR, Hathaway LB, Johnstone EB, Hammoud AO, Lamb JG: Comparative analysis of human CYP3A4 and rat CYP3A1 induction and relevant gene expression by bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol: implications for toxicity testing paradigms. Reprod Toxicol. 2013 Jun;37:24-30. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.01.005. Epub 2013 Feb 4. [PubMed:23384967]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Qu YQ, Fang ZZ, Yang L, Gao ZM, Liang R, Zhu LL, Dong PP, Zhang YY, Ge GB, Wang LM: Reversible inhibition of four important human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by diethylstilbestrol. Pharmazie. 2011 Mar;66(3):216-21. [PubMed:21553654]
  2. Renwick AB, Surry D, Price RJ, Lake BG, Evans DC: Metabolism of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin by human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms. Xenobiotica. 2000 Oct;30(10):955-69. doi: 10.1080/00498250050200113 . [PubMed:11315104]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name
TTR
Uniprot ID
P02766
Uniprot Name
Transthyretin
Molecular Weight
15886.88 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both fro...
Gene Name
ABCG2
Uniprot ID
Q9UNQ0
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2
Molecular Weight
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Sugimoto Y, Tsukahara S, Imai Y, Sugimoto Y, Ueda K, Tsuruo T: Reversal of breast cancer resistance protein-mediated drug resistance by estrogen antagonists and agonists. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Jan;2(1):105-12. [PubMed:12533678]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Rao US, Fine RL, Scarborough GA: Antiestrogens and steroid hormones: substrates of the human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jul 19;48(2):287-92. [PubMed:7914405]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [PubMed:22541068]
  2. Karlgren M, Ahlin G, Bergstrom CA, Svensson R, Palm J, Artursson P: In vitro and in silico strategies to identify OATP1B1 inhibitors and predict clinical drug-drug interactions. Pharm Res. 2012 Feb;29(2):411-26. doi: 10.1007/s11095-011-0564-9. Epub 2011 Aug 23. [PubMed:21861202]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Karlgren M, Vildhede A, Norinder U, Wisniewski JR, Kimoto E, Lai Y, Haglund U, Artursson P: Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on drug-drug interactions. J Med Chem. 2012 May 24;55(10):4740-63. doi: 10.1021/jm300212s. Epub 2012 May 15. [PubMed:22541068]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 08:51