Identification

Name
Rofecoxib
Accession Number
DB00533  (APRD00151)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Description

Rofecoxib is used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain in adults, and primary dysmenorrhea, as well as acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without auras. Rofecoxib is a solid. This compound belongs to the stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids. Rofecoxib has a half-life of 17 hours and its mean oral bioavailability at therapeutically recommended doses of 125, 25, and 50 mg is approximately 93%. The proteins that rofecoxib target include elastin and prostaglandin G/H synthase 2. Cytochrome P450 1A2, Cytochrome P450 3A4, Cytochrome P450 2C9, Cytochrome P450 2C8, and Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 are known to metabolize rofecoxib. On September 30, 2004, Merck voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the market because of concerns about increased risk of heart attack and stroke associated with long-term, high-dosage use.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3-phenyl-4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2(5H)-furanone
  • 4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-3-phenyl-2(5H)-furanone
  • Rofécoxib
  • Rofecoxib
  • Rofecoxibum
External IDs
MK 966 / MK 996 / MK-0966 / MK0966
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Vioxx Suspension 12.5mg/5mlSuspension12.5 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.2000-05-082004-09-30Canada
Vioxx Tab 12.5mgTablet12.5 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1999-11-082004-09-30Canada
Vioxx Tab 25mgTablet25 mgOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1999-11-082004-09-30Canada
International/Other Brands
Vioxx
Categories
UNII
0QTW8Z7MCR
CAS number
162011-90-7
Weight
Average: 314.356
Monoisotopic: 314.061279626
Chemical Formula
C17H14O4S
InChI Key
RZJQGNCSTQAWON-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H14O4S/c1-22(19,20)14-9-7-12(8-10-14)15-11-21-17(18)16(15)13-5-3-2-4-6-13/h2-10H,11H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
4-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-3-phenyl-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
SMILES
CS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=C(C(=O)OC1)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain in adults, and primary dysmenorrhea, as well as acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without auras.

Pharmacodynamics

Rofecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is classified as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Unlike celecoxib, rofecoxib lacks a sulfonamide chain and does not require CYP450 enzymes for metabolism. Like other NSAIDs, rofecoxib exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity. NSAIDs appear to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), which are responsible for catalyzing the formation of prostaglandins in the arachidonic acid pathyway. There are at least two isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, that have been identified. Although the exact mechanisms have not been clearly established, NSAIDs exert their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic primarily through the inhibition of COX-2. The inhibition of COX-1 is principally responsible for the negative effects on the GI mucosa. As rofecoxib is selective for COX-2, it may be potentially associated with a decreased risk of certain adverse events, but more data is needed to fully evaulate the drug.

Mechanism of action

The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of NSAIDs appear to result from the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been determined, these effects appear to be mediated through the inhibition of the COX-2 isoenzyme at the sites of inflammation with subsequent reduction in the synthesis of certain prostaglandins from their arachidonic acid precursors. Rofecoxib selectively inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is important for the mediation of inflammation and pain. Unlike non-selective NSAIDs, rofecoxib does not inhibit platelet aggregation. It also has little to no affinity for COX-1.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Human
UElastin
other/unknown
Human
Absorption

The mean oral bioavailability of rofecoxib at therapeutically recommended doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg is approximately 93%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

87%

Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolism of rofecoxib is primarily mediated through reduction by cytosolic enzymes. The principal metabolic products are the cis-dihydro and trans-dihydro derivatives of rofecoxib, which account for nearly 56% of recovered radioactivity in the urine. An additional 8.8% of the dose was recovered as the glucuronide of the hydroxy derivative, a product of oxidative metabolism. The biotransformation of rofecoxib and this metabolite is reversible in humans to a limited extent (< 5%). These metabolites are inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors. Cytochrome P450 plays a minor role in metabolism of rofecoxib.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

17 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

No overdoses of rofecoxib were reported during clinical trials. Administration of single doses of rofecoxib 1000 mg to 6 healthy volunteers and multiple doses of 250 mg/day for 14 days to 75 healthy volunteers did not result in serious toxicity.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Rofecoxib Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Rofecoxib.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Rofecoxib.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Rofecoxib.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Rofecoxib.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, Shapiro D, Burgos-Vargas R, Davis B, Day R, Ferraz MB, Hawkey CJ, Hochberg MC, Kvien TK, Schnitzer TJ: Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 23;343(21):1520-8, 2 p following 1528. [PubMed:11087881]
  2. Bresalier RS, Sandler RS, Quan H, Bolognese JA, Oxenius B, Horgan K, Lines C, Riddell R, Morton D, Lanas A, Konstam MA, Baron JA: Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1092-102. Epub 2005 Feb 15. [PubMed:15713943]
  3. Curfman GD, Morrissey S, Drazen JM: Expression of concern reaffirmed. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 16;354(11):1193. Epub 2006 Feb 22. [PubMed:16495386]
  4. Fitzgerald GA: Coxibs and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 21;351(17):1709-11. Epub 2004 Oct 6. [PubMed:15470192]
  5. Karha J, Topol EJ: The sad story of Vioxx, and what we should learn from it. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004 Dec;71(12):933-4, 936, 938-9. [PubMed:15641522]
  6. Baron JA, Sandler RS, Bresalier RS, Lanas A, Morton DG, Riddell R, Iverson ER, Demets DL: Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib: final analysis of the APPROVe trial. Lancet. 2008 Nov 15;372(9651):1756-64. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61490-7. Epub 2008 Oct 14. [PubMed:18922570]
  7. Matheson AJ, Figgitt DP: Rofecoxib: a review of its use in the management of osteoarthritis, acute pain and rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs. 2001;61(6):833-65. [PubMed:11398914]
  8. Hillson JL, Furst DE: Rofecoxib. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2000 Jul;1(5):1053-66. [PubMed:11249495]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00568
KEGG Compound
C07590
PubChem Compound
5090
PubChem Substance
46504787
ChemSpider
4911
BindingDB
22369
ChEBI
8887
ChEMBL
CHEMBL122
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001338
PharmGKB
PA451268
HET
RCX
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Rofecoxib
ATC Codes
M01AH02 — Rofecoxib
PDB Entries
5kir
FDA label
Download (291 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1TerminatedTreatmentGliomas / Neoplasms, Brain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Tooth Extractions1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentDuodenal Polyposis1
3CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
3CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)3
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain5
3TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer of Stomach2
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics1
4CompletedTreatmentEsophagus, Barrett1
4CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHeadaches1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAntiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Merck research laboratories div merck co inc
Packagers
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Va Cmop Dallas
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SuspensionOral12.5 mg
TabletOral12.5 mg
TabletOral25 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5474995No1995-12-122013-06-24Us
US6063811Yes2000-05-162017-11-06Us
US5691374Yes1997-11-252015-11-18Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP3.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0106 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.32ALOGPS
logP2.56ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.44 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity84.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9938
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6296
Caco-2 permeable-0.5696
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7186
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5401
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.922
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7846
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.5807
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5941
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5426
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.6668
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.889
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.6214
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8508
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7596
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6152
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5754
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7716
Rat acute toxicity2.4527 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9848
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8932
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0497000000-44320e93d610fb5074f5
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0300900000-8c21a5272c47622769e7
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0390000000-b69da0c82250f1f81243
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0496000000-06716b4dad8f8d33dee6
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-2920000000-abe97627fbae89daa0db

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Class
Stilbenes
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Stilbenes
Alternative Parents
Benzenesulfonyl compounds / Butenolides / Sulfones / Enoate esters / Lactones / Oxacyclic compounds / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Stilbene / Benzenesulfonyl group / Monocyclic benzene moiety / 2-furanone / Benzenoid / Dihydrofuran / Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester / Enoate ester / Sulfonyl / Sulfone
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
sulfone, butenolide (CHEBI:8887)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Ehrich EW, Schnitzer TJ, McIlwain H, Levy R, Wolfe F, Weisman M, Zeng Q, Morrison B, Bolognese J, Seidenberg B, Gertz BJ: Effect of specific COX-2 inhibition in osteoarthritis of the knee: a 6 week double blind, placebo controlled pilot study of rofecoxib. Rofecoxib Osteoarthritis Pilot Study Group. J Rheumatol. 1999 Nov;26(11):2438-47. [PubMed:10555907]
  2. Malmstrom K, Daniels S, Kotey P, Seidenberg BC, Desjardins PJ: Comparison of rofecoxib and celecoxib, two cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, in postoperative dental pain: a randomized, placebo- and active-comparator-controlled clinical trial. Clin Ther. 1999 Oct;21(10):1653-63. [PubMed:10566562]
  3. Langman MJ, Jensen DM, Watson DJ, Harper SE, Zhao PL, Quan H, Bolognese JA, Simon TJ: Adverse upper gastrointestinal effects of rofecoxib compared with NSAIDs. JAMA. 1999 Nov 24;282(20):1929-33. [PubMed:10580458]
  4. Pascucci RA: COX-2-specific inhibition: implications for clinical practice. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1999 Nov;99(11 Suppl):S18-22. [PubMed:10643177]
  5. Hawkey C, Laine L, Simon T, Beaulieu A, Maldonado-Cocco J, Acevedo E, Shahane A, Quan H, Bolognese J, Mortensen E: Comparison of the effect of rofecoxib (a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor), ibuprofen, and placebo on the gastroduodenal mucosa of patients with osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Rofecoxib Osteoarthritis Endoscopy Multinational Study Group. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Feb;43(2):370-7. [PubMed:10693877]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Ashok V, Dash C, Rohan TE, Sprafka JM, Terry PD: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and breast cancer risk. Breast. 2011 Feb;20(1):66-70. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2010.07.004. Epub 2010 Aug 17. [PubMed:20724158]
  8. Baron JA, Sandler RS, Bresalier RS, Lanas A, Morton DG, Riddell R, Iverson ER, Demets DL: Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib: final analysis of the APPROVe trial. Lancet. 2008 Nov 15;372(9651):1756-64. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61490-7. Epub 2008 Oct 14. [PubMed:18922570]
  9. Chakraborti AK, Garg SK, Kumar R, Motiwala HF, Jadhavar PS: Progress in COX-2 inhibitors: a journey so far. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(15):1563-93. [PubMed:20166930]
  10. Matheson AJ, Figgitt DP: Rofecoxib: a review of its use in the management of osteoarthritis, acute pain and rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs. 2001;61(6):833-65. [PubMed:11398914]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Extracellular matrix structural constituent
Specific Function
Major structural protein of tissues such as aorta and nuchal ligament, which must expand rapidly and recover completely. Molecular determinant of the late arterial morphogenesis, stabilizing arteri...
Gene Name
ELN
Uniprot ID
P15502
Uniprot Name
Elastin
Molecular Weight
68468.375 Da
References
  1. Oitate M, Hirota T, Koyama K, Inoue S, Kawai K, Ikeda T: Covalent binding of radioactivity from [14C]rofecoxib, but not [14C]celecoxib or [14C]CS-706, to the arterial elastin of rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Aug;34(8):1417-22. Epub 2006 May 5. [PubMed:16679386]
  2. Oitate M, Hirota T, Takahashi M, Murai T, Miura S, Senoo A, Hosokawa T, Oonishi T, Ikeda T: Mechanism for covalent binding of rofecoxib to elastin of rat aorta. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Mar;320(3):1195-203. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17164475]
  3. Oitate M, Hirota T, Murai T, Miura S, Ikeda T: Covalent binding of rofecoxib, but not other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, to allysine aldehyde in elastin of human aorta. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1846-52. Epub 2007 Jul 9. [PubMed:17620346]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [PubMed:19754423]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  4. Backman JT, Karjalainen MJ, Neuvonen M, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ: Rofecoxib is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2: studies with tizanidine and caffeine in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;62(3):345-57. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02653.x. [PubMed:16934051]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Backman JT, Filppula AM, Niemi M, Neuvonen PJ: Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 Jan;68(1):168-241. doi: 10.1124/pr.115.011411. [PubMed:26721703]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rodrigues AD: Impact of CYP2C9 genotype on pharmacokinetics: are all cyclooxygenase inhibitors the same? Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Nov;33(11):1567-75. Epub 2005 Aug 23. [PubMed:16118328]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name
ABCC4
Uniprot ID
O15439
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4
Molecular Weight
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [PubMed:12835412]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 14, 2018 11:05