Identification

Name
Labetalol
Accession Number
DB00598  (APRD01062)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Blocker of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors that is used as an antihypertensive. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3-Carboxamido-4-hydroxy-alpha-((1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol
  • 5-(1-Hydroxy-2-(1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamino)ethyl)salicylamide
  • Labetalol
  • Labetalolum
  • Labetolol
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Labetalol Hydrochloride1GEV3BAW9J32780-64-6WQVZLXWQESQGIF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralMutual Pharmaceutical2007-01-03Not applicableUs
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet200 mg/1OralWellSpring Pharma Services Inc.2014-12-012017-11-29Us
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet200 mg/1OralA-S Medication Solutions2014-12-01Not applicableUs50090 242820180913 8702 1paanpz
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet200 mg/1OralCounty Line Pharamceuticals2014-12-01Not applicableUs43199 0038 01 nlmimage10 5644ab15
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralAlvogen, Inc.2018-03-01Not applicableUs
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet100 mg/1OralSt. Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy2014-12-01Not applicableUs
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet100 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-12-01Not applicableUs
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet, film coated300 mg/1OralAlvogen, Inc.2018-03-01Not applicableUs
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet100 mg/1OralCounty Line Pharamceuticals2014-12-01Not applicableUs43199 0037 01 nlmimage10 4c44a635
Labetalol HydrochlorideTablet, film coated300 mg/1OralMutual Pharmaceutical2007-01-03Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-labetalol TabletsTablet200 mgOralApotex Corporation2001-06-01Not applicableCanada
Apo-labetalol TabletsTablet100 mgOralApotex Corporation2001-03-16Not applicableCanada
LabetalolTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2018-04-01Not applicableUs
LabetalolInjection, solution5 mg/1mLIntravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2010-02-172015-09-30Us
LabetalolTablet, film coated300 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2018-04-01Not applicableUs
LabetalolTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited1999-07-292018-04-23Us
LabetalolTablet, film coated300 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited1999-07-292018-04-23Us
LabetalolTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2018-04-01Not applicableUs
LabetalolTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited1999-07-292018-04-23Us
Labetalol HClTablet, film coated100 mg/1OralBlue Point Laboratories2014-02-26Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Labetalol HClLabetalol Hydrochloride (5 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2012-05-182015-01-14Us
International/Other Brands
Albetol (Leiras) / Latol (Standard) / Normadate (GlaxoSmithKline) / Normodyne (Schering)
Categories
UNII
R5H8897N95
CAS number
36894-69-6
Weight
Average: 328.4055
Monoisotopic: 328.178692644
Chemical Formula
C19H24N2O3
InChI Key
SGUAFYQXFOLMHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H24N2O3/c1-13(7-8-14-5-3-2-4-6-14)21-12-18(23)15-9-10-17(22)16(11-15)19(20)24/h2-6,9-11,13,18,21-23H,7-8,12H2,1H3,(H2,20,24)
IUPAC Name
2-hydroxy-5-{1-hydroxy-2-[(4-phenylbutan-2-yl)amino]ethyl}benzamide
SMILES
CC(CCC1=CC=CC=C1)NCC(O)C1=CC(C(N)=O)=C(O)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the management of hypertension (alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents), as well as chronic stable angina pectoris and sympathetic overactivity syndrome associated with severe tetanus. Labetalol is used parenterally for immediate reduction in blood pressure in severe hypertension or in hypertensive crises when considered an emergency, for the control of blood pressure in patients with pheochromocytoma and pregnant women with preeclampsia, and to produce controlled hypotension during anesthesia to reduce bleeding resulting from surgical procedures.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Labetalol is an selective alpha-1 and non-selective beta adrenergic blocker used to treat high blood pressure. It works by blocking these adrenergic receptors, which slows sinus heart rate, decreases peripheral vascular resistance, and decreases cardiac output. Labetalol has two asymmetric centers and therefore, exists as a molecular complex of two diastereoisomeric pairs. Dilevalol, the R,R' stereoisomer, makes up 25% of racemic labetalol.

Mechanism of action

Labetalol HCl combines both selective, competitive, alpha-1-adrenergic blocking and nonselective, competitive, beta-adrenergic blocking activity in a single substance. In man, the ratios of alpha- to beta- blockade have been estimated to be approximately 1:3 and 1:7 following oral and intravenous (IV) administration, respectively. The principal physiologic action of labetalol is to competitively block adrenergic stimulation of β-receptors within the myocardium (β1-receptors) and within bronchial and vascular smooth muscle (β2-receptors), and α1-receptors within vascular smooth muscle. This causes a decrease in systemic arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance without a substantial reduction in resting heart rate, cardiac output, or stroke volume, apparently because of its combined α- and β-adrenergic blocking activity.

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-1 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
ABeta-2 adrenergic receptor
antagonist
Human
AAlpha-1 adrenergic receptors
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Completely absorbed (100%) from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma levels occurring 1 to 2 hours after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of labetalol is increased when administered with food.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

50%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic, undergoes significant first pass metabolism

Route of elimination

These metabolites are present in plasma and are excreted in the urine, and via the bile, into the feces.

Half life

6-8 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50 = 66 mg/kg (Rat, IV). Side effects or adverse reactions include dizziness when standing up, very low blood pressure, severely slow heartbeat, weakness, diminished sexual function, fatigue

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Labetalol Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidLabetalol may increase the hypotensive activities of 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may increase the bradycardic activities of Labetalol.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when used in combination with Labetalol.
6-O-benzylguanineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with 6-O-benzylguanine.
7-DeazaguanineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with 7-Deazaguanine.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 4,012,444.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014736
KEGG Compound
C07063
PubChem Compound
3869
PubChem Substance
46505511
ChemSpider
3734
BindingDB
25758
ChEBI
6343
ChEMBL
CHEMBL429
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000038
PharmGKB
PA164743150
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Labetalol
ATC Codes
C07BG01 — Labetalol and thiazidesC07AG01 — LabetalolC07CG01 — Labetalol and other diuretics
AHFS Codes
  • 24:24.00 — Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents
FDA label
Download (401 KB)
MSDS
Download (53.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedSupportive CareControlled Hypotension for Nasal Surgeries1
0RecruitingPreventionChronic Hypertension Complicating Pregnancy (Diagnosis) / Preeclampsia1
0RecruitingPreventionObesity, Morbid / Preeclampsia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCraniotomy / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pregnancy Toxemias / Proteinuria1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentHydralazine Adverse Reaction / Pre-eclampsia Superimposed Pre-existing Hypertension / Pregnancy associated hypertension / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
2CompletedTreatmentIntracerebral Hemorrhage1
2CompletedTreatmentStroke, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentTobacco Use Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentBloodpressure / Heart Rate1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntracerebral Hemorrhage1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSevere Pre-Eclampsia, Antepartum1
2, 3WithdrawnPreventionChronic Hypertension / Gestational Hypertension / Preeclampsia / Pregnancy associated hypertension / Superimposed Preeclampsia1
3CompletedTreatmentPregnancy associated hypertension1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostnatal Hypertension1
4CompletedPreventionSurgery, Laparoscopic1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertension in Pregnancy / Preeclampsia1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertensive Urgency1
4RecruitingPreventionHypertension, Pregnancy-Induced / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHypertension in Pregnancy / Preeclampsia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCVA (Cerebrovascular Accident) / Intracerebral Hemorrhage / Intracranial Hemorrhages1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSevere Postpartum Hypertension1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionIntubation, Endotracheal / Patients Who Are Intubated for General Anesthesia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Claris lifesciences ltd
  • Hospira inc
  • Taylor pharmaceuticals
  • Sagent strides llc
  • Schering corp sub schering plough corp
  • Prometheus laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Eon Labs
  • Goldline Laboratories Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prometheus Laboratories Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Sagent Pharmaceuticals
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wellspring Pharmaceutical
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntravenous5 mg/1mL
Tablet, coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral100 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral300 mg/1
LiquidIntravenous5 mg
SolutionIntravenous5 mg
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/1mL
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral300 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Labetalol Hydrochloride 5 mg/ml1.36USD ml
Trandate 300 mg tablet1.28USD tablet
Trandate 5 mg/ml vial1.25USD ml
Trandate 200 mg tablet1.08USD tablet
Labetalol hcl 300 mg tablet1.02USD tablet
Normodyne 200 mg tablet1.0USD tablet
Labetalol hcl 200 mg tablet0.76USD tablet
Trandate 100 mg tablet0.68USD tablet
Labetalol hcl 100 mg tablet0.53USD tablet
Trandate 200 mg Tablet0.47USD tablet
Trandate 100 mg Tablet0.27USD tablet
Labetalol hcl 5 mg/ml vial0.1USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)188 °CU.S. Patent 4,012,444.
water solubility117 mg/L (at 25 °C)MCFARLAND,JW ET AL. (2001)
logP3.09HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-5.03ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00578 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.73ALOGPS
logP1.89ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.05ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.58 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity94.72 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.83 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9943
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8313
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7073
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8908
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9269
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8457
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7448
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6202
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8995
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8256
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8383
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9189
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.945
Rat acute toxicity2.1174 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9501
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7398
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-03dl-7900000000-e18d52bcb93357c4a7e2
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0319000000-cd3fa186952809ae3558
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0519000000-0a8da4acfa8cd259fb3f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dl-4928000000-117458013dbd49aaf54b

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as salicylamides. These are carboxamide derivatives of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is the ortho-hydroxylated derivative of benzoic acid.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzoic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Salicylamides
Alternative Parents
Benzamides / Benzoyl derivatives / Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Vinylogous acids / Secondary alcohols / Primary carboxylic acid amides / Amino acids and derivatives / 1,2-aminoalcohols / Dialkylamines
show 4 more
Substituents
Salicylamide / Benzamide / Benzoyl / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Phenol / Aralkylamine / Vinylogous acid / Amino acid or derivatives / 1,2-aminoalcohol / Secondary alcohol
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
benzamides, secondary amino compound (CHEBI:6343)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Riva E, Mennini T, Latini R: The alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking activities of labetalol and its RR-SR (50:50) stereoisomers. Br J Pharmacol. 1991 Dec;104(4):823-8. [PubMed:1687367]
  2. Monopoli A, Bamonte F, Forlani A, Ongini E, Parravicini L: Effects of the R, R-isomer of labetalol, SCH 19927, in isolated tissues and in spontaneously hypertensive rats during a repeated treatment. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1984 Dec;272(2):256-63. [PubMed:6151824]
  3. Sassard J, Zech PY, Pozet N, Cuisinaud G, Vincent M: [Comparative effects of an alpha 1 and beta 1-2 blocker (labetalol) and a beta-1 blocker (atenolol) in the hypertensive patient]. J Pharmacol. 1983;14 Suppl 2:121-9. [PubMed:6355664]
  4. Nakagawa Y, Takeda K, Sakurai H, Mitomi A, Imai S: [Antihypertensive effects of labetalol in three types of hypertensive models of rats (author's transl)]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1981 Apr;77(4):435-45. [PubMed:7286847]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  6. Pujos E, Cren-Olive C, Paisse O, Flament-Waton MM, Grenier-Loustalot MF: Comparison of the analysis of beta-blockers by different techniques. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 Dec 1;877(31):4007-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.10.014. Epub 2009 Oct 17. [PubMed:19879818]
  7. Rosendorff C: Beta-blocking agents with vasodilator activity. J Hypertens Suppl. 1993 Jun;11(4):S37-40. [PubMed:8104240]
  8. van Zwieten PA: An overview of the pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic potential of combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Drugs. 1993 Apr;45(4):509-17. [PubMed:7684671]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Doggrell SA: The effects of labetalol and dilevalol on isolated cardiovascular preparations of the guinea-pig and rat. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1992 Dec;44(12):1001-6. [PubMed:1361547]
  2. Doggrell SA: Relaxant and beta 2-adrenoceptor blocking activities of labetalol, dilevalol, amosulalol and KF-4317 on the rat isolated aorta. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1988 Nov;40(11):812-5. [PubMed:2907566]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  4. Sassard J, Zech PY, Pozet N, Cuisinaud G, Vincent M: [Comparative effects of an alpha 1 and beta 1-2 blocker (labetalol) and a beta-1 blocker (atenolol) in the hypertensive patient]. J Pharmacol. 1983;14 Suppl 2:121-9. [PubMed:6355664]
  5. Pujos E, Cren-Olive C, Paisse O, Flament-Waton MM, Grenier-Loustalot MF: Comparison of the analysis of beta-blockers by different techniques. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2009 Dec 1;877(31):4007-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.10.014. Epub 2009 Oct 17. [PubMed:19879818]
  6. Rosendorff C: Beta-blocking agents with vasodilator activity. J Hypertens Suppl. 1993 Jun;11(4):S37-40. [PubMed:8104240]
  7. van Zwieten PA: An overview of the pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic potential of combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Drugs. 1993 Apr;45(4):509-17. [PubMed:7684671]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...

Components:
References
  1. Bernstein JS, Ebert TJ, Stowe DF, Schmeling WT, Nelson MA, Woods MP: Partial attenuation of hemodynamic responses to rapid sequence induction and intubation with labetalol. J Clin Anesth. 1989;1(6):444-51. [PubMed:2696507]
  2. Nakamura T, Maruyama K, Ohnuki T, Hattori K, Watanabe K, Nagatomo T: Tamsulosin: assessment of affinityof (3)H-P razosin binding to two alpha-1- adrenoceptor subtypes in the canine aorta. Pharmacology. 1999 Nov;59(5):234-8. [PubMed:10529655]
  3. Sassard J, Zech PY, Pozet N, Cuisinaud G, Vincent M: [Comparative effects of an alpha 1 and beta 1-2 blocker (labetalol) and a beta-1 blocker (atenolol) in the hypertensive patient]. J Pharmacol. 1983;14 Suppl 2:121-9. [PubMed:6355664]
  4. Pedersen ME, Cockcroft JR: The vasodilatory beta-blockers. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2007 Aug;9(4):269-77. [PubMed:17686376]
  5. Shiraishi K, Moriya M, Miyake N, Takayanagi I: Alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking activities of bevantolol hydrochloride(NC-1400) and labetalol in rat isolated thoracic aorta--do they distinguish between subtypes? Gen Pharmacol. 1992 Sep;23(5):843-5. [PubMed:1358746]
  6. Rosendorff C: Beta-blocking agents with vasodilator activity. J Hypertens Suppl. 1993 Jun;11(4):S37-40. [PubMed:8104240]
  7. van Zwieten PA: An overview of the pharmacodynamic properties and therapeutic potential of combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Drugs. 1993 Apr;45(4):509-17. [PubMed:7684671]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Hermann DJ, Krol TF, Dukes GE, Hussey EK, Danis M, Han YH, Powell JR, Hak LJ: Comparison of verapamil, diltiazem, and labetalol on the bioavailability and metabolism of imipramine. J Clin Pharmacol. 1992 Feb;32(2):176-83. [PubMed:1613128]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Flockhart Table - Indiana University [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2018 13:38