Identification

Name
Tolterodine
Accession Number
DB01036  (APRD00146)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Tolterodine is an antimuscarinic drug that is used to treat urinary incontinence. Tolterodine acts on M2 and M3 subtypes of muscarinic receptors.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-(R)-2-(alpha-(2-(Diisopropylamino)ethyl)benzyl)-p-cresol
  • (+)-Tolterodine
  • Tolterodina
  • Tolterodine
  • Tolterodinum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Tolterodine Tartrate5T619TQR3R124937-52-6TWHNMSJGYKMTRB-KXYUELECSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DetrolTablet1 mgOralPfizer1998-11-26Not applicableCanada
DetrolTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1998-03-25Not applicableUs
DetrolTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralStat Rx USA1998-03-25Not applicableUs
DetrolTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1998-03-252012-06-30Us
DetrolTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralPharmacia & Upjohn Inc1998-03-25Not applicableUs
DetrolTablet2 mgOralPfizer1998-11-23Not applicableCanada
DetrolTablet, film coated1 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1998-03-252010-06-30Us
Detrol LACapsule, extended release4 mgOralPfizer2002-03-26Not applicableCanada
Detrol LACapsule, extended release4 mg/1OralCardinal Health2000-12-22Not applicableUs55154 393320180913 8702 1oprld0
Detrol LACapsule, extended release2 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2016-03-16Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ach-tolterodine Tartrate Extended ReleaseCapsule, extended release2 mgOralAccord Healthcare LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ach-tolterodine Tartrate Extended ReleaseCapsule, extended release4 mgOralAccord Healthcare LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-tolterodineTablet2 mgOralApotex Corporation2016-03-03Not applicableCanada
Apo-tolterodineTablet1 mgOralApotex Corporation2016-03-03Not applicableCanada
Gd-tolterodineTablet1 mgOralGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Gd-tolterodineTablet2 mgOralGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Gd-tolterodine LACapsule, extended release2 mgOralGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Gd-tolterodine LACapsule, extended release4 mgOralGenmed A Division Of Pfizer Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mint-tolterodineTablet2 mgOralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-12-16Not applicableCanada
Mint-tolterodineTablet1 mgOralMint Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-12-16Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Detrusitol
Categories
UNII
WHE7A56U7K
CAS number
124937-51-5
Weight
Average: 325.4876
Monoisotopic: 325.240564619
Chemical Formula
C22H31NO
InChI Key
OOGJQPCLVADCPB-HXUWFJFHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H31NO/c1-16(2)23(17(3)4)14-13-20(19-9-7-6-8-10-19)21-15-18(5)11-12-22(21)24/h6-12,15-17,20,24H,13-14H2,1-5H3/t20-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
2-[(1R)-3-[bis(propan-2-yl)amino]-1-phenylpropyl]-4-methylphenol
SMILES
CC(C)N(CC[C@H](C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=C(O)C=CC(C)=C1)C(C)C

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of overactive bladder (with symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge incontinence).

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Tolterodine is a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist. Both urinary bladder contraction and salivation are mediated via cholinergic muscarinic receptors. After oral administration, tolterodine is metabolized in the liver, resulting in the formation of the 5-hydroxymethyl derivative, a major pharmacologically active metabolite. The 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite, which exhibits an antimuscarinic activity similar to that of tolterodine, contributes significantly to the therapeutic effect. Both tolterodine and the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite exhibit a high specificity for muscarinic receptors, since both show negligible activity or affinity for other neurotransmitter receptors and other potential cellular targets, such as calcium channels. Tolterodine has a pronounced effect on bladder function. The main effects of tolterodine are an increase in residual urine, reflecting an incomplete emptying of the bladder, and a decrease in detrusor pressure, consistent with an antimuscarinic action on the lower urinary tract.

Mechanism of action

Both tolterodine and its active metabolite, 5-hydroxymethyltolterodine, act as competitive antagonists at muscarinic receptors. This antagonism results in inhibition of bladder contraction, decrease in detrusor pressure, and an incomplete emptying of the bladder.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
antagonist
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
  • 113 ± 26.7 L
Protein binding

Approximately 96.3%.

Metabolism
Route of elimination

Following administration of a 5-mg oral dose of 14C-tolterodine solution to healthy volunteers, 77% of radioactivity was recovered in urine and 17% was recovered in feces in 7 days.

Half life

1.9-3.7 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*5Not AvailableWhole-gene deletionEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*6Not Available1707delTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*7Not Available2935A>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*8Not Available1758G>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*11Not Available883G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*12Not Available124G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*13Not AvailableCYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*14ANot Available1758G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*15Not Available137insT, 137_138insTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*19Not Available2539_2542delAACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*20Not Available1973_1974insGEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*21Not Available2573insCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*31Not Available-1770G>A / -1584C>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*36Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*38Not Available2587_2590delGACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*40Not Available1863_1864ins(TTT CGC CCC)2Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*42Not Available3259_3260insGTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*44Not Available2950G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*47Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*51Not Available-1584C>G / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*56Not Available3201C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*57Not Available100C>T / 310G>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*62Not Available4044C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68ANot Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68BNot AvailableSimilar but not identical switch region compared to CYP2D6*68A. Found in tandem arrangement with CYP2D6*4.Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*69Not Available2988G>A / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*92Not Available1995delCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*100Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*101Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, greater QTc interval increase in poor metabolizers, but no association of drug with Torsade de Pointes.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Tolterodine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Tolterodine.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolterodine can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Tolterodine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Tolterodine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Tolterodine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Tolterodine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Tolterodine can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Tolterodine.
AbacavirTolterodine may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Yatendra Kumar, "PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF TOLTERODINE." U.S. Patent US20040249211, issued December 09, 2004.

US20040249211
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015170
KEGG Drug
D00646
KEGG Compound
C07750
PubChem Compound
443879
PubChem Substance
46508059
ChemSpider
391967
BindingDB
50165008
ChEBI
9622
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1382
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000376
PharmGKB
PA164746757
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Tolterodine
ATC Codes
G04BD07 — Tolterodine
AHFS Codes
  • 86:12.04 — Antimuscarinics
  • 86:12.00 — Genitourinary Smooth Muscle Relaxants
FDA label
Download (94.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableUrinary Bladder, Overactive2
1CompletedBasic ScienceGenotype Guided(HNF4a) / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedDiagnosticUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentIncontinence1
1CompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
1TerminatedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
1, 2CompletedBasic SciencePain, Neuropathic1
2CompletedTreatmentHealth1
2CompletedTreatmentUreteral Stent Discomfort1
2CompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive7
2TerminatedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive / Urinary Incontinence (UI)1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailableUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDisorder of Urinary Stent1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) / Urinary Bladder, Overactive1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive2
3CompletedBasic ScienceBack Pain Lower Back1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive11
3CompletedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence (UI)1
3RecruitingTreatmentPelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacokinetics of Mirabegron and Tolterodine1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)1
4CompletedTreatmentCognition / Memory1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentUreteral Obstruction1
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive8
4CompletedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence (UI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic2
4RecruitingTreatmentUrge Incontinence / Urinary Incontinence, Urge1
4TerminatedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
4TerminatedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence (UI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / Urinary Bladder, Overactive1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMixed Urinary Incontinence / Urinary Incontinence, Urge / Urinary Incontinence,Stress1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUrinary Bladder Diseases / Urinary Bladder, Overactive / Urologic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUrinary Bladder, Overactive2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAntimuscarinic Drug1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUrgency-frequency Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence (UI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentUrinary Incontinence, Urge1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Vascular Disorder Nos / Urinary Bladder, Overactive1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableUrinary Bladder, Overactive1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentProstatitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Cardinal Health
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral1 mg
TabletOral2 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral1 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral2 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral2 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral2 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral4 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral4 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Detrol LA 2 mg 24 Hour Capsule5.01USD capsule
Detrol LA 4 mg 24 Hour Capsule4.84USD capsule
Detrol la 4 mg capsule4.82USD capsule
Detrol la 2 mg capsule4.81USD capsule
Detrol 2 mg tablet2.85USD tablet
Detrol 1 mg tablet2.77USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5382600No1995-01-172012-03-25Us
CA2311755No2010-03-232019-08-26Canada
CA1340223No1998-12-152015-12-15Canada
US6630162Yes2003-10-072020-05-11Us
US6770295Yes2004-08-032020-02-26Us
US6911217Yes2005-06-282020-05-11Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP5.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00534 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.39ALOGPS
logP5.12ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.28ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area23.47 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity103.96 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.958
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9194
Caco-2 permeable+0.8286
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6727
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8305
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6904
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6235
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8139
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6965
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7456
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5853
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8575
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5259
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6658
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7967
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9959
Rat acute toxicity2.5503 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8014
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6875
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000t-2911000000-6586d7c95e03f623dbf4

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Diphenylmethanes
Direct Parent
Diphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Para cresols / Toluenes / Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Trialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Diphenylmethane / P-cresol / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Phenol / Aralkylamine / Toluene / Tertiary amine / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Amine / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tertiary amine (CHEBI:9622)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Schneider T, Fetscher C, Krege S, Michel MC: Signal transduction underlying carbachol-induced contraction of human urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1148-53. Epub 2004 Feb 9. [PubMed:14769832]
  3. McNamara A, Pulido-Rios MT, Sweazey S, Obedencio GP, Thibodeaux H, Renner T, Armstrong SR, Steinfeld T, Hughes AD, Wilson RD, Jasper JR, Mammen M, Hegde SS: Pharmacological properties of TD-6301, a novel bladder selective muscarinic receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 1;605(1-3):145-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.12.043. Epub 2009 Jan 10. [PubMed:19168050]
  4. Sellers DJ, Yamanishi T, Chapple CR, Couldwell C, Yasuda K, Chess-Williams R: M3 muscarinic receptors but not M2 mediate contraction of the porcine detrusor muscle in vitro. J Auton Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;20(3):171-6. [PubMed:11193006]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Nelson CP, Nahorski SR, Challiss RA: Constitutive activity and inverse agonism at the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan;316(1):279-88. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [PubMed:16188951]
  2. Schneider T, Fetscher C, Krege S, Michel MC: Signal transduction underlying carbachol-induced contraction of human urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1148-53. Epub 2004 Feb 9. [PubMed:14769832]
  3. McNamara A, Pulido-Rios MT, Sweazey S, Obedencio GP, Thibodeaux H, Renner T, Armstrong SR, Steinfeld T, Hughes AD, Wilson RD, Jasper JR, Mammen M, Hegde SS: Pharmacological properties of TD-6301, a novel bladder selective muscarinic receptor antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 1;605(1-3):145-52. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.12.043. Epub 2009 Jan 10. [PubMed:19168050]
  4. Sellers DJ, Yamanishi T, Chapple CR, Couldwell C, Yasuda K, Chess-Williams R: M3 muscarinic receptors but not M2 mediate contraction of the porcine detrusor muscle in vitro. J Auton Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;20(3):171-6. [PubMed:11193006]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM5
Uniprot ID
P08912
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
Molecular Weight
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Maruyama S, Oki T, Otsuka A, Shinbo H, Ozono S, Kageyama S, Mikami Y, Araki I, Takeda M, Masuyama K, Yamada S: Human muscarinic receptor binding characteristics of antimuscarinic agents to treat overactive bladder. J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):365-9. [PubMed:16406943]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Schneider T, Fetscher C, Krege S, Michel MC: Signal transduction underlying carbachol-induced contraction of human urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1148-53. Epub 2004 Feb 9. [PubMed:14769832]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM4
Uniprot ID
P08173
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Molecular Weight
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Maruyama S, Oki T, Otsuka A, Shinbo H, Ozono S, Kageyama S, Mikami Y, Araki I, Takeda M, Masuyama K, Yamada S: Human muscarinic receptor binding characteristics of antimuscarinic agents to treat overactive bladder. J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):365-9. [PubMed:16406943]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Postlind H, DanielsonA, Lindgren A, Andersson SH: Tolterodine, a new muscarinic receptor antagonist, is metabolized by cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Apr;26(4):289-93. [PubMed:9531513]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 20, 2018 00:50