Identification

Name
Levodopa
Accession Number
DB01235  (APRD00309, EXPT01107)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

The naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (−)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • (−)-dopa
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  • Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  • L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
  • L-DOPA
  • Levodopum
  • β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
External IDs
V-1512
Product Images
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Carbidopa and LevodopaTablet25 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-02-272016-10-18Us
Carbidopa and levodopaTablet25 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-03-252017-02-22Us
International/Other Brands
Bidopal (GlaxoSmithKline) / Dopar / Doparl (Kyowa Hakko Kirin) / Dopasol (Daiichi Sankyo) / Dopaston (Ohara Yakuhin)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-levocarb - Tab 10mg/100mgLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (10 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb - Tab 25mg/250mgLevodopa (250 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb CRLevodopa (200 mg) + Carbidopa (50 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation2003-11-13Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb CRLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation2009-02-04Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb-tab 25mg/100mgLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2011-05-16Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)TabletOralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1993-04-01Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and levodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (10 mg/1)TabletOralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs1993-09-01Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)TabletOralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-10-28Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (10 mg/1)TabletOralMajor2011-05-19Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
46627O600J
CAS number
59-92-7
Weight
Average: 197.1879
Monoisotopic: 197.068807845
Chemical Formula
C9H11NO4
InChI Key
WTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
SMILES
N[[email protected]@H](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication, and manganese intoxication.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Levodopa (L-dopa) is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinson's disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier where its precursor can. However, L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery as well as in the CNS, so it is administered with a peripheral DDC (dopamine decarboxylase) inhibitor such as carbidopa, without which 90% is metabolised in the gut wall, and with a COMT inhibitor if possible; this prevents about a 5% loss. The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.

Mechanism of action

Striatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(1A) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(1B) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(2) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(3) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(4) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Levodopa is rapidly absorbed from the proximal small intestine by the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport carrier system.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

High

Metabolism

95% of an administered oral dose of levodopa is pre-systemically decarboxylated to dopamine by the L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzyme in the stomach, lumen of the intestine, kidney, and liver. Levodopa also may be methoxylated by the hepatic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme system to 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which cannot be converted to central dopamine.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

50 to 90 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 2363 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD50 = 609 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 1780 mg/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDisease
Tyrosinemia Type IDisease
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
AlkaptonuriaDisease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)Disease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AmifostineAmifostine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Amisulpride can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Amphetamine.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BAmphotericin B may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ApomorphineApomorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololArotinolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Investigational
Arsenic trioxideArsenic trioxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Artemether.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Illicit
BarnidipineBarnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BepridilBepridil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibBortezomib may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brofaromine.Experimental
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BupivacaineBupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BupropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Bupropion.Approved
CarbetocinCarbetocin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CilnidipineCilnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CimetidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClofarabineClofarabine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineClomipramine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineClozapine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanConivaptan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapoxetine is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesfluraneDesflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DuloxetineLevodopa may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EfonidipineEfonidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
EnalaprilatEnalaprilat may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
FenoldopamFenoldopam may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
FimasartanFimasartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Furazolidone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GlycopyrroniumThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Glycopyrronium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneHalothane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Harmaline.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
IloprostIloprost may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilImidapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Investigational
ImipramineImipramine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iproniazid.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Isocarboxazid.Approved
IsofluraneIsoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Isoniazid.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
L-TryptophanL-Tryptophan may increase the serotonergic activities of Levodopa.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
LacidipineLacidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineLevobupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LevosimendanLevosimendan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LofexidineLofexidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MethadoneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Methadone.Approved
MethionineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with L-Methionine.Approved, Nutraceutical
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MetoclopramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Metoclopramide.Approved, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Minaprine.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Moclobemide.Approved
MorphineMorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nialamide.Withdrawn
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NilotinibThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineNilvadipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NitrendipineNitrendipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideNitric Oxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ObinutuzumabObinutuzumab may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
OxprenololOxprenolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PaclitaxelPaclitaxel may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PapaverinePapaverine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pargyline.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PhenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PipamperonePipamperone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pirlindole.Approved
PramipexolePramipexole may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Procarbazine.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolPropofol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PyridoxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Pyridoxine.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
QuinidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilRemifentanil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RisperidoneLevodopa may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RopiniroleRopinirole may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineRopivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RotigotineRotigotine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RucaparibThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
SacubitrilSacubitril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
SapropterinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sapropterin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium NitriteSodium Nitrite may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
StiripentolThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseStreptokinase may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TamsulosinTamsulosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ThalidomideThalidomide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TolazolineTolazoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeTolcapone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Toloxatone.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TretinoinTretinoin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Vincenzo Cannata, Giancarlo Tamerlani, Mauro Morotti, "Process for the synthesis of the levodopa." U.S. Patent US4962223, issued December, 1986.

US4962223
General References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00181
KEGG Drug
D00059
KEGG Compound
C00355
PubChem Compound
6047
PubChem Substance
46508120
ChemSpider
5824
BindingDB
50130192
ChEBI
15765
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1009
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000209
PharmGKB
PA450213
IUPHAR
3639
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
DAH
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Levodopa
ATC Codes
N04BA03 — Levodopa, decarboxylase inhibitor and comt inhibitorN04BA02 — Levodopa and decarboxylase inhibitorN04BA01 — Levodopa
PDB Entries
1ivv / 1rnr / 2vh3 / 2zwe / 2zwf / 2zwg / 3teg / 3teh / 4eis / 4p6s
show 1 more
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Failure / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCocaine Abuse1
1CompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)19
1CompletedTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1RecruitingOtherParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1, 2Unknown StatusNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Parkinson's Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentAlbinism1
2CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
2CompletedTreatmentBrain Diseases / Central Nervous System Diseases / Movement Disorders / Neurodegenerative Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)2
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine Abuse / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine3
2CompletedTreatmentDyskinesias / Parkinson's Disease (PD)2
2CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentMotor Fluctuations / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)17
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentASD1
2RecruitingTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlbinism / Albinism, Oculocutaneous1
2RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentParkinson´s Disease1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCocaine Abuse / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute1
2WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentNonfluent Aphasia / Strokes1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)2
3CompletedBasic ScienceParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedPreventionParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Stage Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentIschaemic Stroke1
3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)5
3CompletedTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAutonomic Nervous System Diseases / Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension / Orthostatic Intolerance1
3RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAkinesia / Delayed Levadopa Onset / Delayed Levodopa Onset / Mobility decreased / Motor Symptoms / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAphasia / Cerebrovascular Accidents1
4CompletedTreatmentDyskinesias / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)9
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease With End of Dose "Wearing Off" / Parkinson's Disease With End of Dose Wearing Off1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentSub-acute Back Pain1
4RecruitingNot AvailableStress Disorders, Post Traumatic1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
4RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease With Wearing-off Motor Fluctuations1
4TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Healthy Volunteers / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDyslexia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentImpulse Control Disorder1
4WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Events / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDyskinesias / Movement Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDopamine Activity / Episodic Memory Consolidation / Response Preparation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMultisystemic Atrophy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAphasia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAlcohol Dependence / Cocaine Abuse / Dependence, Cocaine / Opiate Dependence / Substance Abuse1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAtypical Parkinson Disease / Corticobasal Degeneration / Gait, Frontal / Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Disorders / Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableParkinson´s Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDecreased Gait Speed / Decreased Processing Speed / Depression Not Otherwise Specified / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD) / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
TabletOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral
GelEnteral
SuspensionEnteral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
CapsuleOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-dopa powder15.19USD g
Levodopa powder7.31USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6500867No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US6797732No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US9089607No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8377474No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8454998No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US7094427No2002-05-292022-05-29Us
US8557283No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9089608No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9463246No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9533046No2008-12-262028-12-26Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)284-285U.S. Patent 3,253,023.
water solubility5000 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.39SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.6ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.32 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8715
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9264
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5734
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.989
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.988
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9211
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8236
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8514
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7117
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9467
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9765
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9576
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9504
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.914
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9713
Ames testAMES toxic0.9106
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.941
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7332
Rat acute toxicity2.0131 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9872
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9524
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.19 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7edd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4c
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7edd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4c
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-1890000000-646d209fa1943582a336
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-720ed87e98a0d9f1721d
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0uea-0900000000-8eb71aa0cc8622f097a2
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-2900000000-bf63b9b719959b82b543
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-9300000000-a78b0b31dd33fe8479a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0911000000-15affa616923dfb9c45a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-22d8267801d0eb0b73c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-5e6020c952f741531fcb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0970100000-49594dae82ce73e734e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-0030db588fbd92c5b761
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-544615463a975baae9e4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0729111000-0a20b01f58fff8ad7ef0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-41515cba3a6929721859
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-8074c509ef5bae1129fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0502193020-497bfad7ba247159ca00
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0029800000-05f40324c8c1fec7963a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0000090000-c0cd80185ce47b30e5fe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18df
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-330b3c81e4279f2c12b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-efc5dfd988dedf39f4f8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18df
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. These are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Tyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenylalanine and derivatives / Phenylpropanoic acids / L-alpha-amino acids / Amphetamines and derivatives / Catechols / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / Aralkylamines / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives
show 6 more
Substituents
Tyrosine or derivatives / Phenylalanine or derivatives / 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Alpha-amino acid / Amphetamine or derivatives / L-alpha-amino acid / Catechol / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aralkylamine / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
show 18 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
non-proteinogenic L-alpha-amino acid, L-tyrosine derivative, dopa (CHEBI:15765) / Other amino acids, Biogenic amines (C00355)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD5
Uniprot ID
P21918
Uniprot Name
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Dupre KB, Eskow KL, Negron G, Bishop C: The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2007 Jul 16;1158:135-43. Epub 2007 May 8. [PubMed:17553470]
  2. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y: Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar;51(3):265-74. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [PubMed:15710490]
  3. Zappia M, Annesi G, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi F, Messina D, Pugliese P, Spadafora P, Tarantino P, Carrideo S, Civitelli D, De Marco EV, Ciro-Candiano IC, Gambardella A, Quattrone A: Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):601-5. [PubMed:15824260]
  4. Kovoor A, Seyffarth P, Ebert J, Barghshoon S, Chen CK, Schwarz S, Axelrod JD, Cheyette BN, Simon MI, Lester HA, Schwarz J: D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23;25(8):2157-65. [PubMed:15728856]
  5. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  6. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  7. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name
DDC
Uniprot ID
P20711
Uniprot Name
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
Molecular Weight
53925.815 Da
References
  1. BIRKMAYER W, HORNYKIEWICZ O: [The L-3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-effect in Parkinson-akinesia]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1961 Nov 10;73:787-8. [PubMed:13869404]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [PubMed:10052994]
  2. Tamai I, Nakanishi T, Nakahara H, Sai Y, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH, Tsuji A: Improvement of L-dopa absorption by dipeptidyl derivation, utilizing peptide transporter PepT1. J Pharm Sci. 1998 Dec;87(12):1542-6. [PubMed:10189264]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Involved in cellular a...
Gene Name
SLC7A5
Uniprot ID
Q01650
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1
Molecular Weight
55009.62 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when asso...
Gene Name
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI5
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2
Molecular Weight
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 09, 2017 02:58