Identification

Name
Levodopa
Accession Number
DB01235  (APRD00309, EXPT01107)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

The naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (−)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • (−)-dopa
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  • Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  • L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
  • L-DOPA
  • Levodopum
  • β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
External IDs
V-1512
Product Images
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Carbidopa and LevodopaTablet25 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-02-272016-10-18Us
Carbidopa and levodopaTablet25 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-03-252017-02-22Us
International/Other Brands
Bidopal (GlaxoSmithKline) / Dopar / Doparl (Kyowa Hakko Kirin) / Dopasol (Daiichi Sankyo) / Dopaston (Ohara Yakuhin)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-levocarb - Tab 10mg/100mgLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (10 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb - Tab 25mg/250mgLevodopa (250 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb CRLevodopa (200 mg) + Carbidopa (50 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation2003-11-13Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb CRLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation2009-02-04Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb-tab 25mg/100mgLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (10 mg/1)Tablet, orally disintegratingOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2008-09-18Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and levodopaLevodopa (250 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)TabletOralMayne Pharma2016-07-18Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)TabletOralMajor2011-05-19Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (10 mg/1)TabletOralTeva1993-03-012018-07-31Us00093 0292 01 nlmimage10 cf3567fb
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)TabletOralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2013-04-23Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
46627O600J
CAS number
59-92-7
Weight
Average: 197.1879
Monoisotopic: 197.068807845
Chemical Formula
C9H11NO4
InChI Key
WTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication, and manganese intoxication.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Levodopa (L-dopa) is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinson's disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier where its precursor can. However, L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery as well as in the CNS, so it is administered with a peripheral DDC (dopamine decarboxylase) inhibitor such as carbidopa, without which 90% is metabolised in the gut wall, and with a COMT inhibitor if possible; this prevents about a 5% loss. The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.

Mechanism of action

Striatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(1A) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(1B) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(2) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(3) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(4) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Levodopa is rapidly absorbed from the proximal small intestine by the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport carrier system.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

High

Metabolism

95% of an administered oral dose of levodopa is pre-systemically decarboxylated to dopamine by the L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzyme in the stomach, lumen of the intestine, kidney, and liver. Levodopa also may be methoxylated by the hepatic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme system to 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which cannot be converted to central dopamine.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

50 to 90 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 2363 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD50 = 609 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 1780 mg/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDisease
Tyrosinemia Type IDisease
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
AlkaptonuriaDisease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)Disease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adipiplon is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AldesleukinAldesleukin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
AliskirenAliskiren may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Allopregnanolone is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Levodopa.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphaprodine is combined with Levodopa.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmifostineAmifostine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideAmiloride may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Amisulpride can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Levodopa.Approved
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
Amphotericin BAmphotericin B may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteAmyl Nitrite may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ApomorphineApomorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineApraclonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololArotinolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Arsenic trioxideArsenic trioxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Artemether.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.Approved
AtenololAtenolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
AzelastineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilAzilsartan medoxomil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levodopa.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Experimental
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Levodopa.Illicit
BarnidipineBarnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BenazeprilBenazepril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Benmoxin.Withdrawn
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benperidol is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Levodopa.Approved
BepridilBepridil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololBetaxolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BisoprololBisoprolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BlonanserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Blonanserin.Approved
BortezomibBortezomib may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumBretylium may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brofaromine.Experimental
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromisoval is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromperidol is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
BumetanideBumetanide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BupivacaineBupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Bupropion.Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CandesartanCandesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canertinib is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
CaptoprilCaptopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CarbetocinCarbetocin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Levodopa.Illicit, Vet Approved
CariprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Cariprazine.Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Caroxazone.Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorprothixene can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CilazaprilCilazapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CilnidipineCilnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CimetidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipineClevidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClofarabineClofarabine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
ClomipramineClomipramine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineClonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clopenthixol is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clothiapine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineClozapine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanConivaptan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclizine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dantrolene is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DapagliflozinDapagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Deramciclane is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
DesfluraneDesflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desloratadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DexmedetomidineDexmedetomidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Levodopa.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideDiclofenamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diethyl ether is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemDiltiazem may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dimenhydrinate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DinutuximabDinutuximab may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dixyrazine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Levodopa.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineLevodopa may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecopipam is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineEfonidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EliglustatThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eltanolone is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
EmpagliflozinEmpagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EnalaprilEnalapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatEnalaprilat may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
EplerenoneEplerenone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EprosartanEprosartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EsmololEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Etacrynic acidEtacrynic acid may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EthanolLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Levodopa.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Levodopa.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl chloride is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Levodopa.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Levodopa.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbamate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
FelodipineFelodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FenoldopamFenoldopam may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
Ferric CarboxymaltoseThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric Carboxymaltose.Approved
Ferric CitrateThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric Citrate.Approved
Ferric pyrophosphateThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fexofenadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
FimasartanFimasartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluanisone is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe therapeutic efficacy of Flupentixol can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone propionate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilFosinopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
FosphenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Furazolidone.Approved, Vet Approved
FurosemideFurosemide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gepirone is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
GlycopyrroniumThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Glycopyrronium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Haloperidol can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
HalothaneHalothane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Harmaline.Experimental
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hydracarbazine.Experimental
HydralazineHydralazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.Approved
IloprostIloprost may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilImidapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Investigational
ImipramineImipramine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideIndapamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indiplon is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iproclozide.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iproniazid.Withdrawn
IrbesartanIrbesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
IronThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Iron.Approved
Iron DextranThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Iron Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Iron saccharateThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Iron saccharate.Approved
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Isocarboxazid.Approved
IsofluraneIsoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Isoniazid.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateIsosorbide Dinitrate may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateIsosorbide Mononitrate may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
IsoxsuprineIsoxsuprine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineIsradipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
L-MethionineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with L-Methionine.Approved, Nutraceutical
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LacidipineLacidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololLevobunolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevobupivacaineLevobupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LevosimendanLevosimendan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
LisinoprilLisinopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Levodopa.Illicit
LofexidineLofexidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loprazolam is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lormetazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LosartanLosartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Loxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
LumateperoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Lumateperone.Investigational
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved
MannitolMannitol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Maprotiline is combined with Levodopa.Approved
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mebanazine.Withdrawn
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebicar is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
MecamylamineMecamylamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medazepam is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Melperone.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meptazinol is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
MesoridazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Mesoridazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
MethadoneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Levodopa.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Levodopa.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethazolamideMethazolamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Levodopa.Approved
MethotrimeprazineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethyclothiazideMethyclothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethyldopaMethyldopa may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylecgonine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methylene blue.Investigational
MethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved
MetipranololMetipranolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MetoclopramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Metoclopramide.Approved, Investigational
MetolazoneMetolazone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MetoprololMetoprolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Minaprine.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MirtazapineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Moclobemide.Approved
MoexiprilMoexipril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MolindoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Molindone can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
MorphineMorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NadololNadolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
NebivololNebivolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NesiritideNesiritide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nialamide.Withdrawn
NicardipineNicardipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineNilvadipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NimodipineNimodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NisoldipineNisoldipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
NitrendipineNitrendipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Nitric OxideNitric Oxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NitroglycerinNitroglycerin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideNitroprusside may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norflurane is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Normethadone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ObinutuzumabObinutuzumab may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Octamoxin.Withdrawn
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanOlmesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Levodopa.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxethazaine is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
OxprenololOxprenolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelPaclitaxel may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PapaverinePapaverine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ParaldehydeLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pargyline.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenbutololPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penfluridol is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perazine is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
PerindoprilPerindopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PerospironeThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Perphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenazocine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenibut is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pheniprazine.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoperidine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenoxypropazine.Withdrawn
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PhenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimavanserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Pimavanserin.Investigational
PimozideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pimozide can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
PindololPindolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PipamperonePipamperone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piritramide is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pirlindole.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pivhydrazine.Withdrawn
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Primidone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Prochlorperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Promazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propanidid is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PropericiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propericiazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
PropofolPropofol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PropranololPropranolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proxibarbal is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
PyridoxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Pyridoxine.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineQuetiapine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
QuinaprilQuinapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinisocaine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Raclopride is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilRamipril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilRemifentanil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineReserpine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RiociguatRiociguat may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RisperidoneLevodopa may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritanserin is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
RopiniroleLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineRopivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RotigotineLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RP5063The therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with RP5063.Investigational
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levodopa.Approved
SacubitrilSacubitril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Safrazine.Withdrawn
SapropterinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sapropterin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sepranolone is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
SertindoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium NitriteSodium Nitrite may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
SotalolSotalol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
SpironolactoneSpironolactone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
StiripentolThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseStreptokinase may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sultopride is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
SuvorexantLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TamsulosinTamsulosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tandospirone is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TelmisartanTelmisartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
TerazosinTerazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrahydropalmatine is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
ThalidomideThalidomide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioproperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thioproperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Thiothixene can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiapride is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tilidine is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
TimololTimolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineTizanidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TolazolineTolazoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeTolcapone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Toloxatone.Approved
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
TorasemideTorasemide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilTrandolapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinTretinoin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneTriamterene may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tricaine methanesulfonate is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trichloroethylene is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
TrifluoperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Trifluoperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluperidol is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanValsartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Veralipride is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
VerapamilVerapamil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vigabatrin is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vinyl ether is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vortioxetine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xenon is combined with Levodopa.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Levodopa.Vet Approved
ZolpidemLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ZotepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe therapeutic efficacy of Zuclopenthixol can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Vincenzo Cannata, Giancarlo Tamerlani, Mauro Morotti, "Process for the synthesis of the levodopa." U.S. Patent US4962223, issued December, 1986.

US4962223
General References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00181
KEGG Drug
D00059
KEGG Compound
C00355
PubChem Compound
6047
PubChem Substance
46508120
ChemSpider
5824
BindingDB
50130192
ChEBI
15765
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1009
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000209
PharmGKB
PA450213
IUPHAR
3639
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
DAH
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Levodopa
ATC Codes
N04BA03 — Levodopa, decarboxylase inhibitor and comt inhibitorN04BA02 — Levodopa and decarboxylase inhibitorN04BA01 — Levodopa
AHFS Codes
Not Available
PDB Entries
Not Available
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (37.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Failure / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCocaine Abuse1
1CompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)19
1CompletedTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDiabetes1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1, 2Unknown StatusNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Parkinson's Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentAlbinism1
2CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
2CompletedTreatmentBrain Diseases / Central Nervous System Diseases / Movement Disorders / Neurodegenerative Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)2
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine Abuse / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine3
2CompletedTreatmentDyskinesias / Parkinson's Disease (PD)2
2CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentMotor Fluctuations / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)17
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentASD1
2RecruitingTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlbinism / Albinism, Oculocutaneous1
2RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentParkinson´s Disease1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCocaine Abuse / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute1
2WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentNonfluent Aphasia / Strokes1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)2
3CompletedBasic ScienceParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedPreventionParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Stage Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentIschaemic Stroke1
3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)5
3CompletedTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAutonomic Nervous System Diseases / Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension / Orthostatic Intolerance1
3RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAkinesia / Delayed Levadopa Onset / Mobility decreased / Motor Symptoms / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAphasia / Cerebrovascular Accidents1
4CompletedTreatmentDyskinesias / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)9
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease With End of Dose "Wearing Off" / Parkinson's Disease With End of Dose Wearing Off1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentSub-acute Back Pain1
4RecruitingNot AvailableStress Disorders, Post Traumatic1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive State1
4RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease With Wearing-off Motor Fluctuations1
4TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Healthy Volunteers / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDyslexia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentImpulse Control Disorder1
4WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Events / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDyskinesias / Movement Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDopamine Activity / Episodic Memory Consolidation / Response Preparation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMultisystemic Atrophy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAphasia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAlcohol Dependence / Cocaine Abuse / Dependence, Cocaine / Opiate Dependence / Substance Abuse1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAtypical Parkinson Disease / Corticobasal Degeneration / Gait, Frontal / Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Disorders / Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableParkinson´s Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDecreased Gait Speed / Decreased Processing Speed / Depression Not Otherwise Specified / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD) / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral
GelEnteral
SuspensionEnteral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
CapsuleOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
TabletOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-dopa powder15.19USD g
Levodopa powder7.31USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6500867No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US6797732No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US9089607No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8377474No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8454998No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US7094427No2002-05-292022-05-29Us
US8557283No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9089608No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9463246No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9533046No2008-12-262028-12-26Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)284-285U.S. Patent 3,253,023.
water solubility5000 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.39SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.6ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.32 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8715
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9264
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5734
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.989
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.988
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9211
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8236
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8514
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7117
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9467
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9765
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9576
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9504
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.914
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9713
Ames testAMES toxic0.9106
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.941
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7332
Rat acute toxicity2.0131 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9872
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9524
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.19 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7edd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4c
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7edd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4c
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-1890000000-646d209fa1943582a336
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-720ed87e98a0d9f1721d
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0uea-0900000000-8eb71aa0cc8622f097a2
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-2900000000-bf63b9b719959b82b543
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-9300000000-a78b0b31dd33fe8479a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0911000000-15affa616923dfb9c45a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-22d8267801d0eb0b73c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-5e6020c952f741531fcb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0970100000-49594dae82ce73e734e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-0030db588fbd92c5b761
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-544615463a975baae9e4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0729111000-0a20b01f58fff8ad7ef0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-41515cba3a6929721859
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-8074c509ef5bae1129fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0502193020-497bfad7ba247159ca00
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0029800000-05f40324c8c1fec7963a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0000090000-c0cd80185ce47b30e5fe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18df
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-330b3c81e4279f2c12b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-efc5dfd988dedf39f4f8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18df
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. These are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Tyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenylalanine and derivatives / Phenylpropanoic acids / L-alpha-amino acids / Amphetamines and derivatives / Catechols / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / Aralkylamines / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives
show 6 more
Substituents
Tyrosine or derivatives / Phenylalanine or derivatives / 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Alpha-amino acid / Amphetamine or derivatives / L-alpha-amino acid / Catechol / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aralkylamine / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
show 18 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
non-proteinogenic L-alpha-amino acid, L-tyrosine derivative, dopa (CHEBI:15765) / Other amino acids, Biogenic amines (C00355)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD5
Uniprot ID
P21918
Uniprot Name
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Dupre KB, Eskow KL, Negron G, Bishop C: The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2007 Jul 16;1158:135-43. Epub 2007 May 8. [PubMed:17553470]
  2. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y: Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar;51(3):265-74. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [PubMed:15710490]
  3. Zappia M, Annesi G, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi F, Messina D, Pugliese P, Spadafora P, Tarantino P, Carrideo S, Civitelli D, De Marco EV, Ciro-Candiano IC, Gambardella A, Quattrone A: Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):601-5. [PubMed:15824260]
  4. Kovoor A, Seyffarth P, Ebert J, Barghshoon S, Chen CK, Schwarz S, Axelrod JD, Cheyette BN, Simon MI, Lester HA, Schwarz J: D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23;25(8):2157-65. [PubMed:15728856]
  5. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  6. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  7. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name
DDC
Uniprot ID
P20711
Uniprot Name
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
Molecular Weight
53925.815 Da
References
  1. BIRKMAYER W, HORNYKIEWICZ O: [The L-3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-effect in Parkinson-akinesia]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1961 Nov 10;73:787-8. [PubMed:13869404]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [PubMed:10052994]
  2. Tamai I, Nakanishi T, Nakahara H, Sai Y, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH, Tsuji A: Improvement of L-dopa absorption by dipeptidyl derivation, utilizing peptide transporter PepT1. J Pharm Sci. 1998 Dec;87(12):1542-6. [PubMed:10189264]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Involved in cellular a...
Gene Name
SLC7A5
Uniprot ID
Q01650
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1
Molecular Weight
55009.62 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when asso...
Gene Name
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI5
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2
Molecular Weight
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:55