Identification

Name
Levodopa
Accession Number
DB01235  (APRD00309, EXPT01107)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

The naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (−)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • (−)-dopa
  • 3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  • Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
  • L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
  • L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
  • L-DOPA
  • Levodopum
  • β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
  • β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
External IDs
V-1512
Product Images
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Carbidopa and LevodopaTablet25 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-02-272016-10-18Us
Carbidopa and levodopaTablet25 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2013-03-252017-02-22Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-levocarb - Tab 10mg/100mgLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (10 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb - Tab 25mg/250mgLevodopa (250 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb CRLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation2009-02-04Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb CRLevodopa (200 mg) + Carbidopa (50 mg)Tablet, extended releaseOralApotex Corporation2003-11-13Not applicableCanada
Apo-levocarb-tab 25mg/100mgLevodopa (100 mg) + Carbidopa (25 mg)TabletOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (250 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)TabletOralApotex Corporation2008-10-092018-03-23Us
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (200 mg/1) + Carbidopa (50 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2012-02-082018-03-15Us00378 0094 01 nlmimage10 033a01f0
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2007-08-23Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (25 mg/1)Tablet, orally disintegratingOralMylan Pharmaceuticals2008-09-18Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and LevodopaLevodopa (100 mg/1) + Carbidopa (10 mg/1)TabletOralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-10-28Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bidopal (GlaxoSmithKline) / Dopar / Doparl (Kyowa Hakko Kirin) / Dopasol (Daiichi Sankyo) / Dopaston (Ohara Yakuhin)
Categories
UNII
46627O600J
CAS number
59-92-7
Weight
Average: 197.1879
Monoisotopic: 197.068807845
Chemical Formula
C9H11NO4
InChI Key
WTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication, and manganese intoxication.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Levodopa (L-dopa) is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinson's disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier where its precursor can. However, L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery as well as in the CNS, so it is administered with a peripheral DDC (dopamine decarboxylase) inhibitor such as carbidopa, without which 90% is metabolised in the gut wall, and with a COMT inhibitor if possible; this prevents about a 5% loss. The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.

Mechanism of action

Striatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(1A) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(1B) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(2) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(3) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(4) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Levodopa is rapidly absorbed from the proximal small intestine by the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport carrier system.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

High

Metabolism

95% of an administered oral dose of levodopa is pre-systemically decarboxylated to dopamine by the L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzyme in the stomach, lumen of the intestine, kidney, and liver. Levodopa also may be methoxylated by the hepatic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme system to 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which cannot be converted to central dopamine.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

50 to 90 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 2363 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD50 = 609 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 1780 mg/kg.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDisease
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDisease
Isoquinoline Alkaloid BiosynthesisMetabolic
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Tyrosinemia Type IDisease
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
Isoquinoline Alkaloid BiosynthesisMetabolic
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolic
AlkaptonuriaDisease
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDisease
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)Disease
AlkaptonuriaDisease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)Disease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
Tyrosinemia Type IDisease
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.Experimental, Illicit
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.Experimental, Illicit
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.Experimental, Illicit
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.Experimental
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Acetazolamide.Approved, Vet Approved
AcetophenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Acetophenazine.Approved
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate.Experimental
AdinazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Adinazolam.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlcuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Alcuronium.Experimental
AldesleukinAldesleukin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
AlimemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Alimemazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AliskirenAliskiren may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AllobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Allobarbital.Experimental
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmifostineAmifostine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmikacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Amikacin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
AmilorideAmiloride may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AmineptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Amineptine.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Amisulpride can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Levodopa.Approved
AmitriptylinoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Amitriptylinoxide.Approved, Investigational
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Amphetamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Amphotericin BAmphotericin B may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteAmyl Nitrite may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AniracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Aniracetam.Experimental
ApomorphineApomorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineApraclonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ApramycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Apramycin.Experimental, Vet Approved
AprobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Aprobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ApronalideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Apronalide.Experimental
Arbaclofen PlacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Arbaclofen Placarbil.Investigational
ArbekacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Arbekacin.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Aripiprazole lauroxilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Aripiprazole lauroxil.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololArotinolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Investigational
Arsenic trioxideArsenic trioxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.Approved
AtenololAtenolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
AtomoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Atracurium.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzaperoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Azaperone can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Investigational, Vet Approved
AZD-3043The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with AZD-3043.Investigational
AzelastineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilAzilsartan medoxomil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levodopa.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Illicit
BarnidipineBarnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BeclamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Beclamide.Experimental
BekanamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Bekanamycin.Experimental
BenactyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Benactyzine.Withdrawn
BenazeprilBenazepril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Benperidol.Approved, Investigational
BenzoctamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Benzoctamine.Approved
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Benzphetamine.Approved, Illicit
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BepridilBepridil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololBetaxolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BifemelaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Bifemelane.Experimental
BifeprunoxThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Bifeprunox.Investigational
BisoprololBisoprolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BL-1020The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with BL-1020.Investigational
BlonanserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Blonanserin.Approved, Investigational
BortezomibBortezomib may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Botulinum Toxin Type AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
Botulinum Toxin Type BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Botulinum Toxin Type B.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumBretylium may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.Approved, Investigational
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BrivaracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brivaracetam.Approved, Investigational
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brofaromine.Experimental
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromocriptineBromocriptine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Bromperidol.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BufotenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Bufotenine.Experimental, Illicit
BumetanideBumetanide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
BupivacaineBupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ButaperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Butaperazine.Experimental
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ButriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Butriptyline.Approved
CamazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Camazepam.Approved, Illicit
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Candesartan cilexetilCandesartan cilexetil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CannabidivarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cannabidivarin.Investigational
CapreomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Capreomycin.Approved
CaptodiameThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Captodiame.Approved, Investigational
CaptoprilCaptopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CarbetocinCarbetocin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CarbromalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Carbromal.Experimental
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CariprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Cariprazine.Approved, Investigational
CarisbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Carisbamate.Investigational
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CathinoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cathinone.Illicit
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ChlorphenesinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Chlorphenesin.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorproethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Chlorproethazine.Experimental
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorprothixene can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlortetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Chlortetracycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CilazaprilCilazapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CilnidipineCilnidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CinolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cinolazepam.Approved
CisatracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cisatracurium.Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clemastine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ClevidipineClevidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ClindamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clindamycin.Approved, Vet Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobazam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ClofarabineClofarabine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineClomipramine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClomocyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clomocycline.Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineClonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClotiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clotiazepam.Approved, Illicit
CloxazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cloxazolam.Approved, Investigational
ClozapineClozapine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Codeine.Approved, Illicit
ColistimethateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Colistimethate.Approved, Vet Approved
ColistinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Colistin.Approved
ConivaptanConivaptan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
CyamemazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cyamemazine.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclizine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
CyclobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cyclobarbital.Experimental
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.Approved
CyclopropaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cyclopropane.Experimental
CyclosporineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dantrolene is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DapagliflozinDapagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapoxetine is combined with Levodopa.Investigational
DeanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Deanol.Experimental
DecamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Decamethonium.Approved
DelorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Delorazepam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
DemeclocyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Demeclocycline.Approved
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneDesflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desipramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desloratadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved, Investigational
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DexmedetomidineDexmedetomidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
DextofisopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dextofisopam.Investigational
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
DibekacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dibekacin.Experimental
DibenzepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dibenzepin.Experimental
DichloralphenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dichloralphenazone.Approved, Illicit
DiclofenamideDiclofenamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydrostreptomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dihydrostreptomycin.Investigational, Vet Approved
DiltiazemDiltiazem may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dimenhydrinate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
DimetacrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dimetacrine.Approved, Withdrawn
DimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dimethyltryptamine.Experimental, Illicit
DinutuximabDinutuximab may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
Domoic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Domoic Acid.Experimental
DonepezilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Donepezil.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DosulepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DotarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dotarizine.Investigational
DoxacuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Doxacurium.Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
DoxefazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Doxefazepam.Experimental
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with DPDPE.Experimental
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineLevodopa may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EdivoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Edivoxetine.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineEfonidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EmeproniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Emepronium.Experimental
EmpagliflozinEmpagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EmylcamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Emylcamate.Experimental
EnalaprilEnalapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatEnalaprilat may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
EperisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Eperisone.Approved, Investigational
EplerenoneEplerenone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EpoprostenolEpoprostenol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EprosartanEprosartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EslicarbazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Eslicarbazepine.Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsmirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Esmirtazapine.Investigational
EsmololEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
EsreboxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Esreboxetine.Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Etacrynic acidEtacrynic acid may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
EthadioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ethadione.Experimental
EthanolLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ethchlorvynol.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Levodopa.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ethyl chloride.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etifoxine.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etiracetam.Investigational
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etomidate.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ezogabine.Approved, Investigational
FabomotizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fabomotizole.Experimental
Fazadinium bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fazadinium bromide.Experimental
FebarbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Febarbamate.Experimental
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbamate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
FelodipineFelodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FenoldopamFenoldopam may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
FentanylThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenyramidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fenyramidol.Experimental
Ferric ammonium citrateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric ammonium citrate.Approved
Ferric CarboxymaltoseThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric Carboxymaltose.Approved
Ferric cationThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric cation.Approved
Ferric hydroxideThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric hydroxide.Experimental
Ferric oxideThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric oxide.Approved
Ferric pyrophosphateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Experimental
Ferric subsulfateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric subsulfate.Approved, Experimental
Ferric sulfateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferric sulfate.Approved
Ferrous bisglycinateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferrous bisglycinate.Approved
Ferrous chlorideThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferrous chloride.Experimental
Ferrous fumarateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferrous fumarate.Approved
Ferrous gluconateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferrous gluconate.Approved
Ferrous succinateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferrous succinate.Approved
Ferrous sulfateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferrous sulfate.Approved, Experimental
FerumoxidesThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferumoxides.Approved
FerumoxsilThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferumoxsil.Approved
FerumoxytolThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ferumoxytol.Approved, Investigational
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fexofenadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
FimasartanFimasartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flibanserin.Approved, Investigational
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe therapeutic efficacy of Flupentixol can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone propionate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilFosinopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
FosphenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FramycetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Framycetin.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideFurosemide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved, Investigational
GaboxadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gaboxadol.Investigational
GallamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gallamine.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Gantacurium ChlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gantacurium Chloride.Investigational
GedocarnilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gedocarnil.Experimental
GeneticinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Geneticin.Experimental
GentamicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gentamicin.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with GENTAMICIN C1A.Experimental
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GleptoferronThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Gleptoferron.Vet Approved
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GlycopyrroniumThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Glycopyrronium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Haloperidol can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
HalothaneHalothane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Experimental
HeptabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Heptabarbital.Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexafluroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hexafluronium.Approved
HexamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hexamethonium.Experimental
HexapropymateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hexapropymate.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Experimental
HydralazineHydralazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
Hygromycin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hygromycin B.Vet Approved
HypericinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hypericin.Investigational
IfenprodilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ifenprodil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.Approved
IloprostIloprost may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ImagabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Imagabalin.Investigational
ImidaprilImidapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Investigational
ImipramineImipramine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Imipramine oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Imipramine oxide.Experimental
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideIndapamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
IprindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iprindole.Experimental
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iproclozide.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Levodopa.Withdrawn
IrbesartanIrbesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
IronThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Iron.Approved
Iron DextranThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Iron Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Iron isomaltoside 1000The bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Iron isomaltoside 1000.Approved, Investigational
Iron saccharateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Iron saccharate.Approved
IsepamicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Isepamicin.Experimental
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Levodopa.Approved
IsofluraneIsoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Isoniazid.Approved, Investigational
Isosorbide DinitrateIsosorbide Dinitrate may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Isosorbide MononitrateIsosorbide Mononitrate may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
IsoxsuprineIsoxsuprine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineIsradipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
KanamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Kanamycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
L-TryptophanL-Tryptophan may increase the serotonergic activities of Levodopa.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LacidipineLevodopa may increase the hypotensive activities of Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LacosamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lacosamide.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LanicemineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lanicemine.Investigational
LercanidipineLercanidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololLevobunolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevobupivacaineLevobupivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levocabastine.Approved, Investigational
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LevosimendanLevosimendan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LincomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lincomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilLisinopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Lithium carbonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lithium carbonate.Approved
Lithium cationThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lithium cation.Experimental
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofepramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lofepramine.Experimental
LofexidineLofexidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LortalamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lortalamine.Experimental
LosartanLosartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LoxapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Loxapine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
LumateperoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Lumateperone.Investigational
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.Approved, Investigational
LymecyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lymecycline.Approved, Investigational
Lysergic Acid DiethylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lysergic Acid Diethylamide.Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
Magnesium acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium acetate.Approved
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.Approved
Magnesium Aluminum SilicateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium Aluminum Silicate.Approved
Magnesium aspartateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium aspartate.Experimental
Magnesium carbonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium carbonate.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium cationThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium cation.Approved, Nutraceutical
Magnesium chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium chloride.Approved
Magnesium citrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium citrate.Approved
Magnesium gluconateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium gluconate.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium glycinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium glycinate.Approved
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium orotateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium orotate.Experimental
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium oxide.Approved
Magnesium phosphateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium phosphate.Experimental
Magnesium silicateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium silicate.Approved
Magnesium stearateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium stearate.Investigational
Magnesium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Magnesium TrisilicateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium Trisilicate.Approved
MannitolMannitol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Maprotiline is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MazindolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mazindol.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MebutamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mebutamate.Approved
MecamylamineMecamylamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MedifoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Medifoxamine.Experimental
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelitracenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Melitracen.Experimental, Investigational
MelperoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Melperone.Approved, Investigational
MephenesinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mephenesin.Approved
MephenoxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mephenoxalone.Experimental
MephenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mephenytoin.Investigational, Withdrawn
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MesoridazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Mesoridazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
MethacyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methacycline.Approved, Investigational
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methamphetamine.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MetharbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Metharbital.Withdrawn
MethazolamideMethazolamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethionineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Methionine.Approved, Nutraceutical
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethotrimeprazineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved, Investigational
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethyclothiazideMethyclothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethyldopaMethyldopa may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MethylpentynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methylpentynol.Experimental
MethylphenidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenidate is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MethyprylonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methyprylon.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
MetipranololMetipranolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MetoclopramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Metoclopramide.Approved, Investigational
MetocurineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Metocurine.Approved
Metocurine IodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Metocurine Iodide.Approved, Withdrawn
MetolazoneMetolazone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MetoprololMetoprolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MianserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MicronomicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Micronomicin.Experimental
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
MidomafetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Midomafetamine.Experimental, Illicit, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Milnacipran.Approved, Investigational
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MivacuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mivacurium.Approved
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilMoexipril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
MolindoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Molindone can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
MoperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Moperone.Experimental
MoricizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Moricizine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
MorphineMorphine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MosapramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mosapramine.Experimental
MoxonidineMoxonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
MRK-409The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with MRK-409.Experimental
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NadololNadolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
NeamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Neamine.Experimental
NebivololNebivolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NefiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nefiracetam.Investigational
NeocitrullamonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Neocitrullamon.Experimental
NeomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Neomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
NeosaxitoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Neosaxitoxin.Investigational
NesiritideNesiritide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NetilmicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Netilmicin.Approved, Investigational
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Levodopa.Withdrawn
NiaprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Niaprazine.Experimental
NicardipineNicardipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NilvadipineNilvadipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineNimodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineNisoldipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NisoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nisoxetine.Experimental
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
NitrendipineNitrendipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideNitric Oxide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
NitroglycerinNitroglycerin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Nitroprusside.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideNitroprusside may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Nitrous acidNitrous acid may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
NomifensineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nomifensine.Withdrawn
NordazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nordazepam.Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ObinutuzumabObinutuzumab may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanOlmesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of serotonin syndrome can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Levodopa.Approved
OpipramolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Opipramol.Investigational
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OrvepitantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Orvepitant.Investigational
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OxaflozaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxaflozane.Experimental
OxaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxaprotiline.Experimental
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved
OxcarbazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxcarbazepine.Approved
OxiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxiracetam.Experimental
OxitriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxitriptan.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
OxprenololOxprenolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OxypertineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxypertine.Experimental
OxytetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Oxytetracycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelPaclitaxel may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.Approved
PancuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pancuronium.Approved
ParaldehydeLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
ParamethadioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Paramethadione.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
ParomomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Paromomycin.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paroxetine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PenbutololPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PenimepicyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Penimepicycline.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Perazine.Approved, Investigational
PerflubutaneThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Perflubutane.Approved, Investigational
PerindoprilPerindopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PerospironeThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Perphenazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PhenacemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenacemide.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhencyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phencyclidine.Illicit
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
PhenethylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenethylamine.Experimental
PheneturideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pheneturide.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxybenzaminePhenoxybenzamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
PhenprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenprobamate.Experimental
PhensuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phensuximide.Approved
PhentolaminePhentolamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PhenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimavanserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Pimavanserin.Approved, Investigational
PimozideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pimozide can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
PinazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pinazepam.Experimental
PindololPindolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PipamperonePipamperone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PipecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pipecuronium.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved, Investigational
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Piritramide.Approved, Investigational
PirlimycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pirlimycin.Vet Approved
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PivagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pivagabine.Investigational
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Withdrawn
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PlazomicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Plazomicin.Approved, Investigational
Polymyxin B SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Polymyxin B Sulfate.Approved, Vet Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
PregabalinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be increased when used in combination with Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PridinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pridinol.Experimental
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcainamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Procainamide.Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Procarbazine.Approved, Investigational
ProchlorperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Prochlorperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgabideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Progabide.Approved, Investigational
PromazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Promazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
PropericiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propericiazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
PropiomazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Propiomazine.Approved
PropiopromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Propiopromazine.Vet Approved
PropofolPropofol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololPropranolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ProthipendylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Prothipendyl.Investigational
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
Prussian blueThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Prussian blue.Approved
PseudoephedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pseudoephedrine.Approved
PsilocybineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Psilocybine.Investigational
PuromycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Puromycin.Experimental
PyrantelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pyrantel.Approved, Vet Approved
PyridoxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Pyridoxine.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
PyrithyldioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pyrithyldione.Experimental
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineQuetiapine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
QuinaprilQuinapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Quinidine.Approved, Investigational
QuinineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinupramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Quinupramine.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilRamipril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RapacuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
ReboxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RemacemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Remacemide.Investigational
RemifentanilRemifentanil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReposalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Reposal.Approved
ReserpineReserpine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
RibostamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ribostamycin.Approved, Investigational
RiluzoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Riluzole.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatRiociguat may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RisperidoneLevodopa may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RizatriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rizatriptan is combined with Levodopa.Approved
RocuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Rocuronium.Approved
RolipramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Rolipram.Investigational
RolitetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Rolitetracycline.Approved
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineRopivacaine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
RotigotineLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RP-5063The therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with RP-5063.Investigational
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levodopa.Approved
SacubitrilSacubitril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
SafinamideSafinamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Levodopa.Withdrawn
SapropterinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sapropterin is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SaredutantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Saredutant.Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of orthostatic hypotension can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Sertindole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
SibutramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Sibutramine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
SisomicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Sisomicin.Investigational
Sodium feredetateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Sodium feredetate.Experimental
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
SotalolSotalol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
SpironolactoneSpironolactone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
St. John's WortThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseStreptokinase may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
StreptomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Streptomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
StyramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Styramate.Experimental
SuccinylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Succinylcholine.Approved
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SulthiameThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Sulthiame.Experimental
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SumatriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sumatriptan is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
SuvorexantLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved, Investigational
TalbutalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Talbutal.Approved, Illicit
TalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Talopram.Experimental
TamsulosinTamsulosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanTelmisartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinTerazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tetracycline.Approved, Vet Approved
Tetraferric tricitrate decahydrateThe bioavailability of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Tetraferric tricitrate decahydrate.Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tetrazepam.Experimental
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiazinamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Thiazinam.Experimental
ThiethylperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Thiethylperazine.Withdrawn
ThiocolchicosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Thiocolchicoside.Approved, Investigational
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopropazateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Thiopropazate.Experimental
ThioproperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thioproperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Thiothixene can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TianeptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tianeptine.Approved, Investigational
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TigecyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tigecycline.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TimololTimolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TizanidineTizanidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TobramycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tobramycin.Approved, Investigational
TofisopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tofisopam.Approved
TolazolineTolazoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeTolcapone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Withdrawn
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TolperisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tolperisone.Approved, Investigational
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levodopa.Approved
TorasemideTorasemide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TramiprosateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tramiprosate.Investigational
TrandolaprilTrandolapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinTretinoin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneTriamterene may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Trichloroethylene.Approved
TriclofosThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Triclofos.Withdrawn
TrifluoperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Trifluoperazine can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethadioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Trimethadione.Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tubocurarine.Approved
ValerianThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Valerian.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ValnoctamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Valnoctamide.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValpromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Valpromide.Experimental
ValsartanValsartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
VancomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vancomycin.Approved
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vecuronium.Approved
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
VerapamilVerapamil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vigabatrin is combined with Levodopa.Approved
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vilazodone.Approved
ViloxazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Viloxazine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
VinbarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vinbarbital.Experimental
VinpocetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vinpocetine.Investigational
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VinylbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vinylbital.Experimental
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved, Investigational
XP19986The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with XP19986.Investigational
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolmitriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolmitriptan is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ZolpidemLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levodopa.Approved
ZotepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Zotepine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZuclopenthixolThe therapeutic efficacy of Zuclopenthixol can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Vincenzo Cannata, Giancarlo Tamerlani, Mauro Morotti, "Process for the synthesis of the levodopa." U.S. Patent US4962223, issued December, 1986.

US4962223
General References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000181
KEGG Drug
D00059
KEGG Compound
C00355
PubChem Compound
6047
PubChem Substance
46508120
ChemSpider
5824
BindingDB
50130192
ChEBI
15765
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1009
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000209
PharmGKB
PA450213
IUPHAR
3639
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
DAH
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Levodopa
ATC Codes
N04BA03 — Levodopa, decarboxylase inhibitor and comt inhibitorN04BA02 — Levodopa and decarboxylase inhibitorN04BA01 — Levodopa
PDB Entries
1ivv / 1rnr / 2vh3 / 2zwe / 2zwf / 2zwg / 3teg / 3teh / 4eis / 4p6s
show 2 more
MSDS
Download (37.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableAutonomic Failure / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCocaine Abuse1
1CompletedOtherGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)19
1CompletedTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1RecruitingOtherParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1RecruitingSupportive CareParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1, 2Unknown StatusNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Parkinson's Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentAlbinism1
2CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
2CompletedTreatmentBrain Diseases / Central Nervous System Diseases / Movement Disorders / Neurodegenerative Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)2
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine Abuse / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine3
2CompletedTreatmentDyskinesias / Parkinson's Disease (PD)2
2CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentMotor Fluctuations / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)17
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentASD1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlbinism / Albinism, Oculocutaneous1
2RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
2TerminatedTreatmentParkinson´s Disease1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCocaine Abuse / Cocaine-Related Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute1
2WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentNonfluent Aphasia / Strokes1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)2
3CompletedBasic ScienceParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedPreventionParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Stage Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentIschaemic Stroke1
3CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)5
3CompletedTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAutonomic Nervous System Diseases / Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency / Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension / Orthostatic Intolerance1
3RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAkinesia / Delayed Levadopa Onset / Delayed Levodopa Onset / Mobility decreased / Motor Symptoms / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAphasia / Cerebrovascular Accidents1
4CompletedTreatmentDyskinesias / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentImpulse Control Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)9
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease With End of Dose "Wearing Off" / Parkinson's Disease With End of Dose Wearing Off1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentSub-acute Back Pain1
4RecruitingNot AvailableStress Disorders, Post Traumatic1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
4RecruitingTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease With Wearing-off Motor Fluctuations1
4TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Healthy Volunteers / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDyslexia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Events / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDyskinesias / Movement Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDopamine Activity / Episodic Memory Consolidation / Response Preparation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMultisystemic Atrophy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Syndromes1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAphasia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Parkinson's Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAngelman's syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAlcohol Dependence / Cocaine Abuse / Dependence, Cocaine / Opiate Dependence / Substance Abuse1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAtypical Parkinson Disease / Corticobasal Degeneration / Gait, Frontal / Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Parkinsonian Disorders / Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableParkinson´s Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDecreased Gait Speed / Decreased Processing Speed / Depression Not Otherwise Specified / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD) / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableParkinson's Disease (PD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • AzurPharma Inc.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Caraco Pharmaceutical Labs
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Cima Laboratories Inc.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Global Pharmaceuticals
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Impax Laboratories Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Merck & Co.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Novartis AG
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Orion Corporation
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Schwarz Pharma Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Torpharm Inc.
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
TabletOral25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral
GelEnteral
SuspensionEnteral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral
CapsuleOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-dopa powder15.19USD g
Levodopa powder7.31USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6500867No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US6797732No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US9089607No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8377474No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8454998No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US7094427No2002-05-292022-05-29Us
US8557283No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9089608No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9463246No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9533046No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9901640No2008-12-262028-12-26Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)284-285U.S. Patent 3,253,023.
water solubility5000 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.39SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.6ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.32 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8715
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9264
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5734
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.989
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.988
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9211
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8236
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8514
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7117
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9467
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9765
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9576
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9504
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.914
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9713
Ames testAMES toxic0.9106
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.941
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7332
Rat acute toxicity2.0131 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9872
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9524
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.19 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7edd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4c
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7edd
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4c
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-1890000000-646d209fa1943582a336
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0690000000-720ed87e98a0d9f1721d
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0uea-0900000000-8eb71aa0cc8622f097a2
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a59-2900000000-bf63b9b719959b82b543
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-9300000000-a78b0b31dd33fe8479a7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0911000000-15affa616923dfb9c45a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-22d8267801d0eb0b73c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-5e6020c952f741531fcb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0007-0970100000-49594dae82ce73e734e6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-0030db588fbd92c5b761
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-544615463a975baae9e4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0729111000-0a20b01f58fff8ad7ef0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-41515cba3a6929721859
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-8074c509ef5bae1129fc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0502193020-497bfad7ba247159ca00
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0029800000-05f40324c8c1fec7963a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0000090000-c0cd80185ce47b30e5fe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18df
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-330b3c81e4279f2c12b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-efc5dfd988dedf39f4f8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18df
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. These are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Tyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenylalanine and derivatives / Phenylpropanoic acids / L-alpha-amino acids / Amphetamines and derivatives / Catechols / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / Aralkylamines / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives
show 6 more
Substituents
Tyrosine or derivatives / Phenylalanine or derivatives / 3-phenylpropanoic-acid / Alpha-amino acid / Amphetamine or derivatives / L-alpha-amino acid / Catechol / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aralkylamine / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
show 18 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
non-proteinogenic L-alpha-amino acid, L-tyrosine derivative, dopa (CHEBI:15765) / Other amino acids, Biogenic amines (C00355)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD5
Uniprot ID
P21918
Uniprot Name
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Dupre KB, Eskow KL, Negron G, Bishop C: The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2007 Jul 16;1158:135-43. Epub 2007 May 8. [PubMed:17553470]
  2. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y: Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar;51(3):265-74. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [PubMed:15710490]
  3. Zappia M, Annesi G, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi F, Messina D, Pugliese P, Spadafora P, Tarantino P, Carrideo S, Civitelli D, De Marco EV, Ciro-Candiano IC, Gambardella A, Quattrone A: Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):601-5. [PubMed:15824260]
  4. Kovoor A, Seyffarth P, Ebert J, Barghshoon S, Chen CK, Schwarz S, Axelrod JD, Cheyette BN, Simon MI, Lester HA, Schwarz J: D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23;25(8):2157-65. [PubMed:15728856]
  5. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  6. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  7. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name
DDC
Uniprot ID
P20711
Uniprot Name
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
Molecular Weight
53925.815 Da
References
  1. BIRKMAYER W, HORNYKIEWICZ O: [The L-3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-effect in Parkinson-akinesia]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1961 Nov 10;73:787-8. [PubMed:13869404]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID
P46059
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 15 member 1
Molecular Weight
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [PubMed:10052994]
  2. Tamai I, Nakanishi T, Nakahara H, Sai Y, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH, Tsuji A: Improvement of L-dopa absorption by dipeptidyl derivation, utilizing peptide transporter PepT1. J Pharm Sci. 1998 Dec;87(12):1542-6. [PubMed:10189264]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Involved in cellular a...
Gene Name
SLC7A5
Uniprot ID
Q01650
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1
Molecular Weight
55009.62 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when asso...
Gene Name
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID
Q9UHI5
Uniprot Name
Large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2
Molecular Weight
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 02, 2018 04:34