Identification

Name
Ginkgo biloba
Accession Number
DB01381
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

The extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically for hundreds of years. It has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent. Ginkgo extract seems to have three effects on the human body: it improves blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs; it protects against oxidative cell damage from free radicals; and it blocks many of the effects of PAF (platelet aggregation, blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and CNS (Central Nervous System) disorders.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Adiantifolia
  • Bai Guo Ye
  • Baiguo
  • Fossil Tree
  • Ginkgo Folium
  • Herba Ginkgo Biloba
  • Japanese Silver Apricot
  • Kew Tree
  • Maidenhair Tree
  • Pei Go Su Ye
  • Salisburia Adiantifolia
  • Yen Xing
  • Yinhsing
Categories
UNII
19FUJ2C58T
CAS number
Not Available
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Appears to be effective in: alleviating age-related memory impairment in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory or cognitive impairment; improving cognitive function in healthy young to middle-aged people; improving symptoms of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia; improving damage to the visual field in patients with normal tension glaucoma; decreasing the number of painful attacks in patients with Raynaud's syndrome; and may improve symptoms of vertigo and dizziness in some patients.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

The mechanism by which ginkgo biloba is thought to be effective for these conditions appears to be in part through active "ginkgolides" terpenoids and flavinoids that appear to inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil degranulation, and the induction of oxygen-free radical production

Mechanism of action

The compounds found in ginkgo may have a protective role in different stages of the decline of intellectual function via several mechanisms of action: vasoregulating activity of arteries, capillaries, and veins (increased blood flow); platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonism; homeostasis of inflammation and oxidative stress; and prevention of cell membrane damage causedby free radicals; and neurotransmission modulation. The most important substances are flavonoids (ginkgo flavone glycosides) and terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalide).The compounds inginkgo act to varying degrees as scavengers for free radicals.

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
UPhospholipase A2, membrane associated
inhibitor
Human
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
antagonist
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
negative modulator
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
negative modulator
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
negative modulator
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Fresh seeds are toxic may cause death. Roasted seed and crude ginkgo plant should not be used orally. Consumption of greater than 10 roasted seeds may cause difficulty breathing, weak pulse, seizures, loss of consciousness, and shock. Standardized ginkgo leaf extracts have been used safely in trials lasting several weeks to six years; however, cases of spontaneous hemorrhages have been reported with the conventional use of the standardized extract. As with all medications, individual risk factors must be considered in the assessment of safety of this medication. This medication is well-tolerated at standard oral doses. Ginkgo biloba may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, lack of muscle tone and weakness.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 16-Bromoepiandrosterone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 19-norandrostenedione is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 5-androstenedione is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental, Illicit
AcebutololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.Approved
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acenocoumarol.Approved
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acetylcholine.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Aclidinium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alclometasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
AlcuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Alcuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldosterone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
AloxiprinGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aloxiprin.Experimental
AlprenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AmcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amcinonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AndrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Androstenedione is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anecortave is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when anecortave acetate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Anisotropine Methylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Arecoline.Experimental
ArotinololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Arotinolol.Approved
AtamestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atamestane is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
AtenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Atenolol.Approved
AtracuriumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atracurium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
Atracurium besylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Atracurium besylate can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
AtropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
BalsalazideGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Beclomethasone dipropionate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
BefunololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BenactyzineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benactyzine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Withdrawn
BenzatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betamethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Betaxolol.Approved
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Bethanechol.Approved
BevantololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BiperidenThe therapeutic efficacy of Biperiden can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
BisoprololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BopindololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BornaprineThe therapeutic efficacy of Bornaprine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
BucindololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BudesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Budesonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
BufuralolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BupranololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Carbachol.Approved
Carbaspirin calciumGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental
CarteololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Cevimeline.Approved
ChlorphenoxamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorphenoxamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Withdrawn
CiclesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciclesonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
ClobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobetasol is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobetasol propionate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
ClobetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobetasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
ClocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clocortolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
CloranololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClorindioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Clorindione.Experimental
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cortexolone 17α-propionate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Corticosterone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cortisone acetate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
CyclopentolateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopentolate can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
DarifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Darifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
dersalazineGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of dersalazine.Investigational
DesloratadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Desloratadine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoximetasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoxycorticosterone acetate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexamethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexamethasone isonicotinate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Vet Approved
DexetimideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dexetimide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Withdrawn
DicoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Dicoumarol.Approved
DicyclomineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dicyclomine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
DiflorasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diflorasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
DiflunisalGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diflunisal.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluocortolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
DiphenadioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Diphenadione.Experimental
DipyridamoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo biloba can be decreased when used in combination with Dipyridamole.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Efavirenz can be decreased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
EmeproniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Emepronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
EpanololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpibatidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Epibatidine.Experimental
EquileninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Equilenin is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
EquilinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Equilin is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
EsmololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Esmolol.Approved
EstroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estrone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estrone sulfate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
EtanautineThe therapeutic efficacy of Etanautine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
EthopropazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ethopropazine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtybenzatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Etybenzatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
FesoterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fesoterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
fluasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when fluasterone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludrocortisone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
FluindioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Fluindione.Investigational
FlumethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flumethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocinolone Acetonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocinonide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluocortolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluorometholone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
FluprednideneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluprednidene is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluprednisolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurandrenolide is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
FormestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Formestane is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
GallamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Gallamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gallamine Triethiodide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
GlycopyrroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycopyrronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with GTS-21.Investigational
GuacetisalGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Guacetisal.Experimental
HE3286The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when HE3286 is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
Hemoglobin crosfumarilGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Hemoglobin crosfumaril.Experimental
HexamethoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexamethonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
HomatropineThe therapeutic efficacy of Homatropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocortisone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
HyoscyamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyoscyamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
IndenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
Ipratropium bromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Ipratropium bromide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
IstaroximeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Istaroxime is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
LabetalolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Labetalol.Approved
LandiololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LevobunololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.Approved
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Lobeline.Investigational
MazaticolThe therapeutic efficacy of Mazaticol can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
ME-609The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when ME-609 is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
MecamylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Mecamylamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
MedrysoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medrysone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
MelengestrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melengestrol is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Vet Approved
MepindololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MesalazineGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Mesalazine.Approved
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Methacholine.Approved
MethanthelineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methantheline can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylprednisolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
MetipranololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetixeneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metixene can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
MetoprololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Illicit
MivacuriumGinkgo biloba may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
NadololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Nadolol.Approved
NCX 1022The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when NCX 1022 is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Nicotine.Approved
NitroaspirinGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nitroaspirin.Investigational
Oleoyl-estroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oleoyl-estrone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
OlsalazineGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Olsalazine.Approved
OrphenadrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Orphenadrine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
OtiloniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Otilonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
OxitropiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxitropium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
OxprenololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybutyninThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxybutynin can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
OxyphenoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PancuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pancuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
ParamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paramethasone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PenbutololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentoliniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentolinium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PhenglutarimideThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenglutarimide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
PhenindioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Phenindione.Approved
PhenprocoumonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Phenprocoumon.Approved
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Pilocarpine.Approved
PindololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Pindolol.Approved
PipecuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pipecuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PirenzepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Pirenzepine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PractololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Practolol.Approved
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone sulfate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
PrednicarbateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednicarbate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregnenolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
ProcyclidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Procyclidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PropanthelineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propantheline can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
PropiverineThe therapeutic efficacy of Propiverine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Investigational
PropranololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
RapacuroniumGinkgo biloba may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rimexolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
Salicylic acidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Salicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
ScopolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Scopolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
Scopolamine butylbromideThe therapeutic efficacy of Scopolamine butylbromide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
SolifenacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Solifenacin can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
SotalolGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Sotalol.Approved
SuccinylcholineThe serum concentration of Succinylcholine can be increased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
TalinololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TertatololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
TimololGinkgo biloba may increase the bradycardic activities of Timolol.Approved
TioclomarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Tioclomarol.Experimental
TiotropiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Tiotropium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
TixocortolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tixocortol is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
TolterodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolterodine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamcinolone is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Vet Approved
TrihexyphenidylThe therapeutic efficacy of Trihexyphenidyl can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
TrimethaphanThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimethaphan can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
TropatepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tropatepine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Experimental
TropicamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tropicamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
TrospiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Trospium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
TubocurarineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tubocurarine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Varenicline.Approved, Investigational
VecuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Vecuronium can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved
WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Warfarin.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Klaus-Peter Schwabe, "Method of preparation of an extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves and pharmaceuticals containing the extract." U.S. Patent US5322688, issued July, 1989.

US5322688
General References
  1. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B: Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43. [PubMed:9611693]
External Links
PharmGKB
PA449758
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ginkgo_biloba
ATC Codes
N06DA53 — Donepezil, memantine and ginkgo foliumN06DX02 — Ginkgo folium
MSDS
Download (72.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceBlood Pressures / Cognition1
1CompletedNot AvailableDepressive State / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentCognitive Ability, General / Disseminated Sclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) / Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological1
2CompletedTreatmentOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
3CompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementias1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Neurotoxicity1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMemory Disturbances1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentVestibular Neuritis1
4CompletedNot AvailableAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementia, Vascular / Dementias1
4CompletedTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentTinnitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.24USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 120 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Sm ginkgo biloba 60 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Ginkgo 60 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Ra ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.11USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 60 mg capsule0.1USD capsule
Ginkgo biloba 50 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 30 mg capsule0.04USD capsule
Pv ginkgo biloba capsule0.03USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jul;60(1):68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.02.012. Epub 2009 Mar 21. [PubMed:19427589]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-ph...
Gene Name
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID
P14555
Uniprot Name
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated
Molecular Weight
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Kim HK, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Inhibition of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by ginkgetin, a biflavone from ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med. 1999 Jun;65(5):465-7. [PubMed:10418340]
  2. Weichel O, Hilgert M, Chatterjee SS, Lehr M, Klein J: Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown in rat hippocampus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 Dec;360(6):609-15. [PubMed:10619176]
  3. Lim H, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Effects of anti-inflammatory biflavonoid, ginkgetin, on chronic skin inflammation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):1046-9. [PubMed:16651744]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Heads JA, Hawthorne RL, Lynagh T, Lynch JW: Structure-activity analysis of ginkgolide binding in the glycine receptor pore. J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(4):1418-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05244.x. Epub 2008 Jan 21. [PubMed:18221374]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Yale SH, Glurich I: Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):433-9. [PubMed:15992226]
  2. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Luo Y, Perloff ES, Horan KA, Bruce A, Reynolds RC, Harmatz JS, Avula B, Khan IA, Goldman P: Ginkgo biloba does not alter clearance of flurbiprofen, a cytochrome P450-2C9 substrate. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):214-21. [PubMed:16432273]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:33 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23