Identification

Name
Ginkgo biloba
Accession Number
DB01381
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Description

The extract of the Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and has been used pharmaceutically for hundreds of years. It has many alleged nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent. Ginkgo extract seems to have three effects on the human body: it improves blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs; it protects against oxidative cell damage from free radicals; and it blocks many of the effects of PAF (platelet aggregation, blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and CNS (Central Nervous System) disorders.

Synonyms
  • Adiantifolia
  • Bai Guo Ye
  • Baiguo
  • Fossil Tree
  • Ginkgo Folium
  • Herba Ginkgo Biloba
  • Japanese Silver Apricot
  • Kew Tree
  • Maidenhair Tree
  • Pei Go Su Ye
  • Salisburia Adiantifolia
  • Yen Xing
  • Yinhsing
Categories
UNII
19FUJ2C58T
CAS number
Not Available
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Appears to be effective in: alleviating age-related memory impairment in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory or cognitive impairment; improving cognitive function in healthy young to middle-aged people; improving symptoms of Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia; improving damage to the visual field in patients with normal tension glaucoma; decreasing the number of painful attacks in patients with Raynaud's syndrome; and may improve symptoms of vertigo and dizziness in some patients.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

The mechanism by which ginkgo biloba is thought to be effective for these conditions appears to be in part through active "ginkgolides" terpenoids and flavinoids that appear to inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil degranulation, and the induction of oxygen-free radical production

Mechanism of action

The compounds found in ginkgo may have a protective role in different stages of the decline of intellectual function via several mechanisms of action: vasoregulating activity of arteries, capillaries, and veins (increased blood flow); platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonism; homeostasis of inflammation and oxidative stress; and prevention of cell membrane damage causedby free radicals; and neurotransmission modulation. The most important substances are flavonoids (ginkgo flavone glycosides) and terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalide).The compounds inginkgo act to varying degrees as scavengers for free radicals.

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
UPhospholipase A2, membrane associated
inhibitor
Human
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
antagonist
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
negative modulator
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
negative modulator
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
negative modulator
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Fresh seeds are toxic may cause death. Roasted seed and crude ginkgo plant should not be used orally. Consumption of greater than 10 roasted seeds may cause difficulty breathing, weak pulse, seizures, loss of consciousness, and shock. Standardized ginkgo leaf extracts have been used safely in trials lasting several weeks to six years; however, cases of spontaneous hemorrhages have been reported with the conventional use of the standardized extract. As with all medications, individual risk factors must be considered in the assessment of safety of this medication. This medication is well-tolerated at standard oral doses. Ginkgo biloba may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, lack of muscle tone and weakness.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Acenocoumarol.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AloxiprinGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aloxiprin.Experimental
Aminosalicylic AcidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
BalsalazideGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
ClorindioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Clorindione.Experimental
dersalazineGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of dersalazine.Investigational
DicoumarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflunisalGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diflunisal.Approved
DiphenadioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Diphenadione.Experimental
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Efavirenz can be decreased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
FluindioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Fluindione.Investigational
GuacetisalGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Guacetisal.Experimental
Hemoglobin crosfumarilGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Hemoglobin crosfumaril.Experimental
MesalazineGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Mesalazine.Approved
Methyl salicylateGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Methyl salicylate.Approved, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be decreased when it is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Illicit
NitroaspirinGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nitroaspirin.Investigational
OlsalazineGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Olsalazine.Approved
PhenindioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenprocoumonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
Salicylic acidGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Salicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
TioclomarolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Tioclomarol.Experimental
Trolamine salicylateGinkgo biloba may increase the anticoagulant activities of Trolamine salicylate.Approved
WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ginkgo biloba is combined with Warfarin.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Klaus-Peter Schwabe, "Method of preparation of an extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves and pharmaceuticals containing the extract." U.S. Patent US5322688, issued July, 1989.

US5322688
General References
  1. Cohen AJ, Bartlik B: Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998 Apr-Jun;24(2):139-43. [PubMed:9611693]
External Links
PubChem Substance
46508832
PharmGKB
PA449758
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ginkgo_biloba
ATC Codes
N06DA53 — Donepezil, memantine and ginkgo foliumN06DX02 — Ginkgo folium
MSDS
Download (72.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceBlood Pressures / Cognition1
1CompletedNot AvailableDepression / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentCognitive Ability, General / Disseminated Sclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) / Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological1
2CompletedTreatmentOpen-angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
3CompletedPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementias1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Neurotoxicity1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMemory Disturbances1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentVestibular Neuritis1
4CompletedNot AvailableAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementia, Vascular / Dementias1
4CompletedTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentTinnitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.24USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 120 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Sm ginkgo biloba 60 mg caplet0.19USD caplet
Ginkgo 60 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Ra ginkgo biloba 40 mg tablet0.11USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 60 mg capsule0.1USD capsule
Ginkgo biloba 50 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Ginkgo biloba 30 mg capsule0.04USD capsule
Pv ginkgo biloba capsule0.03USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res. 2009 Jul;60(1):68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.02.012. Epub 2009 Mar 21. [PubMed:19427589]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes including eicosanoid biosynthesis. Catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-ph...
Gene Name
PLA2G2A
Uniprot ID
P14555
Uniprot Name
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated
Molecular Weight
16082.525 Da
References
  1. Kim HK, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Inhibition of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis by ginkgetin, a biflavone from ginkgo biloba leaves. Planta Med. 1999 Jun;65(5):465-7. [PubMed:10418340]
  2. Weichel O, Hilgert M, Chatterjee SS, Lehr M, Klein J: Bilobalide, a constituent of Ginkgo biloba, inhibits NMDA-induced phospholipase A2 activation and phospholipid breakdown in rat hippocampus. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999 Dec;360(6):609-15. [PubMed:10619176]
  3. Lim H, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS, Kim HP: Effects of anti-inflammatory biflavonoid, ginkgetin, on chronic skin inflammation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):1046-9. [PubMed:16651744]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Heads JA, Hawthorne RL, Lynagh T, Lynch JW: Structure-activity analysis of ginkgolide binding in the glycine receptor pore. J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(4):1418-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05244.x. Epub 2008 Jan 21. [PubMed:18221374]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Hanrahan JR, Chebib M, Davucheron NL, Hall BJ, Johnston GA: Semisynthetic preparation of amentoflavone: A negative modulator at GABA(A) receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Jul 21;13(14):2281-4. [PubMed:12824018]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Yale SH, Glurich I: Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Jun;11(3):433-9. [PubMed:15992226]
  2. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Luo Y, Perloff ES, Horan KA, Bruce A, Reynolds RC, Harmatz JS, Avula B, Khan IA, Goldman P: Ginkgo biloba does not alter clearance of flurbiprofen, a cytochrome P450-2C9 substrate. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Feb;46(2):214-21. [PubMed:16432273]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 14:33 / Updated on November 06, 2017 06:43