Identification

Name
Phenacetin
Accession Number
DB03783  (EXPT03306, DB08243)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Withdrawn
Description

Phenacetin was withdrawn from the Canadian market in June 1973 due to concerns regarding nephropathy (damage to or disease of the kidney).

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Acetophenetidin
  • Acetophenetidine
  • Acetophenetin
  • Acetphenetidin
External IDs
NSC-7651
International/Other Brands
Achrocidin / Codempiral / Commotional / Contradol / Contradouleur
Categories
UNII
ER0CTH01H9
CAS number
62-44-2
Weight
Average: 179.2157
Monoisotopic: 179.094628665
Chemical Formula
C10H13NO2
InChI Key
CPJSUEIXXCENMM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H13NO2/c1-3-13-10-6-4-9(5-7-10)11-8(2)12/h4-7H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,11,12)
IUPAC Name
N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)acetamide
SMILES
CCOC1=CC=C(NC(C)=O)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Used principally as an analgesic.

Pharmacodynamics

Phenacetin was the first NSAID and fever reducer to go on the market. Its analgesic effects are due to its actions on the sensory tracts of the spinal cord. In addition, phenacetin has a depressant action of the heart, where it acts as a negative inotrope. It is an antipyretic, acting on the brain to decrease the temperature set point. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (subacute type), intercostal neuralgia, and some forms of ataxia. [Wikipedia]

Mechanism of action

Phenacetin's analgesic effects are due to its actions on the sensory tracts of the spinal cord. In addition, phenacetin has a depressant action on the heart, where it acts as a negative inotrope. It is an antipyretic, acting on the brain to decrease the temperature set point. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (subacute type) and intercostal neuralgia. [Wikipedia]

TargetActionsOrganism
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 1Not AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Metabolised in the body to paracetamol.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 866 mg/kg [Mouse].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Phenacetin can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcetazolamideThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Acetazolamide.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
AcyclovirThe excretion of Acyclovir can be decreased when combined with Phenacetin.
Adefovir DipivoxilThe excretion of Adefovir Dipivoxil can be decreased when combined with Phenacetin.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Albendazole.
AlclometasoneThe metabolism of Alclometasone can be decreased when combined with Phenacetin.
AlfentanilThe metabolism of Alfentanil can be decreased when combined with Phenacetin.
AlfuzosinThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Alfuzosin.
AlmotriptanThe metabolism of Phenacetin can be decreased when combined with Almotriptan.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Ernst Bocker, Wolfgang Kracht, Roland Rupp, Erhard Schellmann, Viktor Trescher, Martin Ullrich, "Preparation of melt-sprayed spherical phenacetin granules." U.S. Patent US4086346, issued October, 1972.

US4086346
General References
  1. Dubach UC, Rosner B, Sturmer T: An epidemiologic study of abuse of analgesic drugs. Effects of phenacetin and salicylate on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity (1968 to 1987) N Engl J Med. 1991 Jan 17;324(3):155-60. [PubMed:1984193]
  2. Cochran AJ, Lawson DH, Linton AL: Renal papillary necrosis following phenacetin excess. Scott Med J. 1967 Jul;12(7):246-50. [PubMed:6036245]
  3. TAN GH, RABBINO MD, HOPPER J Jr: IS PHENACETIN A NEPHROTOXIN?A REPORT ON TWENTY-THREE USERS OF THE DRUG. Calif Med. 1964 Aug;101:73-7. [PubMed:14180501]
  4. Brix AE: Renal papillary necrosis. Toxicol Pathol. 2002 Nov-Dec;30(6):672-4. [PubMed:12512867]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00569
KEGG Compound
C07591
PubChem Compound
4754
PubChem Substance
46507394
ChemSpider
4590
BindingDB
50420191
ChEBI
8050
ChEMBL
CHEMBL16073
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC001117
PharmGKB
PA450897
HET
N4E
Wikipedia
Phenacetin
ATC Codes
N02BE73 — Phenacetin, combinations with psycholepticsN02BE03 — PhenacetinN02BE53 — Phenacetin, combinations excl. psycholeptics
PDB Entries
3ebs
MSDS
Download (50.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)137.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility766 mg/L (at 25 °C)SEIDELL,A (1941)
logP1.58NAKAGAWA,Y ET AL. (1992)
logS-2.37ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.78 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.62ALOGPS
logP1.41ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area38.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity52.13 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability19.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9915
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8257
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9091
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9391
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.889
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8154
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5542
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9619
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5441
Ames testAMES toxic0.9108
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6859
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5762
Rat acute toxicity2.0676 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9679
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9315
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.59 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-335c6f93c6c61172faca
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0a4i-3900000000-a251ba59f8f792deb3e1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-ff1bc2f7f827dd1711f6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01qi-0900000000-8d7f58b56528e6f12b90
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-632d2f940d3bf1e4b090
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-2900000000-a8b75ec081cf2f9bd170
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0c03-2900000000-115f1b03c65a7dc2e1e9
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-375522dc595b7e227b62
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-6900100000-e5425770c8b511b991fa
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acetanilides. These are organic compounds containing an acetamide group conjugated to a phenyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Anilides
Direct Parent
Acetanilides
Alternative Parents
N-acetylarylamines / Phenoxy compounds / Phenol ethers / Alkyl aryl ethers / Acetamides / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Acetanilide / N-acetylarylamine / Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / N-arylamide / Alkyl aryl ether / Acetamide / Carboxamide group / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / Ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aromatic ether, acetamides (CHEBI:8050)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhang T, Zhu Y, Gunaratna C: Rapid and quantitative determination of metabolites from multiple cytochrome P450 probe substrates by gradient liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Nov 25;780(2):371-9. [PubMed:12401364]
  2. Kobayashi K, Nakajima M, Oshima K, Shimada N, Yokoi T, Chiba K: Involvement of CYP2E1 as A low-affinity enzyme in phenacetin O-deethylation in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):860-5. [PubMed:10421611]
  3. Huang Q, Deshmukh RS, Ericksen SS, Tu Y, Szklarz GD: Preferred binding orientations of phenacetin in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are associated with isoform-selective metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012 Dec;40(12):2324-31. doi: 10.1124/dmd.112.047308. Epub 2012 Sep 4. [PubMed:22949628]
  4. Yun CH, Miller GP, Guengerich FP: Oxidations of p-alkoxyacylanilides catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 1A2: structure-activity relationships and simulation of rate constants of individual steps in catalysis. Biochemistry. 2001 Apr 10;40(14):4521-30. [PubMed:11284709]
  5. Grimm SW, Dyroff MC: Inhibition of human drug metabolizing cytochromes P450 by anastrozole, a potent and selective inhibitor of aromatase. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 May;25(5):598-602. [PubMed:9152599]
  6. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-s...
Gene Name
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID
Q16696
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A13
Molecular Weight
56687.095 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID
Q4U2R8
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Mulato AS, Ho ES, Cihlar T: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs efficiently reduce the transport and cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by the human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):10-5. [PubMed:10991954]
  2. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [PubMed:10220563]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 10, 2018 21:54