Identification

Name
Estrone sulfate
Accession Number
DB04574
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Estrone sulfate (as estropipate) is a form of estrogen. It has several uses such as: alleviate symptoms of menopause as hormone replacement therapy, treatment some types of infertility, treatment of some conditions leading to underdevelopment of female sexual characteristics, treatment of vaginal atrophy, treatment of some types of breast cancer (particularly in men and postmenopausal women), treatment of prostate cancer and prevention of osteoporosis.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Estra-1,3,5 (10)-triene-17-one-3-yl-sulfate
  • Estrone 3-sulfate
  • Estrone bisulfate
  • Estrone hemisulfate
  • Estrone hydrogen sulfate
  • estrone sulphate
  • Estrone-3-sulphate
  • Estrone, hydrogen sulfate
External IDs
US-2917522
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Estrone sodium sulfate6K6FDA543A438-67-5VUCAHVBMSFIGAI-ZFINNJDLSA-M
EstropipateSVI38UY0197280-37-7HZEQBCVBILBTEP-ZFINNJDLSA-N
Potassium estrone sulfateC354LET0O41240-04-6CUQHOFAEIPGLBH-ZFINNJDLSA-M
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Estroneprodrug2DI9HA706A53-16-7DNXHEGUUPJUMQT-CBZIJGRNSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OgenCream1.5 mg/1gVaginalPharmacia & Upjohn Inc2006-07-25Not applicableUs
Ogen .625Tablet0.75 mgOralPfizer1994-12-312012-08-24Canada
Ogen 1.25Tablet1.5 mgOralPfizer1994-12-312012-08-24Canada
Ogen 2.5Tablet3.0 mgOralPfizer1994-12-312012-08-24Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EstropipateTablet0.75 mg/1OralWatson Pharma, Inc.1993-09-232001-10-10Us
EstropipateTablet0.75 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2016-02-05Not applicableUs
EstropipateTablet1.5 mg/1OralWatson Pharma, Inc.1993-09-232002-06-19Us
EstropipateTablet3 mg/1OralBarr Laboratories1998-01-232011-10-31Us
EstropipateTablet1.5 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals1999-11-102013-06-30Us
EstropipateTablet3 mg/1OralActavis Pharma, Inc.1993-09-23Not applicableUs
EstropipateTablet1.5 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-03-21Not applicableUs
EstropipateTablet6 mg/1OralWatson Pharma, Inc.1993-09-232000-01-01Us
EstropipateTablet1.5 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-07-07Not applicableUs
EstropipateTablet1.5 mg/1OralBarr Laboratories1998-01-232011-10-31Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Eemt D.S.Estrone sodium sulfate (0.625 mg/1) + Methyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2003-11-012012-01-31Us
Eemt H.S.Estrone sodium sulfate (0.625 mg/1) + Methyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralBreckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc.2003-11-012012-01-31Us
Esterified Estrogens and MethyltestosteroneEstrone sodium sulfate (0.625 mg/1) + Methyltestosterone (1.25 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralTal Pharma Llc2010-09-17Not applicableUs50220 0001 01 nlmimage10 6005b07d
Esterified Estrogens and MethyltestosteroneEstrone sodium sulfate (1.25 mg/1) + Methyltestosterone (2.5 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralTal Pharma Llc2010-09-17Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Ogen / ORTHO-EST
Categories
UNII
QTL48N278K
CAS number
481-97-0
Weight
Average: 350.429
Monoisotopic: 350.118794504
Chemical Formula
C18H22O5S
InChI Key
JKKFKPJIXZFSSB-CBZIJGRNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H22O5S/c1-18-9-8-14-13-5-3-12(23-24(20,21)22)10-11(13)2-4-15(14)16(18)6-7-17(18)19/h3,5,10,14-16H,2,4,6-9H2,1H3,(H,20,21,22)/t14-,15-,16+,18+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
[(1S,10R,11S,15S)-15-methyl-14-oxotetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2(7),3,5-trien-5-yl]oxidanesulfonic acid
SMILES
C[C@]12CC[C@H]3[C@@H](CCC4=C3C=CC(OS(O)(=O)=O)=C4)[C@@H]1CCC2=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Estropipate is used for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the monopause, and moderate to severe symptoms of vulval and vaginal atrophy associated with the menopause. It is also used to treat hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure, and prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Estropipate is an estrogenic substance. It acts as naturally produced estrogen does. Estrogens act through binding to nuclear receptors in estrogen-responsive tissues. Circulating estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), through a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogens act to reduce the elevated levels of these hormones seen in postmenopausal women.

Mechanism of action

Estradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.

TargetActionsOrganism
AEstrogen receptor alpha
agonist
Human
UEstrogen receptor beta
agonist
Human
Absorption

Estropipate is well absorbed through the skin and gastrointestinal tract. When applied for a local action, absorption is usually sufficient to cause systemic effects.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is the major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the gut followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women, a significant proportion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens.

Route of elimination

Estradiol, estrone and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Estrone MetabolismMetabolic
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolic
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismMetabolic
Estrone MetabolismMetabolic
Sulfite Oxidase DeficiencyDisease
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismMetabolic
17-beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencyDisease
Aromatase DeficiencyDisease
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(1S,6R)-3-{[3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-5,6-DIHYDRO[1,2,4]TRIAZOLO[4,3-A]PYRAZIN-7(8H)-YL]CARBONYL}-6-(2,4,5-TRIFLUOROPHENYL)CYCLOHEX-3-EN-1-AMINEThe therapeutic efficacy of (1S,6R)-3-{[3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-5,6-DIHYDRO[1,2,4]TRIAZOLO[4,3-A]PYRAZIN-7(8H)-YL]CARBONYL}-6-(2,4,5-TRIFLUOROPHENYL)CYCLOHEX-3-EN-1-AMINE can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone sulfate.
(4R)-limoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when (4R)-limonene is combined with Estrone sulfate.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estrone sulfate is combined with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone sulfate.
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone sulfate.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Estrone sulfate.
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Estrone sulfate.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Estrone sulfate which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetazolamideThe metabolism of Estrone sulfate can be decreased when combined with Acetazolamide.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to decrease nausea

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001425
KEGG Compound
C02538
PubChem Compound
3001028
PubChem Substance
46508976
ChemSpider
2272513
BindingDB
50366524
ChEBI
17474
ChEMBL
CHEMBL494753
PharmGKB
PA165958342
RxList
RxList Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Estropipate

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral0.75 mg/1
TabletOral1.5 mg/1
TabletOral3 mg/1
TabletOral6 mg/1
CreamVaginal1.5 mg/1g
TabletOral0.75 mg
TabletOral1.5 mg
TabletOral3.0 mg
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0059 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP3.83ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.67 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity89.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.935
Caco-2 permeable-0.8343
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5376
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5591
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9751
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8407
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7526
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8214
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6275
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9421
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8808
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5621
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5507
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9558
Rat acute toxicity2.2402 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5746
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8077
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfated steroids. These are sterol lipids containing a sulfate group attached to the steroid skeleton.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Sulfated steroids
Direct Parent
Sulfated steroids
Alternative Parents
Estrane steroids / 17-oxosteroids / Phenanthrenes and derivatives / Tetralins / Arylsulfates / Sulfuric acid monoesters / Ketones / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Sulfated steroid skeleton / Estrane-skeleton / 17-oxosteroid / Oxosteroid / Phenanthrene / Arylsulfate / Tetralin / Benzenoid / Sulfuric acid ester / Sulfuric acid monoester
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
steroid sulfate, 17-oxo steroid (CHEBI:17474) / sulfates, C18 steroids (estrogens) and derivatives, Estrogens (C02538) / C18 steroids (estrogens) and derivatives (LMST02010043)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Brama M, Gnessi L, Basciani S, Cerulli N, Politi L, Spera G, Mariani S, Cherubini S, Scotto d'Abusco A, Scandurra R, Migliaccio S: Cadmium induces mitogenic signaling in breast cancer cell by an ERalpha-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):102-8. Epub 2006 Nov 27. [PubMed:17125913]
  2. Lehnes K, Winder AD, Alfonso C, Kasid N, Simoneaux M, Summe H, Morgan E, Iann MC, Duncan J, Eagan M, Tavaluc R, Evans CH Jr, Russell R, Wang A, Hu F, Stoica A: The effect of estradiol on in vivo tumorigenesis is modulated by the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 pathway. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar;148(3):1171-80. Epub 2006 Nov 30. [PubMed:17138652]
  3. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent m...
Gene Name
ESR2
Uniprot ID
Q92731
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor beta
Molecular Weight
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Vijayanathan V, Greenfield NJ, Thomas TJ, Ivanova MM, Tyulmenkov VV, Klinge CM, Gallo MA, Thomas T: Effects of estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen on the conformation, thermal stability, and DNA recognition of estrogen receptor beta. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Feb;85(1):1-10. [PubMed:17464340]
  2. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. [PubMed:2011412]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Williams ET, Leyk M, Wrighton SA, Davies PJ, Loose DS, Shipley GL, Strobel HW: Estrogen regulation of the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Nov;311(2):728-35. Epub 2004 Jul 28. [PubMed:15282264]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317]
  3. Cribb AE, Knight MJ, Dryer D, Guernsey J, Hender K, Tesch M, Saleh TM: Role of polymorphic human cytochrome P450 enzymes in estrone oxidation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Mar;15(3):551-8. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0801. [PubMed:16537715]
  4. Pollock BG, Wylie M, Stack JA, Sorisio DA, Thompson DS, Kirshner MA, Folan MM, Condifer KA: Inhibition of caffeine metabolism by estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Sep;39(9):936-40. [PubMed:10471985]
  5. Hong CC, Tang BK, Hammond GL, Tritchler D, Yaffe M, Boyd NF: Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity and risk factors for breast cancer: a cross-sectional study. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6(4):R352-65. doi: 10.1186/bcr798. Epub 2004 May 7. [PubMed:15217502]
  6. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  7. CYP1A2 document, cancer.gov [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Enzyme action based on in vitro data.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Egnell AC, Eriksson C, Albertson N, Houston B, Boyer S: Generation and evaluation of a CYP2C9 heteroactivation pharmacophore. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):878-87. Epub 2003 Oct 13. [PubMed:14557374]
  2. Modugno F, Knoll C, Kanbour-Shakir A, Romkes M: A potential role for the estrogen-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in human breast carcinogenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003 Dec;82(3):191-7. doi: 10.1023/B:BREA.0000004376.21491.44. [PubMed:14703066]
  3. Daly AK, Rettie AE, Fowler DM, Miners JO: Pharmacogenomics of CYP2C9: Functional and Clinical Considerations. J Pers Med. 2017 Dec 28;8(1). pii: jpm8010001. doi: 10.3390/jpm8010001. [PubMed:29283396]
  4. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  5. CYP2C19 and CYP2C9: New aspects of pharmacogenetics and transcriptional regulation [File]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Campusano M C, Brusco G F, Campino J C, Rodriguez P L, Arteaga U E: [Assessment of androgenic decline in the elderly]. Rev Med Chil. 2006 Sep;134(9):1123-8. Epub 2006 Dec 12. [PubMed:17171213]
  2. Kuba R, Pohanka M, Zakopcan J, Novotna I, Rektor I: Sexual dysfunctions and blood hormonal profile in men with focal epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006 Dec;47(12):2135-40. [PubMed:17201714]
  3. Bendlova B, Zavadilova J, Vankova M, Vejrazkova D, Lukasova P, Vcelak J, Hill M, Cibula D, Vondra K, Starka L, Vrbikova J: Role of D327N sex hormone-binding globulin gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;104(1-2):68-74. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17258903]
  4. Sablik Z, Samborska-Sablik A, Bolinska-Soltysiak H, Goch JH, Kula K: [Hyperandrogenism as a risk factor of coronary artery disease in young women]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2006 Feb;115(2):118-24. [PubMed:17274467]
  5. Mohamad MJ, Mohammad MA, Karayyem M, Hairi A, Hader AA: Serum levels of sex hormones in men with acute myocardial infarction. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2007 Apr;28(2):182-6. [PubMed:17435665]
  6. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]
  7. Pardridge WM: Serum bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):259-78. [PubMed:3521955]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. O'Connell MB: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic variation between different estrogen products. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Sep;35(9 Suppl):18S-24S. [PubMed:8530713]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Hayer-Zillgen M, Bruss M, Bonisch H: Expression and pharmacological profile of the human organic cation transporters hOCT1, hOCT2 and hOCT3. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Jul;136(6):829-36. [PubMed:12110607]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfat...
Gene Name
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID
Q96FL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1
Molecular Weight
61921.585 Da
References
  1. Tanihara Y, Masuda S, Sato T, Katsura T, Ogawa O, Inui K: Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 15;74(2):359-71. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2007.04.010. Epub 2007 Apr 13. [PubMed:17509534]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Datas supported only by an in vitro study.
General Function
Drug transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acy...
Gene Name
SLC47A2
Uniprot ID
Q86VL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 2
Molecular Weight
65083.915 Da
References
  1. Tanihara Y, Masuda S, Sato T, Katsura T, Ogawa O, Inui K: Substrate specificity of MATE1 and MATE2-K, human multidrug and toxin extrusions/H(+)-organic cation antiporters. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 15;74(2):359-71. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2007.04.010. Epub 2007 Apr 13. [PubMed:17509534]

Drug created on September 07, 2007 15:12 / Updated on October 16, 2018 10:12