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Identification
NameL-Aspartic Acid
Accession NumberDB00128  (NUTR00016, EXPT01823)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
(S)-2-aminosuccinic acid
2-Aminosuccinic acid
Asp
Aspartic acid
D
L-Asp
L-Asparaginsaeure
L-Asparaginsäure
L-Aspartate
L-Aspartic acid
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Aminosyn IIHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 15%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 5% InjAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% M In 10% Dextrose(dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 10% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 7% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% M In 20% Dextrose (dual Chamber)Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II 8.5% With 50% DextroseHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II In Dextrose InjectionHospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
ClinisolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
NovamineHospira, Inc.
Olimel 3.3% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 4.4% EBaxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7% EBaxter Corporation
Periolimel 2.5% EBaxter Corporation
PlenamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Primene 10%Baxter Corporation
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
ProsolBaxter Healthcare Corporation
TrophamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII30KYC7MIAI
CAS number56-84-8
WeightAverage: 133.1027
Monoisotopic: 133.037507717
Chemical FormulaC4H7NO4
InChI KeyInChIKey=CKLJMWTZIZZHCS-REOHCLBHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H7NO4/c5-2(4(8)9)1-3(6)7/h2H,1,5H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)/t2-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as d-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the D-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentD-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationThere is no support for the claim that aspartates are exercise performance enhancers, i.e. ergogenic aids.
PharmacodynamicsL-aspartate is considered a non-essential amino acid, meaning that, under normal physiological conditions, sufficient amounts of the amino acid are synthesized in the body to meet the body's requirements. L-aspartate is formed by the transamination of the Krebs cycle intermediate oxaloacetate. The amino acid serves as a precursor for synthesis of proteins, oligopeptides, purines, pyrimidines, nucleic acids and L-arginine. L-aspartate is a glycogenic amino acid, and it can also promote energy production via its metabolism in the Krebs cycle. These latter activities were the rationale for the claim that supplemental aspartate has an anti-fatigue effect on skeletal muscle, a claim that was never confirmed.
Mechanism of actionThere are also claims that L-aspartate has ergogenic effects, that it enhances performance in both prolonged exercise and short intensive exercise. It is hypothesized that L-aspartate, especially the potassium magnesium aspartate salt, spares stores of muscle glycogen and/or promotes a faster rate of glycogen resynthesis during exercise. It has also been hypothesized that L-aspartate can enhance short intensive exercise by serving as a substrate for energy production in the Krebs cycle and for stimulating the purine nucleotide cycle.
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed from the small intestine by an active transport process
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityMild gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea. LD50 (rat) > 5,000 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00167
HypoacetylaspartiaDiseaseSMP00192
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00203
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00210
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)DiseaseSMP00535
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeDiseaseSMP00536
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolicSMP00009
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolicSMP00020
Urea CycleMetabolicSMP00059
Canavan DiseaseDiseaseSMP00175
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00205
Prolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00208
Hyperprolinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00361
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)DiseaseSMP00364
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaDiseaseSMP00493
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00537
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleMetabolicSMP00129
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00188
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDiseaseSMP00360
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00362
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeDiseaseSMP00365
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00427
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00504
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)DiseaseSMP00505
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]DiseaseSMP00506
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00507
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.5825
Blood Brain Barrier-0.6594
Caco-2 permeable-0.8271
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7668
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9714
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9916
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9672
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.856
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8541
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7916
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9605
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9657
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9547
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.973
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9372
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity1.0
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8906
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9088
Rat acute toxicity1.1037 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9849
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9795
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionintravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous
Emulsionintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Liquidintravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-aspartic acid powder2.46USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point270 °CPhysProp
water solubility5390 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.89CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
pKa2.01 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility142.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.5ChemAxon
logS0.03ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.28 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (2.96 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0960000000-5a6a6cb21e9fc0875f84View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0950000000-51399a8446c394459765View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0950000000-f07e7f52b3c31fd119f5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-0950000000-9e175dfa17a8b17a72d2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0f89-0950000000-f4475587d5a3b20bfc58View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9430000000-0cac9a97e698db1672b5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-03yi-1900000000-ea61b8526ee02ae79b66View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0f89-1890000000-7da576c8129142b71a1bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0pb9-0981000000-ad23d55e348f55115f00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0079-9300000000-92f9914d94078d96f5cfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-c467d10f2b7e21ed1734View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dl-9000000000-87f0c58226f5a2f3ac8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-fde7ef1951fddff4b817View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uk9-8900000000-2d7e5609618437e59272View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-4b43567f4a446aed0828View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-4900000000-45382d9abd25be948e5bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-3f39a9b758e282358ac0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-44d361ad09ff9a30dd14View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-18e1dba62e6b803e17b8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0930000000-d97f9518a2d516d830c5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-02ai-0962100000-909bb894b2c1318afee4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f2059dd438fcf62f62e1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dr-7900000000-8b7b89ed34530e331024View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-0190000000-58a78949f4b93de22aabView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0921000000-214b6b969fdc4216ca71View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dr-6900000000-4918748927dd097d2879View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-88dc2f1093f261e76201View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0290000000-a8856f56645a2961baacView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-8cf9870557ca9adc3374View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9400000000-81b2804a712625a2d9c4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-9bf77ba12ad952f84ac0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-e08bfb96c5fd8c9b9db7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-876e30f6c9ed061091feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-6c0d44d4e3853e5701a3View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Nguyen-Cong Duc, “Method of making L-aspartic acid from fumaric acid.” U.S. Patent US3933586, issued August, 1965.

US3933586
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner membrane. May have a function in the urea cycle.
Gene Name:
SLC25A13
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJS0
Molecular Weight:
74174.95 Da
References
  1. Contreras L, Gomez-Puertas P, Iijima M, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Satrustegui J: Ca2+ Activation kinetics of the two aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carriers, aralar and citrin: role in the heart malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7098-106. Epub 2007 Jan 9. [PubMed:17213189 ]
  2. Saheki T, Iijima M, Li MX, Kobayashi K, Horiuchi M, Ushikai M, Okumura F, Meng XJ, Inoue I, Tajima A, Moriyama M, Eto K, Kadowaki T, Sinasac DS, Tsui LC, Tsuji M, Okano A, Kobayashi T: Citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice recapitulate features of human citrin deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 24;282(34):25041-52. Epub 2007 Jun 25. [PubMed:17591776 ]
  3. Satrustegui J, Pardo B, Del Arco A: Mitochondrial transporters as novel targets for intracellular calcium signaling. Physiol Rev. 2007 Jan;87(1):29-67. [PubMed:17237342 ]
  4. Ikeda S: [Adult-onset citrullinemia]. Brain Nerve. 2007 Jan;59(1):59-66. [PubMed:17354380 ]
  5. Ikeda S: [Adult-onset citrullinemia]. No To Shinkei. 2007 Jan;59(1):59-66. [PubMed:17228780 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a scavenger of glutamate in brain neuroprotection. The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis. Using L-cysteine a...
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular Weight:
46247.14 Da
References
  1. Tordjman J, Leroyer S, Chauvet G, Quette J, Chauvet C, Tomkiewicz C, Chapron C, Barouki R, Forest C, Aggerbeck M, Antoine B: Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, a new partner in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and an atypical target of thiazolidinedione. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 10;282(32):23591-602. Epub 2007 Jun 1. [PubMed:17545671 ]
  2. Girgin S, Gedik E, Tacyildiz IH, Akgun Y, Bac B, Uysal E: Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in gangrenous cholecystitis. Acta Chir Belg. 2006 Sep-Oct;106(5):545-9. [PubMed:17168267 ]
  3. Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R: Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Jul;102(1):103-11. Epub 2007 Apr 17. [PubMed:17442055 ]
  4. Wu ZM, Wen T, Tan YF, Liu Y, Ren F, Wu H: Effects of salvianolic acid a on oxidative stress and liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007 Feb;100(2):115-20. [PubMed:17244260 ]
  5. Zappacosta B, Manni A, Persichilli S, Boari A, Scribano D, Minucci A, Raffaelli L, Giardina B, De Sole P: Salivary thiols and enzyme markers of cell damage in periodontal disease. Clin Biochem. 2007 Jun;40(9-10):661-5. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17328883 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maintenance of intact white matter. In other tissues it act as a scavenger of NAA from body fluids.
Gene Name:
ASPA
Uniprot ID:
P45381
Molecular Weight:
35734.79 Da
References
  1. Wang J, Matalon R, Bhatia G, Wu G, Li H, Liu T, Lu ZH, Ledeen RW: Bimodal occurrence of aspartoacylase in myelin and cytosol of brain. J Neurochem. 2007 Apr;101(2):448-57. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17254025 ]
  2. Bitto E, Bingman CA, Wesenberg GE, McCoy JG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure of aspartoacylase, the brain enzyme impaired in Canavan disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 9;104(2):456-61. Epub 2006 Dec 28. [PubMed:17194761 ]
  3. Janson CG, McPhee SW, Francis J, Shera D, Assadi M, Freese A, Hurh P, Haselgrove J, Wang DJ, Bilaniuk L, Leone P: Natural history of Canavan disease revealed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion-weighted MRI. Neuropediatrics. 2006 Aug;37(4):209-21. [PubMed:17177147 ]
  4. Srikanth SG, Chandrashekar HS, Nagarajan K, Jayakumar PN: Restricted diffusion in Canavan disease. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007 Apr;23(4):465-8. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17219235 ]
  5. Moffett JR, Ross B, Arun P, Madhavarao CN, Namboodiri AM: N-Acetylaspartate in the CNS: from neurodiagnostics to neurobiology. Prog Neurobiol. 2007 Feb;81(2):89-131. Epub 2007 Jan 5. [PubMed:17275978 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ASNS
Uniprot ID:
P08243
Molecular Weight:
64369.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Is indirectly involved in the control of blood pressure.
Gene Name:
ASS1
Uniprot ID:
P00966
Molecular Weight:
46530.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Flam BR, Eichler DC, Solomonson LP: Endothelial nitric oxide production is tightly coupled to the citrulline-NO cycle. Nitric Oxide. 2007 Nov-Dec;17(3-4):115-21. Epub 2007 Aug 3. [PubMed:17869551 ]
  4. Ben-Yoseph Y, Mitchell DA: Detection of kinetically abnormal argininosuccinate synthase in neonatal citrullinemia by conversion of citrulline to arginine in intact fibroblasts. Clin Chim Acta. 1989 Aug 15;183(2):125-33. [PubMed:2791302 ]
  5. Shen LJ, Beloussow K, Shen WC: Accessibility of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase to the intracellular citrulline-arginine regeneration pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 1;69(1):97-104. [PubMed:15588718 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metallopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the hydrolysis of N-acylated or N-acetylated amino acids (except L-aspartate).
Gene Name:
ACY1
Uniprot ID:
Q03154
Molecular Weight:
45884.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Mitta M, Ohnogi H, Yamamoto A, Kato I, Sakiyama F, Tsunasawa S: The primary structure of porcine aminoacylase 1 deduced from cDNA sequence. J Biochem. 1992 Dec;112(6):737-42. [PubMed:1284246 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
Gene Name:
GOT2
Uniprot ID:
P00505
Molecular Weight:
47517.285 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Collier RH, Kohlhaw G: Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1972 Oct;112(1):365-71. [PubMed:4404056 ]
  4. Grell EH: Genetic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase isozymes from hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans and mutagen-induced isozyme variants. Genetics. 1976 Aug;83(4):753-64. [PubMed:823072 ]
  5. Recasens M, Mandel P: Similarities between cysteinesulphinate transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Ciba Found Symp. 1979;(72):259-70. [PubMed:261660 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a 2 step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA.
Gene Name:
DARS
Uniprot ID:
P14868
Molecular Weight:
57135.8 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Eiler S, Dock-Bregeon A, Moulinier L, Thierry JC, Moras D: Synthesis of aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) in Escherichia coli--a snapshot of the second step. EMBO J. 1999 Nov 15;18(22):6532-41. [PubMed:10562565 ]
  4. Fender A, Sauter C, Messmer M, Putz J, Giege R, Florentz C, Sissler M: Loss of a primordial identity element for a mammalian mitochondrial aminoacylation system. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 9;281(23):15980-6. Epub 2006 Apr 5. [PubMed:16597625 ]
  5. Cavarelli J, Eriani G, Rees B, Ruff M, Boeglin M, Mitschler A, Martin F, Gangloff J, Thierry JC, Moras D: The active site of yeast aspartyl-tRNA synthetase: structural and functional aspects of the aminoacylation reaction. EMBO J. 1994 Jan 15;13(2):327-37. [PubMed:8313877 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-glutamate transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner membrane. May have a function in the urea cycle.
Gene Name:
SLC25A12
Uniprot ID:
O75746
Molecular Weight:
74761.225 Da
References
  1. Correia C, Coutinho AM, Diogo L, Grazina M, Marques C, Miguel T, Ataide A, Almeida J, Borges L, Oliveira C, Oliveira G, Vicente AM: Brief report: High frequency of biochemical markers for mitochondrial dysfunction in autism: no association with the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier SLC25A12 gene. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Nov;36(8):1137-40. [PubMed:17151801 ]
  2. Contreras L, Gomez-Puertas P, Iijima M, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Satrustegui J: Ca2+ Activation kinetics of the two aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carriers, aralar and citrin: role in the heart malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7098-106. Epub 2007 Jan 9. [PubMed:17213189 ]
  3. Satrustegui J, Contreras L, Ramos M, Marmol P, del Arco A, Saheki T, Pardo B: Role of aralar, the mitochondrial transporter of aspartate-glutamate, in brain N-acetylaspartate formation and Ca(2+) signaling in neuronal mitochondria. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 15;85(15):3359-66. [PubMed:17497669 ]
  4. Satrustegui J, Pardo B, Del Arco A: Mitochondrial transporters as novel targets for intracellular calcium signaling. Physiol Rev. 2007 Jan;87(1):29-67. [PubMed:17237342 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1: specifically hydroxylates an Asp or Asn residue in certain epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domains of a number of proteins.Isoform 8: membrane-bound Ca(2+)-sensing protein, which is a structural component of the ER-plasma membrane junctions. Isoform 8 regulates the activity of Ca(+2) released-activated Ca(+2) (CRAC) channels in T-cells.
Gene Name:
ASPH
Uniprot ID:
Q12797
Molecular Weight:
85862.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Whiteman P, Marks C, Freese E: The sodium effect of Bacillus subtilis growth on aspartate. J Gen Microbiol. 1980 Aug;119(2):493-504. [PubMed:6785382 ]
  4. Iijima T, Diesterhaft MD, Freese E: Sodium effect of growth on aspartate and genetic analysis of a Bacillus subtilis mutant with high aspartase activity. J Bacteriol. 1977 Mar;129(3):1440-7. [PubMed:403177 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PAICS
Uniprot ID:
P22234
Molecular Weight:
47078.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
This protein is a "fusion" protein encoding four enzymatic activities of the pyrimidine pathway (GATase, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase).
Gene Name:
CAD
Uniprot ID:
P27708
Molecular Weight:
242981.73 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphate ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the de novo pathway and in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP.
Gene Name:
ADSS
Uniprot ID:
P30520
Molecular Weight:
50097.075 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Raman J, Mehrotra S, Anand RP, Balaram H: Unique kinetic mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum adenylosuccinate synthetase. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004 Nov;138(1):1-8. [PubMed:15500910 ]
  4. Mehrotra S, Balaram H: Kinetic characterization of adenylosuccinate synthetase from the thermophilic archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Biochemistry. 2007 Nov 6;46(44):12821-32. Epub 2007 Oct 11. [PubMed:17929831 ]
  5. Datta SK, Guicherit OM, Kellems RE: Adenylosuccinate synthetase: a dominant amplifiable genetic marker in mammalian cells. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1994 Sep;20(5):381-9. [PubMed:7825060 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports L-glutamate, L- and D-aspartate and L-cystein (PubMed:21123949). Essential for terminating the postsynaptic action of glutamate by rapidly removing released glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Acts as a symport by cotransporting sodium. Negatively regulated by ARL6IP5 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC1A1
Uniprot ID:
P43005
Molecular Weight:
57099.835 Da
References
  1. Tao Z, Grewer C: Cooperation of the conserved aspartate 439 and bound amino acid substrate is important for high-affinity Na+ binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Apr;129(4):331-44. [PubMed:17389249 ]
  2. Teichman S, Kanner BI: Aspartate-444 is essential for productive substrate interactions in a neuronal glutamate transporter. J Gen Physiol. 2007 Jun;129(6):527-39. [PubMed:17535962 ]
  3. Tai YH, Wang YH, Tsai RY, Wang JJ, Tao PL, Liu TM, Wang YC, Wong CS: Amitriptyline preserves morphine's antinociceptive effect by regulating the glutamate transporter GLAST and GLT-1 trafficking and excitatory amino acids concentration in morphine-tolerant rats. Pain. 2007 Jun;129(3):343-54. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17346885 ]
  4. Ozawa S: [Role of glutamate transporters in excitatory synapses in cerebellar Purkinje cells]. Brain Nerve. 2007 Jul;59(7):669-76. [PubMed:17663137 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GIG18
Uniprot ID:
Q2TU84
Molecular Weight:
46319.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ASS
Uniprot ID:
Q5T6L4
Molecular Weight:
46530.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Flam BR, Eichler DC, Solomonson LP: Endothelial nitric oxide production is tightly coupled to the citrulline-NO cycle. Nitric Oxide. 2007 Nov-Dec;17(3-4):115-21. Epub 2007 Aug 3. [PubMed:17869551 ]
  4. Ben-Yoseph Y, Mitchell DA: Detection of kinetically abnormal argininosuccinate synthase in neonatal citrullinemia by conversion of citrulline to arginine in intact fibroblasts. Clin Chim Acta. 1989 Aug 15;183(2):125-33. [PubMed:2791302 ]
  5. Shen LJ, Beloussow K, Shen WC: Accessibility of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase to the intracellular citrulline-arginine regeneration pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 1;69(1):97-104. [PubMed:15588718 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q6PI48
Molecular Weight:
73562.02 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Eiler S, Dock-Bregeon A, Moulinier L, Thierry JC, Moras D: Synthesis of aspartyl-tRNA(Asp) in Escherichia coli--a snapshot of the second step. EMBO J. 1999 Nov 15;18(22):6532-41. [PubMed:10562565 ]
  4. Fender A, Sauter C, Messmer M, Putz J, Giege R, Florentz C, Sissler M: Loss of a primordial identity element for a mammalian mitochondrial aminoacylation system. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 9;281(23):15980-6. Epub 2006 Apr 5. [PubMed:16597625 ]
  5. Cavarelli J, Eriani G, Rees B, Ruff M, Boeglin M, Mitschler A, Martin F, Gangloff J, Thierry JC, Moras D: The active site of yeast aspartyl-tRNA synthetase: structural and functional aspects of the aminoacylation reaction. EMBO J. 1994 Jan 15;13(2):327-37. [PubMed:8313877 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Beta-aspartyl-peptidase activity
Specific Function:
Has both L-asparaginase and beta-aspartyl peptidase activity. May be involved in the production of L-aspartate, which can act as an excitatory neurotransmitter in some brain regions. Is highly active with L-Asp beta-methyl ester. Besides, has catalytic activity toward beta-aspartyl dipeptides and their methyl esters, including beta-L-Asp-L-Phe, beta-L-Asp-L-Phe methyl ester (aspartame), beta-L-...
Gene Name:
ASRGL1
Uniprot ID:
Q7L266
Molecular Weight:
32054.325 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphate ion binding
Specific Function:
Component of the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC), which interconverts IMP and AMP to regulate the nucleotide levels in various tissues, and which contributes to glycolysis and ammoniagenesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADSSL1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N142
Molecular Weight:
50208.16 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in deacetylating mercapturic acids in kidney proximal tubules. Also acts on N-acetyl-aromatic amino acids (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACY3
Uniprot ID:
Q96HD9
Molecular Weight:
35240.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ribonuclease a activity
Specific Function:
Endonuclease that catalyzes the cleavage of RNA on the 3' side of pyrimidine nucleotides. Acts on single-stranded and double-stranded RNA.
Gene Name:
RNASE1
Uniprot ID:
P07998
Molecular Weight:
17644.125 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Lysozyme activity
Specific Function:
Lysozymes have primarily a bacteriolytic function; those in tissues and body fluids are associated with the monocyte-macrophage system and enhance the activity of immunoagents.
Gene Name:
LYZ
Uniprot ID:
P61626
Molecular Weight:
16536.885 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23