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Identification
NameCalcidiol
Accession NumberDB00146  (NUTR00006, APRD00428)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

The major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). It is produced in the liver and is the best indicator of the body’s vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of rickets and osteomalacia, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(3beta,5Z,7e)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,25-diol
(3S,5Z,7e)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10-triene-3,25-diol
(3β,5Z,7E)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,25-diol
(5Z,7e)-(3S)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,25-diol
25-hydroxycholecalciferol
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3
25(OH)D3
3-{2-[1-(5-hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-hexyl)-7a-methyl-octahydro-inden-4-ylidene]-ethylidene}-4-methylene-cyclohexanol
Calcidiol
Calcifediol
Calcifediol Anhydrous
Calcifediolum
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CalderolUpjohn
CaldiolMedica
De KaiChina Otsuka
DedrogylDesma
DédrogylDB
DidrogylBruno Farm.
HidroferolFaes
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIT0WXW8F54E
CAS number19356-17-3
WeightAverage: 400.6371
Monoisotopic: 400.334130652
Chemical FormulaC27H44O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=JWUBBDSIWDLEOM-DTOXIADCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H44O2/c1-19-10-13-23(28)18-22(19)12-11-21-9-7-17-27(5)24(14-15-25(21)27)20(2)8-6-16-26(3,4)29/h11-12,20,23-25,28-29H,1,6-10,13-18H2,2-5H3/b21-11+,22-12-/t20-,23+,24-,25+,27-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3Z)-3-{2-[(1R,3aS,4E,7aR)-1-[(2R)-6-hydroxy-6-methylheptan-2-yl]-7a-methyl-octahydro-1H-inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene}-4-methylidenecyclohexan-1-ol
SMILES
C[[email protected]](CCCC(C)(C)O)[C@@]1([H])CC[C@@]2([H])\C(CCC[C@]12C)=C\C=C1\C[C@@H](O)CCC1=C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triterpenoids. These are terpene molecules containing 8 isoprene units.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTriterpenoids
Direct ParentTriterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Polycyclic triterpenoid
  • Triterpenoid
  • Steroid
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed to treat vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, refractory rickets (vitamin D resistant rickets), familial hypophosphatemia and hypoparathyroidism, and in the management of hypocalcemia and renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. Also used in conjunction with calcium in the management and prevention of primary or corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
PharmacodynamicsCalcidiol is the precursor of vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is a steroid hormone that has long been known for its important role in regulating body levels of calcium and phosphorus, in mineralization of bone, and for the assimilation of vitamin A. The classical manifestations of vitamin D deficiency is rickets, which is seen in children and results in bony deformaties including bowed long bones. Deficiency in adults leads to the disease osteomalacia. Both rickets and osteomalacia reflect impaired mineralization of newly synthesized bone matrix, and usually result from a combination of inadequate exposure to sunlight and decreased dietary intake of vitamin D. Common causes of vitamin D deficiency include genetic defects in the vitamin D receptor, severe liver or kidney disease, and insufficient exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining calcium balance and in the regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH). It promotes renal reabsorption of calcium, increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and increases calcium and phosphorus mobilization from bone to plasma.
Mechanism of actionCalcidiol is transformed in the kidney by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-(alpha)-hydroxylase to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. Calcitriol binds to intracellular receptors that then function as transcription factors to modulate gene expression. Like the receptors for other steroid hormones and thyroid hormones, the vitamin D receptor has hormone-binding and DNA-binding domains. The vitamin D receptor forms a complex with another intracellular receptor, the retinoid-X receptor, and that heterodimer is what binds to DNA. In most cases studied, the effect is to activate transcription, but situations are also known in which vitamin D suppresses transcription. Calcitriol increases the serum calcium concentrations by: increasing GI absorption of phosphorus and calcium, increasing osteoclastic resorption, and increasing distal renal tubular reabsorption of calcium. Calcitriol appears to promote intestinal absorption of calcium through binding to the vitamin D receptor in the mucosal cytoplasm of the intestine. Subsequently, calcium is absorbed through formation of a calcium-binding protein.
Related Articles
AbsorptionReadily absorbed.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Calcidiol undergoes hydroxylation in the mitochondria of kidney tissue, and this reaction is activated by the renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-(alpha)-hydroxylase to produce calcitriol (1,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol), the active form of vitamin D3.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life288 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityBone pain, constipation (especially in children or adolescents), diarrhea, drowsiness, dryness of mouth; headache (continuing), increased thirst, increase in frequency of urination, especially at night, or in amount of urine, irregular heartbeat, itching skin, loss of appetite, metallic taste, muscle pain, nausea or vomiting (especially in children or adolescents), unusual tiredness or weakness.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9953
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9164
Caco-2 permeable+0.8891
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7454
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5209
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6087
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7849
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8379
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9004
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7815
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8874
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9229
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9488
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7885
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7968
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.56
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8612
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.917
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.991
Rat acute toxicity4.1429 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8189
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7589
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Organon usa inc
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0022 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.71ALOGPS
logP5.65ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.98ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity125.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability50.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-7z30200000-33a8e563016d6e2e358eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-8z10000000-f6bedf68127696063061View in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Dae-Jung Kang, Jong-Hyuk Im, Hyun-Jung Jung, Jae-Hoon Kang, “BUFFER COMPOSITION FOR CATALYZING THE PREPARATION OF CALCITRIOL OR CALCIFEDIOL AND METHOD FOR PREPARING CALCITRIOL OR CALCIFEDIOL USING SAME.” U.S. Patent US20120064584, issued March 15, 2012.

US20120064584
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesA11CC06
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolCalcidiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Calcidiol.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Calcidiol.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Calcidiol.
WarfarinCalcidiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B/WSTF which mediates the interaction with acetylated histones, an essential step for VDR-promoter association. Plays a central role in calcium homeostasis.
Gene Name:
VDR
Uniprot ID:
P11473
Molecular Weight:
48288.64 Da
References
  1. Reinhart GA: Vitamin D analogs: novel therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease? Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Sep;5(9):947-51. [PubMed:15503649 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) plays an important role in normal bone growth, calcium metabolism, and tissue differentiation.
Gene Name:
CYP27B1
Uniprot ID:
O15528
Molecular Weight:
56503.475 Da
References
  1. Schuster I: Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jan;1814(1):186-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jul 7. [PubMed:20619365 ]
  2. Bernad M, Jaramillo G, Aguado P, del Campo T, Coya J, Martin Mola E, Gijon Banos J, Saldana Barrera H, Martinez ME: [Polymorphism of the gene of vitamin D receptor and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women]. Med Clin (Barc). 1999 May 15;112(17):651-5. [PubMed:10374186 ]
  3. Diesel B, Radermacher J, Bureik M, Bernhardt R, Seifert M, Reichrath J, Fischer U, Meese E: Vitamin D(3) metabolism in human glioblastoma multiforme: functionality of CYP27B1 splice variants, metabolism of calcidiol, and effect of calcitriol. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 1;11(15):5370-80. [PubMed:16061850 ]
  4. Eto TA, Nakamura Y, Taniguchi T, Miyamoto K, Nagatomo J, Maeda Y, Higashi S, Okuda K, Setoguchi T: Assay of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase in rat kidney mitochondria. Anal Biochem. 1998 Apr 10;258(1):53-8. [PubMed:9527847 ]
  5. Hart GR, Furniss JL, Laurie D, Durham SK: Measurement of vitamin D status: background, clinical use, and methodologies. Clin Lab. 2006;52(7-8):335-43. [PubMed:16955631 ]
  6. Vigo Gago E, Cadarso-Suarez C, Perez-Fernandez R, Romero Burgos R, Devesa Mugica J, Segura Iglesias C: Association between vitamin D receptor FokI. Polymorphism and serum parathyroid hormone level in patients with chronic renal failure. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005 Feb;28(2):117-21. [PubMed:15887856 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Has a role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent 24-hydroxylation of calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) and calcitriol (1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)). The enzyme can perform up to 6 rounds of hydroxylation of calcitriol leading to calcitroic acid. It also shows 23-hydroxylating activity leading to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-26,23-lactone as end product.
Gene Name:
CYP24A1
Uniprot ID:
Q07973
Molecular Weight:
58874.695 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2013 12:03