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Identification
NameVitamin A
Accession NumberDB00162  (APRD00486, NUTR00007)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2e,4e,6e,8e)-3,7-Dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
all-trans-retinol
all-trans-retinyl alcohol
all-trans-vitamin A alcohol
Alphalin
Chocola a
Retinol
Vitamin a
Vitamin A1
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aquasol Ainjection, solution15 mg/mLintramuscularHospira Worldwide, Inc.1949-05-18Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aquasol A Cap 25000unitcapsule25000 unitoralRhone Poulenc Rorer Consumer Inc.1992-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Aquasol A Cap 50000unitcapsule50000 unitoralRhone Poulenc Rorer Consumer Inc.1992-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Cataplex A Tab 1500unittablet1500 unitoralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Formula 7115 Tab 700unittablet700 unitoralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Omega Source Vitamin & Caps 5000iucapsule5000 unitTri Omega International Inc.1986-12-311997-05-30Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 10000unitcapsule10000 unitEverest Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1982-12-311999-07-14Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 25000iucapsule25000 unitoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 25000iucapsule25000 unitoralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312015-10-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 50000iucapsule50000 unitoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 50000iucapsule50000 unitoralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312015-10-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
400 Vitamin A 10000iucapsule10000 unitoralHerbes Universelles Inc.1972-12-312009-07-15Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
A Caps 10000 I.U.capsule10000 unitoralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
A Mulsion 10emulsion10000 unitoralSeroyal International Inc.1982-12-312008-10-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Arovit Vitamine A Tab 10000unittablet10000 unitoralLes Laboratoires Bio SantÉ Inc.1986-12-311996-09-10Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Beta Caroteneliquid10000 unitoralSeroyal International Inc.1982-12-312001-08-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Nutrol Acapsule10000 unitoralRolmex International Inc.1999-05-122008-07-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pro-sol A Liq 5000unit/mindrops5000 unitoralProfessional Health Products1990-12-311998-08-13Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Super A 40capsule10000 unitoralFrega Inc.1979-12-312008-07-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vit A Cap 10000unit Natural Source USPcapsule10000 unitoralPharmavite Llc1989-12-312003-07-30Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A 10000 I.U. Capsulescapsule10000 unitoralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182006-08-03Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A 5000 I.U. Dietary Supplementtablet5000 unitoralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-252000-06-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 10000iucapsule10000 unitoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1971-12-312002-07-31Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 10000iu Natural Sourcecapsule10000 unitoralWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.1972-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 10000unitcapsule10000 unitoralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1982-12-311999-11-23Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 10000unitcapsule10000 unitoralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1977-12-312008-07-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Cap 10000unit Naturellecapsule10000 unitoralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1976-12-311997-08-11Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Tab 10000unittablet10000 unitoralAlbi Imports Ltd.1979-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Tab 10000unittablet10000 unitoralAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.1985-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Tab 10000unittablet10000 unitoralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312001-07-27Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin A Tab 2000unit Chewabletablet2000 unitoralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine A 10000 U.I.capsule10000 unitoralGamme Nature1979-12-312004-07-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine A 10000 U.I.-capcapsule10000 unitoralNobel Pharm Enr.1995-12-312001-10-15Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine A 10000ui Capsulecapsule10000 unitoralBio Vita1970-12-311997-08-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamine A Cap USP 10000uicapsule10000 unitoralSuperco Enr.1985-12-312005-07-21Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
International Brands
NameCompany
AlphalinNot Available
Chocola ANot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
A & C PowderStandard Process Inc.
A + ZincNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc
A-F Betafood TabStandard Process Inc.
Acti-A D E LiqActi Form Ltd.
Acti-halibut CapActi Form Ltd.
Aquasol A & D DropsRhone Poulenc Rorer Consumer Inc.
Bear EssentialsHealth Asure, Inc.
Budpak Vitamin A and DBudpak Inc.
C 106 TabNf Formulas Inc.
Calcium-iron-magnesium With A,d,c TabBioforce Canada Inc.
Cataplex A-C TabStandard Process Inc.
Cataplex A-C-P TabStandard Process Inc.
Centrum Junior (chewable)Whitehall Robins Inc.
Centrum Junior Regular (chewable Tablets)Whitehall Robins Inc.
Chewable Children's Complete Multivitamins With Essential MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable MultivitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable Multivitamins With Extra CWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children Choice Multivit Chewable TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Children Pediatric Vitamins DropsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children Vitamin DropsWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.
Children's Chewable Multi-vitaminWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multiple VitaminsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multivitamins With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Vitamins ChewableVita Health Products Inc
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Cod Liver Oil Oleovitamin A & D Caps 20minNutricorp International
Cod Liver Oil USPNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Congaplex CapStandard Process Inc.
Dry Super Vitamin A Plus D - CapGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
E.V.C. Vitamins TabSisu Inc.
Fem - ControlMetagenics, Inc.
For Kids Only Chewable MultivitaminsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Formula L.G.I.Metagenics, Inc.
Formula R TabMetagenics, Inc.
Formule 7561 CapsTherapeutic Foods Co.
Infants' Vitamin DropsKsl Pharmaceuticals
Junior Multi Vitamins - RegularVita Health Products Inc
Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & MineralLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kid's Choice Children's Chewable Vitamins - TabVita Health Products Inc
Kidmag Vitamins W Magnesium TabMetagenics, Inc.
Kids Stuff TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Kids Stuff With Iron TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Kimchi Vitamin Chewable MultivitaminTobico
Mag-A-folic TabMetagenics, Inc.
Maxi 6 LiqDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Multi #2W 7 Clay Inc.
Multi Vitamin & MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vitamin and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Multi Vitamin Drops With FluorideSeton Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride and IronSeton Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride With IronStratus Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vitamin, Iron and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Multi-vitaminLLC Federal Solutions
Multi-vitamin FluorideStratus Pharmaceuticals
Multi-vitamin Fluoride and Iron DropsBoca Pharmacal, LLC
Multi-vitamin Fluoride DropsH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.
Multi-vitamin With FluorideGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.
Multi-vitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi-vitamins for Infusion LiqDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.
Multiple VitaminsGfr Pharma Ltd.
MultivitaminLaboratoires Confab Inc
Multivitamines Plus C Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamines Plus Fer Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamines Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamins for ChildrenQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
MvcSancilio & Company Inc
Mvc-fluorideSancilio & Company Inc.
Nata KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
Natural Source Vitamin A and D CapFoodscience Laboratories, Division Of Foodscience Corporation
Neo-vites & Minerals TabNeolab Inc
O-cal Prenatal VitaminPharmics, Inc.
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantUsana Health Services, Inc.
Prenatal Vitamins Plusbryant ranch prepack
Prevital TabBio Vita
Reaphirm Plant Source DHAEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Renadyn TabNutri Dyn Products Ltd.
Shen Min Vitamin SupplementBiotech Corporation
Strovite Forte CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Strovite One CapletsEverett Laboratories, Inc.
SveetsSensible Delights Specialty Foods
T.A. Vit A & D OintmentJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Tender Age Multi VitaminsJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Theraplex AcpTherapeutic Foods Co.
Thymunase TabAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
TozalFocus Laboratories, Inc.
Tri-VI-sol DropsMead Johnson Nutritionals
Tri-vit With Fluoride and Iron DropsQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Tri-vit With Fluoride DropsQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Tri-vitamin With FluorideSancilio & Company Inc
Triple Vitamin Drops With FluorideStratus Pharmaceuticals
Triple-vitamin Drops With FluorideSeton Pharmaceuticals
Vitafol CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol Ob CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol OneEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol PlusEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitamines A - D CalciumLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Vitamines Pour Bebes Et EnfantsHerbes Universelles Inc.
Vitamins A Plus D CapsulesRoyal Bodycare Canada Inc.
Vitamins A, C, D and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Zinc 50mg Plus Copper & Vit A TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Zinc Amino Acid Chelate TabQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Vitamin A palmitate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000855
Categories
CAS number68-26-8
WeightAverage: 286.4516
Monoisotopic: 286.229665582
Chemical FormulaC20H30O
InChI KeyInChIKey=FPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H30O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,21H,7,10,14-15H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+
IUPAC Name
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
SMILES
C\C(=C/CO)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Retinoid skeleton
  • Diterpenoid
  • Fatty alcohol
  • Fatty acyl
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.
PharmacodynamicsVitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.
Mechanism of actionVision:Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-cis-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-cis retinal rapidly.
Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.
AbsorptionReadily absorbed from the normal gastrointestinal tract
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding<5% of circulating vitamin A is bound to lipoproteins in blood in normal condition, but may be up to 65% when hepatic stores are saturated because of excessive intake. When released from liver, vitamin A is bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). Most vitamin A circulates in the form of retinol bound to RBP.
Metabolism

Hepatic. Retinol is conjugated with glucuronic acid; the B-glucuronide undergoes enterohepatic circulation and oxidation to retinol and retinoic acid. Retinoic acid undergoes decarboxylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life1.9 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAcute toxicity (single ingestion of 7 500 RE or 25 000 IU per kg or more): Signs and symptoms may be delayed for 8 to 24 hours and include: increased intracranial pressure, headache, irritability, drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, bulging of fontanels in infants, diplopia, papilledema. Peeling of skin around mouth may be observed from 1 to several days after ingestion and may spread to the rest of the body. Chronic, excessive ingestion (1 200 RE or 4 000 IU/kg daily for 6 to 15 months) may produce symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri, anorexia, weakness, arthralgias, bone pain, bone demineralization, dry skin, cracked lips, brittle nails, hair loss, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, hypoplastic anemia, leukopenia, optic neuropathy, and blindness. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A occur but do not necessarily correlate with toxicity.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9938
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9665
Caco-2 permeable+0.7272
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5939
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8205
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5631
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7646
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8193
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8324
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5522
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.842
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7388
Ames testAMES toxic0.6952
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7004
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5504
Rat acute toxicity2.1249 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8563
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8853
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Chase chemical co lp
  • Everylife
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Sterling winthrop inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Del ray laboratories inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Wharton laboratories inc div us ethicals
  • Arcum pharmaceutical corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder for solutionoral
Emulsionoral10000 unit
Injection, solutionintramuscular15 mg/mL
Capsuleoral25000 unit
Capsuleoral50000 unit
Liquidoral10000 unit
Creamtopical
Tabletoral1500 unit
Dropsoral
Tabletoral700 unit
Tablet (effervescent)oral
Solution/ dropsoral
Liquidoral
Liquidintravenous
Tablet, chewableoral
Capsule5000 unit
Dropsoral5000 unit
Tablet, coatedoral
Lozengeoral
Ointmenttopical
Solutionoral
Capsuleoral
Tabletoral
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral
Capsule, liquid filledoral
Tabletoral5000 unit
Capsuleoral10000 unit
Capsule10000 unit
Tabletoral10000 unit
Tabletoral2000 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Avita 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube149.39USD tube
Avita 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube149.39USD tube
Avita 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube69.21USD tube
Vitamin a palmitate liquid22.33USD ml
Aquasol a 50000 unit/ml vial17.69USD ml
Vitamin a acetate crystals1.99USD g
Gordon's vite a creme0.13USD g
Vitamin a palm 10000 unit tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitamin a cream0.03USD g
Vitamin a 10000 unit tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point63.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility0.671 mg/LNot Available
logP5.68BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00758 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.38ALOGPS
logP4.69ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity97.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (10.5 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-18z0000000-25c523b646154b291da8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-ez10000000-a63c286f931608f650a3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-zt00000000-e627db30469c74bb037fView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-bzm0000000-c24ec8ff8d0ba6c1f23fView in MoNA
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

William Oroshnik, “Synthesis of Vitamin A, intermediates and conversion thereof to Vitamin A.” U.S. Patent US4092366, issued May, 1948.

US4092366
General References
  1. Roncone DP: Xerophthalmia secondary to alcohol-induced malnutrition. Optometry. 2006 Mar;77(3):124-33. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesD10AD02R01AX02S01XA02
AHFS Codes
  • 88:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (74.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcitretinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Acitretin.
AlitretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Alitretinoin.
BexaroteneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Bexarotene.
IsotretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Isotretinoin.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Vitamin A can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Tretinoin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Retinol dehydrogenase 12

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 12 Q96NR8 Details

References:

  1. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Sun W, Jastrzebska B, Hatala DA, Winkens HJ, Hofmann KP, Janssen JJ, Baehr W, Driessen CA, Palczewski K: Retinol dehydrogenase (RDH12) protects photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration in mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 8;281(49):37697-704. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed
  2. Thompson DA, Janecke AR, Lange J, Feathers KL, Hubner CA, McHenry CL, Stockton DW, Rammesmayer G, Lupski JR, Antinolo G, Ayuso C, Baiget M, Gouras P, Heckenlively JR, den Hollander A, Jacobson SG, Lewis RA, Sieving PA, Wissinger B, Yzer S, Zrenner E, Utermann G, Gal A: Retinal degeneration associated with RDH12 mutations results from decreased 11-cis retinal synthesis due to disruption of the visual cycle. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Dec 15;14(24):3865-75. Epub 2005 Nov 3. Pubmed
  3. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber’s congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed

2. Retinol-binding protein 1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 1 P09455 Details

References:

  1. Yapi HF, Ahiboh H, Ago K, Ake M, Monnet D: [Protein profile and vitamin A in children of school age in Ivory Coast] Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2005 May-Jun;63(3):291-5. Pubmed
  2. Quadro L, Hamberger L, Gottesman ME, Wang F, Colantuoni V, Blaner WS, Mendelsohn CL: Pathways of vitamin A delivery to the embryo: insights from a new tunable model of embryonic vitamin A deficiency. Endocrinology. 2005 Oct;146(10):4479-90. Epub 2005 Jun 30. Pubmed
  3. Harrison EH: Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:87-103. Pubmed
  4. Paci E, Greene LH, Jones RM, Smith LJ: Characterization of the molten globule state of retinol-binding protein using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. FEBS J. 2005 Sep;272(18):4826-38. Pubmed
  5. Folli C, Viglione S, Busconi M, Berni R: Biochemical basis for retinol deficiency induced by the I41N and G75D mutations in human plasma retinol-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Nov 4;336(4):1017-22. Pubmed

3. 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
11-cis retinol dehydrogenase Q92781 Details

References:

  1. Zhang M, Hu P, Krois CR, Kane MA, Napoli JL: Altered vitamin A homeostasis and increased size and adiposity in the rdh1-null mouse. FASEB J. 2007 Sep;21(11):2886-96. Epub 2007 Apr 13. Pubmed
  2. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Golczak M, Moise AR, Palczewski K: Aberrant metabolites in mouse models of congenital blinding diseases: formation and storage of retinyl esters. Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 4;45(13):4210-9. Pubmed
  3. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. Pubmed
  4. Gidlof AC, Ocaya P, Olofsson PS, Torma H, Sirsjo A: Differences in retinol metabolism and proliferative response between neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):392-8. Epub 2006 Jul 6. Pubmed
  5. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. Pubmed

4. Retinol dehydrogenase 13

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 13 Q8NBN7 Details

References:

  1. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber’s congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed

5. Retinol-binding protein 3

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 3 P10745 Details

References:

  1. Qtaishat NM, Wiggert B, Pepperberg DR: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promotes the release of all-trans retinol from the isolated retina following rhodopsin bleaching illumination. Exp Eye Res. 2005 Oct;81(4):455-63. Epub 2005 Jun 2. Pubmed
  2. Wu Q, Blakeley LR, Cornwall MC, Crouch RK, Wiggert BN, Koutalos Y: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein is the physiologically relevant carrier that removes retinol from rod photoreceptor outer segments. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 24;46(29):8669-79. Epub 2007 Jun 30. Pubmed
  3. Kolesnikov AV, Ala-Laurila P, Shukolyukov SA, Crouch RK, Wiggert B, Estevez ME, Govardovskii VI, Cornwall MC: Visual cycle and its metabolic support in gecko photoreceptors. Vision Res. 2007 Feb;47(3):363-74. Epub 2006 Oct 16. Pubmed
  4. Duncan T, Fariss RN, Wiggert B: Confocal immunolocalization of bovine serum albumin, serum retinol-binding protein, and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein in bovine retina. Mol Vis. 2006 Dec 22;12:1632-9. Pubmed
  5. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. Pubmed

6. Retinal dehydrogenase 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinal dehydrogenase 2 O94788 Details

References:

  1. Isken A, Holzschuh J, Lampert JM, Fischer L, Oberhauser V, Palczewski K, von Lintig J: Sequestration of retinyl esters is essential for retinoid signaling in the zebrafish embryo. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 12;282(2):1144-51. Epub 2006 Nov 10. Pubmed
  2. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. Pubmed
  3. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman’s gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. Pubmed
  4. Szatmari I, Pap A, Ruhl R, Ma JX, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, Rajnavolgyi E, Dezso B, Nagy L: PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006 Oct 2;203(10):2351-62. Epub 2006 Sep 18. Pubmed
  5. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. Pubmed

7. Retinal dehydrogenase 1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1 P00352 Details

References:

  1. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman’s gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. Pubmed
  2. Chambers D, Wilson L, Maden M, Lumsden A: RALDH-independent generation of retinoic acid during vertebrate embryogenesis by CYP1B1. Development. 2007 Apr;134(7):1369-83. Epub 2007 Feb 28. Pubmed
  3. Gyamfi MA, Kocsis MG, He L, Dai G, Mendy AJ, Wan YJ: The role of retinoid X receptor alpha in regulating alcohol metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):360-8. Epub 2006 Jul 7. Pubmed
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke’s pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. Pubmed
  5. Huq MD, Tsai NP, Gupta P, Wei LN: Regulation of retinal dehydrogenases and retinoic acid synthesis by cholesterol metabolites. EMBO J. 2006 Jul 12;25(13):3203-13. Epub 2006 Jun 8. Pubmed

8. Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1 P12271 Details

References:

  1. Muniz A, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Thackeray B, Tsin AT: 11-cis-Acyl-CoA:retinol O-acyltransferase activity in the primary culture of chicken Muller cells. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 10;45(40):12265-73. Pubmed
  2. Wenzel A, von Lintig J, Oberhauser V, Tanimoto N, Grimm C, Seeliger MW: RPE65 is essential for the function of cone photoreceptors in NRL-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb;48(2):534-42. Pubmed
  3. Vogel JS, Bullen EC, Teygong CL, Howard EW: Identification of the RLBP1 gene promoter. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48(8):3872-7. Pubmed
  4. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. Pubmed

9. Lecithin retinol acyltransferase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase O95237 Details

References:

  1. Kaschula CH, Jin MH, Desmond-Smith NS, Travis GH: Acyl CoA:retinol acyltransferase (ARAT) activity is present in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Jan;82(1):111-21. Epub 2005 Jul 27. Pubmed
  2. Liu L, Gudas LJ: Disruption of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene makes mice more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 2;280(48):40226-34. Epub 2005 Sep 20. Pubmed

10. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3 O75911 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Haeseleer F, Huang J, Lebioda L, Saari JC, Palczewski K: Molecular characterization of a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that reduces all-trans-retinal. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 21;273(34):21790-9. Pubmed
  4. Cerignoli F, Guo X, Cardinali B, Rinaldi C, Casaletto J, Frati L, Screpanti I, Gudas LJ, Gulino A, Thiele CJ, Giannini G: retSDR1, a short-chain retinol dehydrogenase/reductase, is retinoic acid-inducible and frequently deleted in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 15;62(4):1196-204. Pubmed
  5. Chai Z, Brereton P, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Obeyesekere V, Escher G, Saffery R, Fuller P, Enriquez C, Krozowski Z: 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type XI localizes to human steroidogenic cells. Endocrinology. 2003 May;144(5):2084-91. Pubmed

11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 P47895 Details

References:

  1. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. Pubmed
  2. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. Pubmed
  3. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. Pubmed
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke’s pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. Pubmed

12. All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase Q6NUM9 Details

References:

  1. Moise AR, Isken A, Dominguez M, de Lera AR, von Lintig J, Palczewski K: Specificity of zebrafish retinol saturase: formation of all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol and all-trans-7,8- dihydroretinol. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 20;46(7):1811-20. Epub 2007 Jan 25. Pubmed

13. Retinol dehydrogenase 11

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 11 Q8TC12 Details

References:

  1. Gallego O, Belyaeva OV, Porte S, Ruiz FX, Stetsenko AV, Shabrova EV, Kostereva NV, Farres J, Pares X, Kedishvili NY: Comparative functional analysis of human medium-chain dehydrogenases, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and aldo-keto reductases with retinoids. Biochem J. 2006 Oct 1;399(1):101-9. Pubmed

14. Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 Q9BTZ2 Details

References:

  1. Du K, Liu GF, Xie JP, Song XH, Li R, Liang B, Huang DY: A 27.368 kDa retinal reductase in New Zealand white rabbit liver cytosol encoded by the peroxisomal retinol dehydrogenase-reductase cDNA: purification and characterization of the enzyme. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;85(2):209-17. Pubmed

15. Retinol dehydrogenase 14

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 14 Q9HBH5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

16. Retinol dehydrogenase 8

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 8 Q9NYR8 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Han W, Shen Y, Wang J, Yip S, Yap MK: [Establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Jul;42(7):642-8. Pubmed
  4. Han W, Yip SP, Wang J, Yap MK: Using denaturing HPLC for SNP discovery and genotyping, and establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene. J Hum Genet. 2004;49(1):16-23. Epub 2003 Dec 6. Pubmed
  5. Fishman GA, Roberts MF, Derlacki DJ, Grimsby JL, Yamamoto H, Sharon D, Nishiguchi KM, Dryja TP: Novel mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene (RLBP1) associated with retinitis punctata albescens: evidence of interfamilial genetic heterogeneity and fundus changes in heterozygotes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan;122(1):70-5. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 26A1

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 26A1 O43174 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Retinol-binding protein 5

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 5 P82980 Details

References:

  1. O’Byrne SM, Wongsiriroj N, Libien J, Vogel S, Goldberg IJ, Baehr W, Palczewski K, Blaner WS: Retinoid absorption and storage is impaired in mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 21;280(42):35647-57. Epub 2005 Aug 22. Pubmed

2. Retinoid-binding protein 7

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoid-binding protein 7 Q96R05 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Caprioli A, Zhu H, Sato TN: CRBP-III:lacZ expression pattern reveals a novel heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells. Genesis. 2004 Nov;40(3):139-45. Pubmed

3. Retinol-binding protein 4

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 4 P02753 Details

References:

  1. Goodman AB: Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer disease. J Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec;209(3):598-603. Pubmed
  2. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. Pubmed
  3. Wolf G: Serum retinol-binding protein: a link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2007 May;65(5):251-6. Pubmed
  4. Liden M, Eriksson U: Development of a versatile reporter assay for studies of retinol uptake and metabolism in vivo. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Nov 1;310(2):401-8. Epub 2005 Sep 8. Pubmed
  5. Hinterhuber G, Cauza K, Dingelmaier-Hovorka R, Diem E, Horvat R, Wolff K, Foedinger D: Expression of RPE65, a putative receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein, in nonmelanocytic skin tumours. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;153(4):785-9. Pubmed

4. Retinol-binding protein 2

Kind: Protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 2 P50120 Details

References:

  1. Suruga K, Kitagawa M, Yasutake H, Takase S, Goda T: Diet-related variation in cellular retinol-binding protein type II gene expression in rat jejunum. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec;94(6):890-5. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08