You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameVitamin A
Accession NumberDB00162  (APRD00486, NUTR00007)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
all-trans-retinolNot AvailableNot Available
all-trans-retinyl alcoholNot AvailableNot Available
all-trans-vitamin A alcoholNot AvailableNot Available
RetinolNot AvailableNot Available
Vitamin A1Not AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Vitamin A palmitate
Thumb Not applicable DBSALT000855
Brand names
NameCompany
AlphalinNot Available
Chocola ANot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Acetabolan-Ii Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMagnesium (Magnesium Hvp Chelate) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) + Zinc (Zinc Hvp Chelate)
Avengers Vitamin and Mineral SupplementSelenium (Sodium Selenite) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) + Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol) + Zinc (Zinc Gluconate)
Children's Chewable Multi-Vitamin Complete with MineralsBiotin + Calcium (Calcium Phosphate (Dibasic)) + Copper (Copper Gluconate) + D-Pantothenic Acid (Calcium D-Pantothenate) + Folic Acid + Iron (Iron Citrate) + Nicotinamide + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Palmitate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) + Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) + Vitamin D3 + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)
Childrens Chew Multi Vitamin TabFolic Acid + Nicotinamide + Vitamin a + Vitamin B1 + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 + Vitamin C + Vitamin D + Vitamin E
Dry Super Vitamin a Plus D - CapVitamin a (Retinol Palmitate) + Vitamin D3
Food Nutrition Inc. Men's Vitamin and Mineral SupplementCopper (Copper Gluconate) + Selenium (Selenium Amino Acid Chelate) + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Palmitate) + Vitamin C + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Citrate)
Formula O-Care Vitamin and Mineral SupplementBiotin + Calcium (Calcium Carbonate, Hydroxyapatite) + Copper (Copper Hvp Chelate) + Folic Acid + Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide) + Manganese (Manganese Hvp Chelate) + Phosphorus (Potassium Phosphate) + Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) + Zinc (Zinc Hvp Chelate)
Forty Plus Vitamin SupplementBiotin + Choline Bitartrate + D-Pantothenic Acid + Inositol + Nicotinamide + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Acetate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)
GNC Vitamin A and D From Fish Liver OilVitamin a (Fish Liver Oil) + Vitamin D (Fish Liver Oil)
Infants' Multiple Vitamin DropsVitamin a (Vitamin a Palmitate) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Ascorbate) + Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)
Insur-All Vitamin SupplementBiotin + Choline Bitartrate + D-Pantothenic Acid + Inositol + Nicotinamide + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Acetate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D (Ergocalciferol) + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)
Liquid Vitamin A-D-E 5tVitamin a Propionate + Vitamin D3 + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)
Liquid Vitamin A-D-E-25tVitamin a Propionate + Vitamin D3 + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)
Luna Vitamin and Mineral Bar for WomenBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + Biotin + Calcium (Calcium Phosphate (Dibasic)) + Chromium (Chromium Hvp Chelate) + D-Pantothenic Acid + Folic Acid + Iodine (Potassium Iodide) + Iron (Ferrous Fumarate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide) + Manganese (Manganese Hvp Chelate) + Molybdenum (Sodium Molybdate) + Nicotinic Acid + Selenium (Selenium Hvp Chelate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Vitamin B12) + Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Hvp Chelate)
Maintain Multiple Vitamin & MineralsBiotin + Calcium (Calcium Hvp Chelate) + Choline Bitartrate + Chromium (Chromium Hvp Chelate) + Copper (Copper Hvp Chelate) + D-Pantothenic Acid + Dl-Methionine + Folic Acid + Inositol + Iodine (Kelp) + Iron (Iron Hvp Chelate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Hvp Chelate) + Manganese (Manganese Hvp Chelate) + Nicotinamide + Potassium (Potassium Hvp Chelate) + Selenium (Selenium Hvp Chelate) + Vitamin a (Beta-Carotene) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C (Calcium Ascorbate) + Vitamin D3 + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol) + Zinc (Zinc Hvp Chelate)
Men's Biomultiple Vitamin and Mineral SupplementBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + Biotin + Calcium (Calcium Carbonate) + Choline Bitartrate + Chromium (Yeast) + Copper (Copper Hvp Chelate) + D-Pantothenic Acid + Folic Acid + Inositol + Iodine (Potassium Iodide) + Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide) + Manganese (Manganese Hvp Chelate) + Methionine + Molybdenum (Molybdenum Citrate) + Nicotinamide + Selenium (Selenium Hvp Chelate) + Silicon Dioxide + Vanadium (Vanadium Citrate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Mononitrate) + Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) + Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Oxide)
Multi Vitamin - MineralBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + Biotin + Chromium (Chromium Hvp Chelate) + Copper (Copper Hvp Chelate) + D-Pantothenic Acid (Calcium D-Pantothenate) + Folic Acid + Iodine (Potassium Iodide) + Iron (Iron Hvp Chelate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Hvp Chelate) + Manganese (Manganese Hvp Chelate) + Molybdenum (Molybdenum Hvp Chelate) + Nicotinamide + Selenium (Selenium Hvp Chelate) + Vitamin B1 + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D3 + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Hvp Chelate)
Multi Vitamin with Extra B's & MineralsBiotin + Calcium (Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Carbonate) + Choline Bitartrate + Copper (Copper Gluconate) + D-Pantothenic Acid (Calcium D-Pantothenate) + Dl-Methionine + Folic Acid + Inositol + Iodine (Kelp, Potassium Iodide) + Iron (Ferrous Fumarate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide) + Manganese (Manganese Citrate) + Nicotinamide + Phosphorus (Bone Ash) + Potassium (Potassium Citrate) + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Acetate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) + Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D3 + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Citrate)
Multi Vitamin-Mineral FormulaCalcium (Calcium Gluconate) + Choline Bitartrate + Copper (Copper Gluconate) + D-Pantothenic Acid (Calcium D-Pantothenate) + Folic Acid + Inositol + Iodine (Potassium Iodide) + Iron (Ferrous Gluconate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Gluconate) + Manganese (Manganese Gluconate) + Nicotinic Acid + Vitamin a + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin C + Vitamin D + Zinc (Zinc Gluconate)
Multi-Vitamin Dietary SupplementBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + D-Pantothenic Acid + Folic Acid + Nicotinamide + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Acetate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)
Mycelized Childrens Multi-Vitamin LiqBiotin + D-Alpha Tocopherol + Dexpanthenol + Folic Acid + Nicotinic Acid + Vitamin a Palmitate + Vitamin B1 + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 + Vitamin C + Vitamin D2
Natural Source Vitamin a & D Dietary SupplementVitamin a (Fish Liver Oil) + Vitamin D (Fish Liver Oil)
Natural Source Vitamin a and D CapVitamin a (Fish Liver Oil) + Vitamin D3 (Fish Liver Oil)
Nutribuddies Vitamin SupplementVitamin a (Beta-Carotene) + Vitamin C + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopherol)
One Daily Vitamin and Mineral Dietary SupplementBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + Biotin + Calcium (Calcium Phosphate (Dibasic)) + Chlorine (Potassium Chloride) + Chromium (Chromium Hvp Chelate) + Copper (Copper Sulfate) + D-Pantothenic Acid + Folic Acid + Iodine (Potassium Iodide) + Iron (Ferrous Fumarate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide) + Manganese (Manganese Sulfate) + Molybdenum (Sodium Molybdate) + Nicotinamide + Potassium (Potassium Chloride) + Selenium (Sodium Selenate) + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Acetate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Oxide)
Optivite Vitamin and Mineral Supplement TabletBeta-Carotene + Copper (Cupric Oxide) + Selenium (Sodium Selenate) + Vitamin C + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Oxide)
Original Bioscal Forte Multi-Vitamin Supplement CapsulesBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + Biotin + D-Pantothenic Acid (Calcium D-Pantothenate) + Vitamin B1 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 + Vitamin C + Vitamin E
Oxytene Vitamin a,C,E with Selenium TabBeta-Carotene + D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acid Succinate + Selenium + Vitamin a + Vitamin C
Oxytetracycline Vitamin Beef CrumblesOxytetracycline Hydrochloride + Vitamin a + Vitamin D3 + Vitamin E
Prenatal Vitamin and Mineral Supplement -TabBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + Biotin + Calcium (Calcium Carbonate) + Chromium (Chromic Chloride) + Copper (Cupric Oxide) + D-Pantothenic Acid (Calcium D-Pantothenate) + Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate + Folic Acid + Iodine (Potassium Iodide) + Iron (Ferrous Fumarate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide) + Manganese (Manganese Sulfate) + Molybdenum (Sodium Molybdate) + Nicotinamide + Pyridoxine Hydrochloride + Thiamine Mononitrate + Vitamin a Acetate + Vitamin B12 + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin C (Vitamin C) + Vitamin D + Zinc (Zinc Oxide)
Spectra 301 Vitamin and Mineral SuppD-Pantothenic Acid (Calcium D-Pantothenate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Hvp Chelate) + Potassium (Potassium Gluconate) + Vitamin C (Vitamin C) + Zinc (Zinc Gluconate)
Super-Pote Vitamin SupplementBiotin + Choline Bitartrate + D-Pantothenic Acid + Inositol + Nicotinamide + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Acetate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)
Vitamin & Mineral Formula 1 Dietary SupplementCalcium (Calcium Phosphate (Dibasic)) + Choline Bitartrate + Copper (Copper Gluconate) + D-Pantothenic Acid + Folic Acid + Inositol + Iodine (Kelp) + Iron (Ferrous Gluconate) + Manganese (Manganese Gluconate) + Nicotinic Acid + Vitamin a (Vitamin a Acetate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C + Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Gluconate)
Vitamin A and D CapVitamin a + Vitamin D
Vitamin A C E W.Niacinam.Beta Car.And Min.Beta-Carotene + Copper (Copper Gluconate) + D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate + Nicotinamide + Selenium (Yeast) + Vitamin a Palmitate + Vitamin C (Calcium Ascorbate) + Zinc (Zinc Citrate)
Vitamin A&D TabVitamin a + Vitamin D
Vitamin Ad CapVitamin a + Vitamin D
Vitamin and Mineral FormulaBiotin + Calcium (Calcium Carbonate) + Calcium D-Pantothenate + Inositol + Pyridoxine Hydrochloride + Vitamin B2 + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Sulfate)
Vitamin and Mineral Supplement CapsulesCopper (Cupric Oxide) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) + Vitamin E (Dl-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Oxide)
Vitamin C and a -TabVitamin a Acetate + Vitamin C
Women's Biomultiple Vitamin and Mineral SupplementBeta-Carotene (Provitamin a) + Biotin + Calcium (Calcium Carbonate) + Choline Bitartrate + Chromium (Yeast) + Copper (Copper Hvp Chelate) + D-Pantothenic Acid + Folic Acid + Inositol + Iodine (Potassium Iodide) + Iron (Ferrous Fumarate) + Magnesium (Magnesium Oxide) + Manganese (Manganese Hvp Chelate) + Methionine + Molybdenum (Molybdenum Citrate) + Nicotinamide + Selenium (Selenium Hvp Chelate) + Silicon Dioxide + Vanadium (Vanadium Citrate) + Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Mononitrate) + Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) + Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) + Vitamin E (D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate) + Zinc (Zinc Oxide)
Z-Mass Pm Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMagnesium (Magnesium Hvp Chelate) + Potassium (Potassium Citrate) + Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) + Zinc (Zinc Hvp Chelate)
Categories
CAS number68-26-8
WeightAverage: 286.4516
Monoisotopic: 286.229665582
Chemical FormulaC20H30O
InChI KeyFPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H30O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,21H,7,10,14-15H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+
IUPAC Name
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
SMILES
C\C(=C/CO)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
Mass Specshow(10.5 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassPrenol Lipids
SubclassRetinoids
Direct parentRetinoids
Alternative parentsDiterpenes; Fatty Alcohols; Polyamines; Primary Alcohols
Substituentsfatty alcohol; primary alcohol; polyamine; alcohol
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the retinoids. These are compounds that are related to vitamin A, especially retinol.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.
PharmacodynamicsVitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.
Mechanism of actionVision:Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-cis-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-cis retinal rapidly.
Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.
AbsorptionReadily absorbed from the normal gastrointestinal tract
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding<5% of circulating vitamin A is bound to lipoproteins in blood in normal condition, but may be up to 65% when hepatic stores are saturated because of excessive intake. When released from liver, vitamin A is bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). Most vitamin A circulates in the form of retinol bound to RBP.
Metabolism

Hepatic. Retinol is conjugated with glucuronic acid; the B-glucuronide undergoes enterohepatic circulation and oxidation to retinol and retinoic acid. Retinoic acid undergoes decarboxylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life1.9 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAcute toxicity (single ingestion of 7 500 RE or 25 000 IU per kg or more): Signs and symptoms may be delayed for 8 to 24 hours and include: increased intracranial pressure, headache, irritability, drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, bulging of fontanels in infants, diplopia, papilledema. Peeling of skin around mouth may be observed from 1 to several days after ingestion and may spread to the rest of the body. Chronic, excessive ingestion (1 200 RE or 4 000 IU/kg daily for 6 to 15 months) may produce symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri, anorexia, weakness, arthralgias, bone pain, bone demineralization, dry skin, cracked lips, brittle nails, hair loss, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, hypoplastic anemia, leukopenia, optic neuropathy, and blindness. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A occur but do not necessarily correlate with toxicity.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9938
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9665
Caco-2 permeable + 0.7272
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.5939
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.8205
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.5631
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.7646
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8193
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8324
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5522
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9045
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.907
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.923
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9026
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.842
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.7388
Ames test AMES toxic 0.6952
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.7004
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.5504
Rat acute toxicity 2.1249 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8563
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.8853
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Chase chemical co lp
  • Everylife
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Sterling winthrop inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Del ray laboratories inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Wharton laboratories inc div us ethicals
  • Arcum pharmaceutical corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
EmulsionOral
Solution / dropsOral
TabletOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Avita 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube149.39USDtube
Avita 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube149.39USDtube
Avita 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube69.21USDtube
Vitamin a palmitate liquid22.33USDml
Aquasol a 50000 unit/ml vial17.69USDml
Vitamin a acetate crystals1.99USDg
Gordon's vite a creme0.13USDg
Vitamin a palm 10000 unit tablet0.06USDtablet
Vitamin a cream0.03USDg
Vitamin a 10000 unit tablet0.02USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point63.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility0.671 mg/LNot Available
logP5.68BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility7.58e-03 g/lALOGPS
logP6.38ALOGPS
logP4.69ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)16.44ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-2.2ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count1ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area20.23ChemAxon
rotatable bond count5ChemAxon
refractivity97.92ChemAxon
polarizability36.43ChemAxon
number of rings1ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

William Oroshnik, “Synthesis of Vitamin A, intermediates and conversion thereof to Vitamin A.” U.S. Patent US4092366, issued May, 1948.

US4092366
General Reference
  1. Roncone DP: Xerophthalmia secondary to alcohol-induced malnutrition. Optometry. 2006 Mar;77(3):124-33. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG DrugD00069
KEGG CompoundC00473
ChEBI17336
ChEMBLCHEMBL986
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDNC001498
PharmGKBPA451884
Drug Product Database518565
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/aquasola.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/mtm/vitamin-a.html
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/vit_0260.shtml
WikipediaVitamin_A
ATC CodesA11CA01D10AD02S01XA02R01AX02
AHFS Codes
  • 88:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(74.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcitretinAcitretin increases the risk of vitamin A toxicity. Avoid vitamin A supplementation while taking acitretin.
BexaroteneBexarotene increases the risk of vitamin A toxicity. Avoid vitamin A supplementation while taking bexarotene.
IsotretinoinIsotretinoin increases the risk of vitamin A toxicity. Avoid vitamin A supplementation while taking isotretinoin.
OrlistatOrlistat may impair the absorption of vitamin A, a fat soluble vitamin. Oral vitamin A should be administered 2 hours prior to or post orlistat administration.
TretinoinTretinoin increases the risk of vitamin A toxicity. Avoid vitamin A supplementation while taking systemic tretinoin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Retinol dehydrogenase 12

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 12 Q96NR8 Details

References:

  1. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Sun W, Jastrzebska B, Hatala DA, Winkens HJ, Hofmann KP, Janssen JJ, Baehr W, Driessen CA, Palczewski K: Retinol dehydrogenase (RDH12) protects photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration in mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 8;281(49):37697-704. Epub 2006 Oct 10. Pubmed
  2. Thompson DA, Janecke AR, Lange J, Feathers KL, Hubner CA, McHenry CL, Stockton DW, Rammesmayer G, Lupski JR, Antinolo G, Ayuso C, Baiget M, Gouras P, Heckenlively JR, den Hollander A, Jacobson SG, Lewis RA, Sieving PA, Wissinger B, Yzer S, Zrenner E, Utermann G, Gal A: Retinal degeneration associated with RDH12 mutations results from decreased 11-cis retinal synthesis due to disruption of the visual cycle. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Dec 15;14(24):3865-75. Epub 2005 Nov 3. Pubmed
  3. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber’s congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed

2. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3 O75911 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Haeseleer F, Huang J, Lebioda L, Saari JC, Palczewski K: Molecular characterization of a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that reduces all-trans-retinal. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 21;273(34):21790-9. Pubmed
  4. Cerignoli F, Guo X, Cardinali B, Rinaldi C, Casaletto J, Frati L, Screpanti I, Gudas LJ, Gulino A, Thiele CJ, Giannini G: retSDR1, a short-chain retinol dehydrogenase/reductase, is retinoic acid-inducible and frequently deleted in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 15;62(4):1196-204. Pubmed
  5. Chai Z, Brereton P, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Obeyesekere V, Escher G, Saffery R, Fuller P, Enriquez C, Krozowski Z: 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type XI localizes to human steroidogenic cells. Endocrinology. 2003 May;144(5):2084-91. Pubmed

3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 P47895 Details

References:

  1. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. Pubmed
  2. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. Pubmed
  3. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. Pubmed
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke’s pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. Pubmed

4. All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase Q6NUM9 Details

References:

  1. Moise AR, Isken A, Dominguez M, de Lera AR, von Lintig J, Palczewski K: Specificity of zebrafish retinol saturase: formation of all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol and all-trans-7,8- dihydroretinol. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 20;46(7):1811-20. Epub 2007 Jan 25. Pubmed

5. Retinol dehydrogenase 11

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 11 Q8TC12 Details

References:

  1. Gallego O, Belyaeva OV, Porte S, Ruiz FX, Stetsenko AV, Shabrova EV, Kostereva NV, Farres J, Pares X, Kedishvili NY: Comparative functional analysis of human medium-chain dehydrogenases, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and aldo-keto reductases with retinoids. Biochem J. 2006 Oct 1;399(1):101-9. Pubmed

6. Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 Q9BTZ2 Details

References:

  1. Du K, Liu GF, Xie JP, Song XH, Li R, Liang B, Huang DY: A 27.368 kDa retinal reductase in New Zealand white rabbit liver cytosol encoded by the peroxisomal retinol dehydrogenase-reductase cDNA: purification and characterization of the enzyme. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;85(2):209-17. Pubmed

7. Retinol dehydrogenase 14

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 14 Q9HBH5 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

8. Retinol dehydrogenase 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 8 Q9NYR8 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Han W, Shen Y, Wang J, Yip S, Yap MK: [Establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Jul;42(7):642-8. Pubmed
  4. Han W, Yip SP, Wang J, Yap MK: Using denaturing HPLC for SNP discovery and genotyping, and establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene. J Hum Genet. 2004;49(1):16-23. Epub 2003 Dec 6. Pubmed
  5. Fishman GA, Roberts MF, Derlacki DJ, Grimsby JL, Yamamoto H, Sharon D, Nishiguchi KM, Dryja TP: Novel mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene (RLBP1) associated with retinitis punctata albescens: evidence of interfamilial genetic heterogeneity and fundus changes in heterozygotes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan;122(1):70-5. Pubmed

9. Lecithin retinol acyltransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase O95237 Details

References:

  1. Kaschula CH, Jin MH, Desmond-Smith NS, Travis GH: Acyl CoA:retinol acyltransferase (ARAT) activity is present in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Jan;82(1):111-21. Epub 2005 Jul 27. Pubmed
  2. Liu L, Gudas LJ: Disruption of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene makes mice more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 2;280(48):40226-34. Epub 2005 Sep 20. Pubmed

10. Retinol-binding protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 1 P09455 Details

References:

  1. Yapi HF, Ahiboh H, Ago K, Ake M, Monnet D: [Protein profile and vitamin A in children of school age in Ivory Coast] Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2005 May-Jun;63(3):291-5. Pubmed
  2. Quadro L, Hamberger L, Gottesman ME, Wang F, Colantuoni V, Blaner WS, Mendelsohn CL: Pathways of vitamin A delivery to the embryo: insights from a new tunable model of embryonic vitamin A deficiency. Endocrinology. 2005 Oct;146(10):4479-90. Epub 2005 Jun 30. Pubmed
  3. Harrison EH: Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:87-103. Pubmed
  4. Paci E, Greene LH, Jones RM, Smith LJ: Characterization of the molten globule state of retinol-binding protein using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. FEBS J. 2005 Sep;272(18):4826-38. Pubmed
  5. Folli C, Viglione S, Busconi M, Berni R: Biochemical basis for retinol deficiency induced by the I41N and G75D mutations in human plasma retinol-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Nov 4;336(4):1017-22. Pubmed

11. 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
11-cis retinol dehydrogenase Q92781 Details

References:

  1. Zhang M, Hu P, Krois CR, Kane MA, Napoli JL: Altered vitamin A homeostasis and increased size and adiposity in the rdh1-null mouse. FASEB J. 2007 Sep;21(11):2886-96. Epub 2007 Apr 13. Pubmed
  2. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Golczak M, Moise AR, Palczewski K: Aberrant metabolites in mouse models of congenital blinding diseases: formation and storage of retinyl esters. Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 4;45(13):4210-9. Pubmed
  3. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. Pubmed
  4. Gidlof AC, Ocaya P, Olofsson PS, Torma H, Sirsjo A: Differences in retinol metabolism and proliferative response between neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):392-8. Epub 2006 Jul 6. Pubmed
  5. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. Pubmed

12. Retinol dehydrogenase 13

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol dehydrogenase 13 Q8NBN7 Details

References:

  1. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber’s congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. Pubmed

13. Retinol-binding protein 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 3 P10745 Details

References:

  1. Qtaishat NM, Wiggert B, Pepperberg DR: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promotes the release of all-trans retinol from the isolated retina following rhodopsin bleaching illumination. Exp Eye Res. 2005 Oct;81(4):455-63. Epub 2005 Jun 2. Pubmed
  2. Wu Q, Blakeley LR, Cornwall MC, Crouch RK, Wiggert BN, Koutalos Y: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein is the physiologically relevant carrier that removes retinol from rod photoreceptor outer segments. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 24;46(29):8669-79. Epub 2007 Jun 30. Pubmed
  3. Kolesnikov AV, Ala-Laurila P, Shukolyukov SA, Crouch RK, Wiggert B, Estevez ME, Govardovskii VI, Cornwall MC: Visual cycle and its metabolic support in gecko photoreceptors. Vision Res. 2007 Feb;47(3):363-74. Epub 2006 Oct 16. Pubmed
  4. Duncan T, Fariss RN, Wiggert B: Confocal immunolocalization of bovine serum albumin, serum retinol-binding protein, and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein in bovine retina. Mol Vis. 2006 Dec 22;12:1632-9. Pubmed
  5. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. Pubmed

14. Retinal dehydrogenase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinal dehydrogenase 2 O94788 Details

References:

  1. Isken A, Holzschuh J, Lampert JM, Fischer L, Oberhauser V, Palczewski K, von Lintig J: Sequestration of retinyl esters is essential for retinoid signaling in the zebrafish embryo. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 12;282(2):1144-51. Epub 2006 Nov 10. Pubmed
  2. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. Pubmed
  3. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman’s gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. Pubmed
  4. Szatmari I, Pap A, Ruhl R, Ma JX, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, Rajnavolgyi E, Dezso B, Nagy L: PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006 Oct 2;203(10):2351-62. Epub 2006 Sep 18. Pubmed
  5. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. Pubmed

15. Retinal dehydrogenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1 P00352 Details

References:

  1. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman’s gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. Pubmed
  2. Chambers D, Wilson L, Maden M, Lumsden A: RALDH-independent generation of retinoic acid during vertebrate embryogenesis by CYP1B1. Development. 2007 Apr;134(7):1369-83. Epub 2007 Feb 28. Pubmed
  3. Gyamfi MA, Kocsis MG, He L, Dai G, Mendy AJ, Wan YJ: The role of retinoid X receptor alpha in regulating alcohol metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):360-8. Epub 2006 Jul 7. Pubmed
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke’s pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. Pubmed
  5. Huq MD, Tsai NP, Gupta P, Wei LN: Regulation of retinal dehydrogenases and retinoic acid synthesis by cholesterol metabolites. EMBO J. 2006 Jul 12;25(13):3203-13. Epub 2006 Jun 8. Pubmed

16. Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1 P12271 Details

References:

  1. Muniz A, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Thackeray B, Tsin AT: 11-cis-Acyl-CoA:retinol O-acyltransferase activity in the primary culture of chicken Muller cells. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 10;45(40):12265-73. Pubmed
  2. Wenzel A, von Lintig J, Oberhauser V, Tanimoto N, Grimm C, Seeliger MW: RPE65 is essential for the function of cone photoreceptors in NRL-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb;48(2):534-42. Pubmed
  3. Vogel JS, Bullen EC, Teygong CL, Howard EW: Identification of the RLBP1 gene promoter. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48(8):3872-7. Pubmed
  4. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 26A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 26A1 O43174 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Retinol-binding protein 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 5 P82980 Details

References:

  1. O’Byrne SM, Wongsiriroj N, Libien J, Vogel S, Goldberg IJ, Baehr W, Palczewski K, Blaner WS: Retinoid absorption and storage is impaired in mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 21;280(42):35647-57. Epub 2005 Aug 22. Pubmed

2. Retinoid-binding protein 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinoid-binding protein 7 Q96R05 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Caprioli A, Zhu H, Sato TN: CRBP-III:lacZ expression pattern reveals a novel heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells. Genesis. 2004 Nov;40(3):139-45. Pubmed

3. Retinol-binding protein 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 4 P02753 Details

References:

  1. Goodman AB: Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer disease. J Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec;209(3):598-603. Pubmed
  2. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. Pubmed
  3. Wolf G: Serum retinol-binding protein: a link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2007 May;65(5):251-6. Pubmed
  4. Liden M, Eriksson U: Development of a versatile reporter assay for studies of retinol uptake and metabolism in vivo. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Nov 1;310(2):401-8. Epub 2005 Sep 8. Pubmed
  5. Hinterhuber G, Cauza K, Dingelmaier-Hovorka R, Diem E, Horvat R, Wolff K, Foedinger D: Expression of RPE65, a putative receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein, in nonmelanocytic skin tumours. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;153(4):785-9. Pubmed

4. Retinol-binding protein 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Retinol-binding protein 2 P50120 Details

References:

  1. Suruga K, Kitagawa M, Yasutake H, Takase S, Goda T: Diet-related variation in cellular retinol-binding protein type II gene expression in rat jejunum. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec;94(6):890-5. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08