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Identification
NameBotulinum Toxin Type A
Accession NumberDB00083  (BTD00092, BIOD00092)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionPurified botulinum toxin from Clostridium botulinum, purified from culture via dialysis and acid precipitation.
Protein structureDb00083
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC6760H10447N1743O2010S32
Protein average weight149322.7 Da
Sequences
>Botulinum Toxin Type A Sequence
MPFVNKQFNYKDPVNGVDIAYIKIPNVGQMQPVKAFKIHNKIWVIPERDTFTNPEEGDLN
PPPEAKQVPVSYYDSTYLSTDNEKDNYLKGVTKLFERIYSTDLGRMLLTSIVRGIPFWGG
STIDTELKVIDTNCINVIQPDGSYRSEELNLVIIGPSADIIQFECKSFGHEVLNLTRNGY
GSTQYIRFSPDFTFGFEESLEVDTNPLLGAGKFATDPAVTLAHELIHAGHRLYGIAINPN
RVFKVNTNAYYEMSGLEVSFEELRTFGGHDAKFIDSLQENEFRLYYYNKFKDIASTLNKA
KSIVGTTASLQYMKNVFKEKYLLSEDTSGKFSVDKLKFDKLYKMLTEIYTEDNFVKFFKV
LNRKTYLNFDKAVFKINIVPKVNYTIYDGFNLRNTNLAANFNGQNTEINNMNFTKLKNFT
GLFEFYKLLCVRGIITSKTKSLDKGYNKALNDLCIKVNNWDLFFSPSEDNFTNDLNKGEE
ITSDTNIEAAEENISLDLIQQYYLTFNFDNEPENISIENLSSDIIGQLELMPNIERFPNG
KKYELDKYTMFHYLRAQEFEHGKSRIALTNSVNEALLNPSRVYTFFSSDYVKKVNKATEA
AMFLGWVEQLVYDFTDETSEVSTTDKIADITIIIPYIGPALNIGNMLYKDDFVGALIFSG
AVILLEFIPEIAIPVLGTFALVSYIANKVLTVQTIDNALSKRNEKWDEVYKYIVTNWLAK
VNTQIDLIRKKMKEALENQAEATKAIINYQYNQYTEEEKNNINFNIDDLSSKLNESINKA
MININKFLNQCSVSYLMNSMIPYGVKRLEDFDASLKDALLKYIYDNRGTLIGQVDRLKDK
VNNTLSTDIPFQLSKYVDNQRLLSTFTEYIKNIINTSILNLRYESNHLIDLSRYASKINI
GSKVNFDPIDKNQIQLFNLESSKIEVILKNAIVYNSMYENFSTSFWIRIPKYFNSISLNN
EYTIINCMENNSGWKVSLNYGEIIWTLQDTQEIKQRVVFKYSQMINISDYINRWIFVTIT
NNRLNNSKIYINGRLIDQKPISNLGNIHASNNIMFKLDGCRDTHRYIWIKYFNLFDKELN
EKEIKDLYDNQSNSGILKDFWGDYLQYDKPYYMLNLYDPNKYVDVNNVGIRGYMYLKGPR
GSVMTTNIYLNSSLYRGTKFIIKKYASGNKDNIVRNNDRVYINVVVKNKEYRLATNASQA
GVEKILSALEIPDVGNLSQVVVMKSKNDQGITNKCKMNLQDNNGNDIGFIGFHQFNNIAK
LVASNWYNRQIERSSRTLGCSWEFIPVDDGWGERPL
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
AbobotulinumtoxinA
BoNT/A
Bontoxilysin A
Botulinum neurotoxin type A precursor
BTX-A
IncobotulinumtoxinA
OnabotulinumtoxinA
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BotoxInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 [USP'U]/1Intradermal; IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.1989-12-15Not applicableUs
BotoxInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution200 [USP'U]/1Intradermal; IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.2010-01-11Not applicableUs
BotoxPowder, for solution100 unitIntramuscularAllergan Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Botox CosmeticPowder, for solution100 unitIntramuscularAllergan Inc2001-05-07Not applicableCanada
Botox CosmeticInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.2008-07-15Not applicableUs
Botox CosmeticInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularAllergan, Inc.2008-05-20Not applicableUs
DysportPowder, for solution300 unitIntramuscularIpsen Biopharm Limited2013-02-19Not applicableCanada
DysportPowder, for solution500 unitIntramuscularIpsen Biopharm LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
DysportInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution500 U/1IntramuscularIpsen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-11-02Not applicableUs
DysportInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution300 U/1IntramuscularGalderma Laboratories, L.P.2009-11-02Not applicableUs
DysportInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution300 U/1IntramuscularIpsen Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-11-02Not applicableUs
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-09-01Not applicableUs
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-09-01Not applicableUs
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz North America, Inc.2011-08-01Not applicableUs
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-09-01Not applicableUs
XeominPowder, for solution100 unitIntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals Gmbh2009-07-21Not applicableCanada
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz North America, Inc.2011-08-01Not applicableUs
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution200 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals, LLC2015-11-20Not applicableUs
XeominPowder, for solution50 unitIntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals Gmbh2012-07-04Not applicableCanada
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz North America, Inc.2011-08-01Not applicableUs
XeominInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution100 [USP'U]/1IntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals, LLC2010-09-01Not applicableUs
Xeomin CosmeticPowder, for solution100 unitIntramuscularMerz Pharmaceuticals Gmbh2012-07-05Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIE211KPY694
CAS number93384-43-1
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of cervical dystonia in adults to decrease the severity of abnormal head position and neck pain associated with cervical dystonia. Also for the treatment of severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis that is inadequately managed with topical agents and for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm associated with dystonia, including benign essential blepharospasm or VII nerve disorders in patients 12 years of age and above. Also used cosmetically to temporarily improve the appearance of moderate-to-severe frown lines between the eyebrows (glabellar lines) as well as for the treatment of excessive underarm sweating.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsA 150 kDa neurotoxic protein produced from fermentation of Hall strain Clostridium botulinum type A grown in a medium containing casein hydrolysate, glucose and yeast extract. It is purified from the culture solution by dialysis and a series of acid precipitations to a complex consisting of the neurotoxin, and several accessory proteins. Botulinum Toxin Type A is not expected to be present in the peripheral blood at measurable levels following IM or intradermal injection at the recommended doses. The recommended quantities of neurotoxin administered at each treatment session are not expected to result in systemic, overt distant clinical effects, i.e. muscle weakness, in patients without other neuromuscular dysfunction. However, sub-clinical systemic effects have been shown by single-fiber electromyography after IM doses of botulinum toxins appropriate to produce clinically observable local muscle weakness.
Mechanism of actionBotulinum Toxin Type A blocks neuromuscular transmission by binding to acceptor sites on motor or sympathetic nerve terminals, entering the nerve terminals, and inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. This inhibition occurs as the neurotoxin cleaves SNAP-25, a protein integral to the successful docking and release of acetylcholine from vesicles situated within nerve endings.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP60880 details
Rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoBProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP62745 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionThe chemical complexity of Botulinum Toxin Type A combined with its extreme potency limits the opportunity to study its pharmacokinetic profile in humans. Therefore, no human pharmacokinetic studies have been performed. Botulinum Toxin Type A is injected directly into the target organ, a skeletal muscle. Thus, bioavailability of the intravenous or oral route is not of clinical relevance.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityBased on toxicological studies, it has been estimated that the human LD50 by injection is approximately 2800 Units, equivalent to 28 individual vials of BOTOX (Botulinum Toxin Type A) Purified Neurotoxin Complex (100 Units) for a 70 kg adult. When injected intramuscularly, Botulinum Toxin Type A has been shown to be teratogenic or to have embryocidal effects in some animal species.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AclarubicinAclarubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
AclidiniumAclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
AmikacinAmikacin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Vet Approved
AmrubicinAmrubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
Anisotropine MethylbromideAnisotropine Methylbromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
annamycinannamycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
ApramycinApramycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Experimental, Vet Approved
ArbekacinArbekacin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
Atracurium besylateBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
AtropineAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Vet Approved
BenactyzineBenactyzine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Withdrawn
BenzatropineBenzatropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
BiperidenBiperiden may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
Botulinum Toxin Type BBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the adverse neuromuscular activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.Approved
ChlorphenoxamineChlorphenoxamine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Withdrawn
Cisatracurium besylateBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.Approved
CyclopentolateCyclopentolate may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
DarifenacinDarifenacin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinDaunorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
DecamethoniumBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Decamethonium.Approved
DesloratadineDesloratadine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
DexetimideDexetimide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Withdrawn
DicyclomineDicyclomine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
DihydrostreptomycinDihydrostreptomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Vet Approved
Domoic AcidBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Domoic Acid.Experimental
Doxacurium chlorideBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Doxacurium chloride.Approved
DoxorubicinDoxorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
EpirubicinEpirubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
EthopropazineEthopropazine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
FesoterodineFesoterodine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
FramycetinFramycetin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
Gallamine TriethiodideBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
GeneticinGeneticin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Experimental
GentamicinGentamicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AGENTAMICIN C1A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Experimental
GlycopyrroniumGlycopyrronium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
HexamethoniumHexamethonium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Experimental
HomatropineHomatropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
Hygromycin BHygromycin B may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Vet Approved
HyoscyamineHyoscyamine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
IdarubicinIdarubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
INNO-206INNO-206 may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
Ipratropium bromideIpratropium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
KanamycinKanamycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Vet Approved
MecamylamineMecamylamine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
MethanthelineMethantheline may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
MetixeneMetixene may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
MetocurineBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Metocurine.Approved
Metocurine IodideBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Metocurine Iodide.Withdrawn
MetrizamideMetrizamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
MivacuriumBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
N-butylscopolammonium bromideN-butylscopolammonium bromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Vet Approved
NeamineNeamine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Experimental
NeomycinNeomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Vet Approved
NeosaxitoxinBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Neosaxitoxin.Investigational
NetilmicinNetilmicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
NVA237NVA237 may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
OrphenadrineOrphenadrine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
OxybutyninOxybutynin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
OxyphenoniumOxyphenonium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
PancuroniumBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.Approved
ParomomycinParomomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
PentoliniumPentolinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
PipecuroniumBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pipecuronium.Approved
PirarubicinPirarubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
PirenzepinePirenzepine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
PlicamycinPlicamycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Withdrawn
ProcyclidineProcyclidine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
PropanthelinePropantheline may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
PropiverinePropiverine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
PuromycinPuromycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Experimental
PyrantelBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pyrantel.Approved, Vet Approved
QuinidineQuinidine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
RapacuroniumBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RibostamycinRibostamycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
RocuroniumBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.Approved
ScopolamineScopolamine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
Scopolamine butylbromideScopolamine butylbromide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
SisomicinSisomicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
SolifenacinSolifenacin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
SP1049CSP1049C may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Investigational
SpectinomycinSpectinomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Vet Approved
StreptomycinStreptomycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Vet Approved
StreptozocinStreptozocin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
SuccinylcholineBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Succinylcholine.Approved
TiotropiumTiotropium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
TobramycinTobramycin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
TolterodineTolterodine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
TrihexyphenidylTrihexyphenidyl may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
TrimethaphanTrimethaphan may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
TropicamideTropicamide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
TrospiumTrospium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
TubocurarineBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Tubocurarine.Approved
UmeclidiniumUmeclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
ValrubicinValrubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved
VecuroniumBotulinum Toxin Type A may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.Approved
ZorubicinZorubicin may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Experimental
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Montecucco C, Molgo J: Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an old killer. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;5(3):274-9. [PubMed:15907915 ]
  2. Brin MF, Lew MF, Adler CH, Comella CL, Factor SA, Jankovic J, O'Brien C, Murray JJ, Wallace JD, Willmer-Hulme A, Koller M: Safety and efficacy of NeuroBloc (botulinum toxin type B) in type A-resistant cervical dystonia. Neurology. 1999 Oct 22;53(7):1431-8. [PubMed:10534247 ]
  3. Shukla HD, Sharma SK: Clostridium botulinum: a bug with beauty and weapon. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2005;31(1):11-8. [PubMed:15839401 ]
  4. Eisenach JH, Atkinson JL, Fealey RD: Hyperhidrosis: evolving therapies for a well-established phenomenon. Mayo Clin Proc. 2005 May;80(5):657-66. [PubMed:15887434 ]
  5. Schurch B, Corcos J: Botulinum toxin injections for paediatric incontinence. Curr Opin Urol. 2005 Jul;15(4):264-7. [PubMed:15928517 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 92:00.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (115 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntradermal; Intramuscular100 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntradermal; Intramuscular200 [USP'U]/1
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular100 unit
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular300 U/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular500 U/1
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular300 unit
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular500 unit
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular100 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular200 [USP'U]/1
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular50 [USP'U]/1
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular50 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Botox 200 unit vial1260.0USD vial
Dysport 500 unit vial852.0USD vial
Botox 100 unit655.2USD vial
Botox 100 unit vial630.0USD vial
Botox cosmetic 100 unit vial630.0USD vial
Botox cosmetic 50 unit vial346.8USD vial
Botox (100 - 200 unit/Vial)3.74USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2280565 No2005-11-152019-08-20Canada
CA2310845 No2001-05-152014-06-07Canada
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilitySolubleNot Available
hydrophobicity-0.368Not Available
isoelectric point6.06Not Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Syntaxin-1 binding
Specific Function:
t-SNARE involved in the molecular regulation of neurotransmitter release. May play an important role in the synaptic function of specific neuronal systems. Associates with proteins involved in vesicle docking and membrane fusion. Regulates plasma membrane recycling through its interaction with CENPF. Modulates the gating characteristics of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium chann...
Gene Name:
SNAP25
Uniprot ID:
P60880
Molecular Weight:
23314.905 Da
References
  1. Zhou JY, Wang ZF, Ren XM, Tang MZ, Shi YL: Antagonism of botulinum toxin type A-induced cleavage of SNAP-25 in rat cerebral synaptosome by toosendanin. FEBS Lett. 2003 Dec 4;555(2):375-9. [PubMed:14644446 ]
  2. Flynn TC: Myobloc. Dermatol Clin. 2004 Apr;22(2):207-11, vii. [PubMed:15222581 ]
  3. Okada M, Yoshida S, Zhu G, Kaneko S: [Methodological consideration in studying the exocytosis mechanisms using microdialysis]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2004 Aug;24(4):165-70. [PubMed:15484814 ]
  4. Frassoni C, Inverardi F, Coco S, Ortino B, Grumelli C, Pozzi D, Verderio C, Matteoli M: Analysis of SNAP-25 immunoreactivity in hippocampal inhibitory neurons during development in culture and in situ. Neuroscience. 2005;131(4):813-23. [PubMed:15749336 ]
  5. Straughan D: Progress in applying the Three Rs to the potency testing of Botulinum toxin type A. Altern Lab Anim. 2006 Jun;34(3):305-13. [PubMed:16831062 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Gtpase activity
Specific Function:
Mediates apoptosis in neoplastically transformed cells after DNA damage. Not essential for development but affects cell adhesion and growth factor signaling in transformed cells. Plays a negative role in tumorigenesis as deletion causes tumor formation. Involved in intracellular protein trafficking of a number of proteins. Targets PKN1 to endosomes and is involved in trafficking of the EGF rece...
Gene Name:
RHOB
Uniprot ID:
P62745
Molecular Weight:
22123.185 Da
References
  1. Ishida H, Zhang X, Erickson K, Ray P: Botulinum toxin type A targets RhoB to inhibit lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated actin reorganization and acetylcholine release in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep;310(3):881-9. Epub 2004 May 12. [PubMed:15140914 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23