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Identification
NameVitamin A
Accession NumberDB00162  (NUTR00007, APRD00486)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
DescriptionRetinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
all-trans-retinol
all-trans-retinyl alcohol
all-trans-vitamin A alcohol
Retinol
Vitamin A1
External Identifiers
  • 11103-57-4
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aquasol AInjection, solution15 mg/mLIntramuscularHospira Worldwide, Inc.1949-05-18Not applicableUs
Aquasol A Cap 25000unitCapsule25000 unitOralRhone Poulenc Rorer Consumer Inc.1992-12-311996-09-09Canada
Aquasol A Cap 50000unitCapsule50000 unitOralRhone Poulenc Rorer Consumer Inc.1992-12-311996-09-09Canada
Cataplex A Tab 1500unitTablet1500 unitOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Formula 7115 Tab 700unitTablet700 unitOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin A Cap 25000iuCapsule25000 unitOralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312015-10-26Canada
Vitamin A Cap 25000iuCapsule25000 unitOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Vitamin A Cap 50000iuCapsule50000 unitOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Vitamin A Cap 50000iuCapsule50000 unitOralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312015-10-26Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
400 Vitamin A 10000iuCapsule10000 unitOralHerbes Universelles Inc.1972-12-312009-07-15Canada
A Caps 10000 I.U.Capsule10000 unitOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
A Mulsion 10Emulsion10000 unitOralSeroyal International Inc.1982-12-312008-10-09Canada
Arovit Vitamine A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralLes Laboratoires Bio SantÉ Inc.1986-12-311996-09-10Canada
Beta CaroteneLiquid10000 unitOralSeroyal International Inc.1982-12-312001-08-09Canada
Pro-sol A Liq 5000unit/minSolution / drops5000 unitOralProfessional Health Products1990-12-311998-08-13Canada
Super A 40Capsule10000 unitOralFrega Inc.1979-12-312008-07-09Canada
Vitamin ACapsule10000 unitOralSeroyal International Inc.1996-12-312009-07-06Canada
Vitamin A 10000I.U. CapCapsule10000 unitOralNutricorp International1993-12-312009-08-05Canada
Vitamin A 5000 I.U. Dietary SupplementTablet5000 unitOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-252000-06-07Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000iuCapsule10000 unitOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1971-12-312002-07-31Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000iu Natural SourceCapsule10000 unitOralWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.1972-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unitCapsule10000 unitOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1977-12-312008-07-07Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unitCapsule10000 unitOralEverest Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1982-12-311999-07-14Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unit NaturelleCapsule10000 unitOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1976-12-311997-08-11Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unit USPCapsule10000 unitOralBioforce Canada Inc.1992-12-311997-04-04Canada
Vitamin A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralAlbi Imports Ltd.1979-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312001-07-27Canada
Vitamin A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.1985-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin A Tab 2000unit ChewableTablet2000 unitOralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada
Vitamine A Cap 10000unitCapsule10000 unitOralCarmaran LtÉe1979-12-311996-09-09Canada
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlphalinNot Available
Chocola ANot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
A & C PowderStandard Process Inc.
A + D OintmentNational Care Products Ltd.
A + ZincNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc
A and D OintmentSchering Plough Canada Inc
A D Calcium TabStar Products Inc.
A-D Calcium CapVitalab
Acti-retinol & Zn CapletActi Form Ltd.
Ad & Calcium CapLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Ad Calcium CapLes Produits Gerbex Inc.
Adc ComprimesBio Vita
Alsimine W Vitamins A DAlsi Cie Ltee
Am CapsNew Vision Nutritionals Company
Antiseptic Skin CreamArjohuntleigh Canada Inc.
AppedrineChattem Canada
Aquasol A & D DropsRhone Poulenc Rorer Consumer Inc.
Aquasol A CreamRhone Poulenc Rorer Consumer Inc.
BacminMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Beautel Supplement De Vitamines Et MineralNobel Pharm Enr.
Beta Green Enriching FormulaNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.
Beta-retinol + Zinc CapletNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Biovim TabLe Naturiste J.M.B. Inc.
Budpak Vitamin A and DBudpak Inc.
Bugs Bunny and Friends Multiple VitaminsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Bugs Bunny Chew Multi Vit Plus IronMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
C 106 TabNf Formulas Inc.
CalcitolFrega Inc.
Calcium A DProduits Phyto Inc.
Cataplex A-C TabStandard Process Inc.
Cell-wiseMelaleuca Of Canada Inc.
Cell-wise Natural SourceMelaleuca Of Canada Inc.
Ch-P CapNutri West Products Ltd.
Chew.multiple Vits.with Extra C for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vit Plus Iron for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins for ChildrenRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus Extra CRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron TabRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.
Chewable MultivitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children Choice Multivit Chewable TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Children Choice Multivitamin W Iron Chew TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Children Pediatric Vitamins DropsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children Vitamin DropsWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.
Children's Chewable Multi Vit W IronShoppers Drug Mart Inc.
Children's Chewable Multi VitaminsShoppers Drug Mart Inc.
Children's Chewable Multi Vitamins With Iron TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Children's Chewable Multi-vitaminWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vit.plus IronStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins - TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Extra Vitamin C (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Iron Tablets (chewable Tablets)Pharmetics (2011) Inc
Children's Vitamins ChewableVita Health Products Inc
Children's Vitamins W Iron ChewableVita Health Products Inc
Childrens Chew Multi Vitamin TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Childrens Chewable Multiple VitaminsKsl Pharmaceuticals
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus FeKsl Pharmaceuticals
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Childrens Chewable MultivitaminsRandle Labs Inc.
Childrens Chewable Multivitamins W IronRandle Labs Inc.
Childrens Chewable Vitamin TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Childrens Chewable VitaminsD.C. Labs Limited
Childrens Multiple Vit and Min Chew TabCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.
Cod Liver OilStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Cod Liver Oil CapJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Cod Liver Oil CapsuleRandle Labs Inc.
Cod Liver Oil CapsulesGerald S Doyle, Division Of T&M Winter Ltd.
Cod Liver Oil Capsules 10 MinHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Cod Liver Oil MintVita Health Products Inc
Cod Liver Oil Mint FlavouredRegal Pharms, Division Of Bradcan Corporation
Cod Liver Oil Oleovitamin A & D Caps 20minNutricorp International
Cod Liver Oil USPNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Cod Liver Oil W Added Vit A&dDrug Trading Company Ltd.
Complete Multivitamins and Minerals Tablets Timed ReleasePharmetics (2011) Inc
Croq-vit Pour EnfantsNutrivac Ltee
CyroplexTherapeutic Foods Co.
Dexatrim TabletsChattem Canada
Dry Super Vitamin A Plus D - CapGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Dynam Ampoule Et TabletCardinaux Enrg Les Produits Naturels
E & I FormulaeEnrich International
E.S.T. ComplexAbundance Marketing Ltd.
E.V.C. Vitamins TabSisu Inc.
EC + ComplexSeroyal International Inc.
Emulsified Norwegian Cod Liver Oil CapsTwin Laboratories Inc.
EscaviteGm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Evc - LiqSisu Inc.
Evc Liquid Vitamins A,c,b6 With Beta Caro&znNf Formulas Inc.
Everyday Multiple VitaminsD.C. Labs Limited
Everyday Multiple Vitamins With IronD.C. Labs Limited
Extra P.N. Vitamin-mineral Drink MixChanges International
Fem - ControlMetagenics, Inc.
Feminex 300 TabSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe
Femitab TabLe Groupe Prodeal Ltee
Fletanol CapsulesSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe
Flinstones Multiple Plus IronMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Flintstones Multiple VitaminsBayer Inc Consumer Care
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins Plus IronBayer Inc Consumer Care
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins TabMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Flintstones W Extra C TabMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
FlorivaBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Floriva PlusBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
For Kids Only Chewable Multivit. Plus IronKsl Pharmaceuticals
For Kids Only Chewable Multivitamins - TabKsl Pharmaceuticals
Formula Csp With Vitamins A C and Zinc LozQuantum Inc.
Formula Fe-vitamin and Mineral TabMetagenics, Inc.
Formula Im-vitamins and Minerals TabMetagenics, Inc.
Formula L.G.I.Metagenics, Inc.
Formula OGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Formula OsgSeroyal International Inc.
Formula R TabMetagenics, Inc.
Formula U - TabMetagenics, Inc.
Formule 7561 CapsTherapeutic Foods Co.
Fortamines 10 CapsulesRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc
Fortamines-10 ComprimesRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc
Forty Plus Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
G.A.S. ComplexAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Garfield Chewable Multivits Plus Iron TabWhitehall Robins Inc.
Gemvites Jr Tab ChewablePharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.
Gestamine ComprimesLab Nadeau LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Globucel - MethodeLes Laboratoires Swisse Inc.
Guardyn TabNutri Dyn Products Ltd.
Halibut Liver Oil CapAlive Vitamins
Halibut OilHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Hemarexin TabLab Bio Chimique Inc.,Division Of Technilab Pharma Inc.
Huile De Foie De Fletan CapsulesBio Vita
Huile De Foie De Morue Cap 10minLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Huile De Foie De Morue Cap 20 MinLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Huile De Foie De Morue CapsulesBio Vita
Huile Foie Morue CapLes Produits Gerbex Inc.
Hypo Vites TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Imm Formula CapNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
Inatal AdvanceNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Inatal UltraNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Infa Drops MultivitaminsVita Health Products Inc
Infant Multivitamin DropsGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Infant's Multiple Vitamin DropsStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Infantol DropsChurch & Dwight Canada Corp
Infants' Vitamin DropsKsl Pharmaceuticals
Insur-all Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Kenwood Liquid SupplementKenwood Laboratories (Division Of Bradley Pharmaceuticals)
Kid's Choice Children's Chewable Vitamins - TabVita Health Products Inc
Kidmag Vitamins W Magnesium TabMetagenics, Inc.
Kids Stuff TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Kids Stuff With Iron TabletsVita Health Products Inc
Kimchi Vitamin Chewable MultivitaminTobico
KindervitesHerbalife International Of America, Inc.
Liqui Infant VitaminsTwin Laboratories Inc.
Liqui VitaTwin Laboratories Inc.
M.V.I. 12Aventis Pharma Inc
M.V.I. PaediatricAventis Pharma Inc
M.V.I. PediatricHospira Worldwide, Inc.
Mag-A-folic TabMetagenics, Inc.
Maltlevol 12 LiqCarter Horner Corp.
Maltlevol LiqCarter Horner Corp.
Maxi 10 TabDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Maxi 6 LiqDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Mor-vites TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
Mr. Tumee Multi-vitaminVitamec Usa
Multi - N.T.O.x Formula - TabAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Multi 12 InjectionSandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi Enfants TabVitalab
Multi RolRolmex International Inc.
Multi Vitamin & MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vitamin and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Multi Vitamin Drops With FluorideSeton Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride and IronSeton Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride With IronStratus Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin Plus IronWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vitamin With FluorideQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Multi Vitamin-mineral FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Multi Vitamin, Iron and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Multi Vitamines - LiqLand Art Inc.
Multi Vitamins & MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi Vite Liq AdultPharmetics (2011) Inc
Multi Vite Liq JuniorPharmetics (2011) Inc
Multi-11Sandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi-12 PediatricSabex Inc
Multi-12/k1 PediatricSandoz Canada Incorporated
Multi-vit With FluorideA S Medication Solutions Llc
Multi-vit With Fluoride and IronQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Multi-vitaminLLC Federal Solutions
Multi-vitamin Dietary SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Multi-vitamin FluorideStratus Pharmaceuticals
Multi-vitamin Fluoride and Iron DropsBoca Pharmacal, LLC
Multi-vitamin Fluoride DropsH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.
Multi-vitamin With FluorideGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.
Multi-vitamines Enfants ComprimeHerbes Universelles Inc.
Multi-vitaminsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi-vitamins With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multiple Vitamin Plus Minerals TabHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Multiple Vitamin TabAdams Labs Ltd.
Multiple VitaminsGfr Pharma Ltd.
Multiple Vitamins and Minerals TabRandle Labs Inc.
Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron for WomenPharmetics (2011) Inc
Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron TabHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Multiple Vitamins TabHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Multiple Vitamins W Iron TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Multiple Vitamins W Minerals TabStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Multiple Vitamins With IronStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Multiple Vitamins With Minerals TabletsPharmetics (2011) Inc
MultivitaminLaboratoires Confab Inc
Multivitamin With FluorideSancilio & Company Inc
MultivitaminesRolmex International Inc.
Multivitamines Et MinerauxLe Groupe M. Vachon Inc.
Multivitamines Plus Fer Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Multivitamines Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
MultivitaminsVita Health Products Inc
Multivitamins for ChildrenQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Multivitamins W IronRandle Labs Inc.
Munit-E TabletHolista Health (Canada) Inc.
MvcSancilio & Company Inc
Mvc-fluorideSancilio & Company Inc.
Nata KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
NataviteSchein Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.
Neo Vites TabNeolab Inc
Neo-vites & Minerals TabNeolab Inc
No440 CapHerbes Universelles Inc.
Nutrifer Plus TabletsWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
Nutrol AdRolmex International Inc.
Nutrol Ad CapRolmex International Inc.
O-cal Fa MultivitaminPharmics, Inc.
O-cal Prenatal VitaminPharmics, Inc.
OnccorSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
One A Day Advance AdultsBayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day Advance Adults 50+Bayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day Advance FemBayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day TabCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.
Orifer FSanofi Aventis Canada Inc
P.R.O. ComplexAbundance Marketing Ltd.
Paramettes Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
Paramettes Chewable Multivits With Iron TabWhitehall Robins Inc.
Paramettes Multivits Plus Iron Tab (teens)Whitehall Robins Inc.
Paramettes SyrupWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
Perfect HarvestGood Times Merchandising & Licensing Corp.
Permathene-12 - CapletCCA Industries, Inc.
Phaze 18 ClearskinPhysician's Choice Of Arizona, Inc.
Phytofortis + Calcium A-DProduits Phyto Inc.
PhytopureLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Pnv Prenatal Plus MultivitaminSancilio & Company Inc
Pnv Prenatal Vitamin Plus Vitamin ASancilio & Company Inc
Pnv-selectAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Poly-VI-sol DropsMead Johnson Nutritionals
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantUsana Health Services, Inc.
Prenatal PlusBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.
Prenatal Plus IronMajor Pharmaceuticals
Prenatal Vitamins Plusbryant ranch prepack
Prenatal Vitamins Plus Low IronPatrin Pharma, Inc.
Prenavite ForteAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.
Prenavite Forte TabletsRoberts Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.
Prenavite TabletsRoberts Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.
Prevital TabBio Vita
Q.T. Vitamin and Mineral Drink MixGarden State Nutritionals
Real Vitamin Supplement CapLaer Products Inc.
Reaphirm Plant Source DHAEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Renadyn TabNutri Dyn Products Ltd.
Revit Plus CapIcn Canada Ltd.
Revit TabIcn Canada Ltd.
Revitex Ampoules Et ComprimesLes Produits Gerbex Inc.
Revival 1 TabBio Vita
Right Choice A.M. Multi Formula - CapletBody Wise International Llc
Se-natal OneSeton Pharmaceuticals
Shen Min Vitamin SupplementBiotech Corporation
Sincera - TabletsScandinavian Formulas Inc.
Sopalamine/3b Plus CTechnilab Pharma Inc.
Spectrum 2 CapNf Formulas Inc.
Strovite Forte CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Strovite One CapletsEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Sun-rype VitaburstSun Rype Products Ltd.
Super Charged EnergySimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Super Daily No 2W.R. Enterprises Inc.
Super-A Vitamins With Selenium Dietary SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Super-pote Vitamin SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Supravite Pour EnfantsPharmalab Inc.
SveetsSensible Delights Specialty Foods
T.A. Vit A & D OintmentJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Tender Age Multi VitaminsJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Tender Age Vit Adc DropsJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Theraplex AcpTherapeutic Foods Co.
Thymunase TabAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Tonicol Et A-D-C Ampoules/comprimesDistributions Multi Pro Inc.
Tonimol Cap LiqHerbes Universelles Inc.
TozalFocus Laboratories, Inc.
Tri Vi Flor TabMead Johnson Nutritionals
Tri-VI-sol DropsMead Johnson Nutritionals
Tri-vit With Fluoride and Iron DropsQualitest Pharmaceuticals
Tri-vit With Fluoride DropsA S Medication Solutions Llc
Tri-vitamin With FluorideSancilio & Company Inc
Triple Vitamin Drops With FluorideStratus Pharmaceuticals
Triple-vitamin Drops With FluorideBoca Pharmacal, LLC
Ultra HrNatural Organics Inc.
Vi-daylin Adc Vitamins Drops for InfantsAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Vimeral TabIcn Canada Ltd.
Vit-HA Multi Vitamin and Zinc SupplementRheingold Food International Ltd.
Vita A + D CapsulesViva Pharmaceutical Inc.
Vita Day TabJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Vitaday TabPharmetics (2011) Inc
VitafantLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Vitafol CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol Ob CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol OneEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol PlusEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitalife - CapsuleHolista Health (Canada) Inc.
Vitamin A (100,000 Iu) and Vitamin E (20 Iu) Oral Liquid PreparationNutricorp International
Vitamin A (200,000 Iu) and Vitamin E (40 Iu) Oral Liquid PreparationNutricorp International
Vitamin A and DUniversal Distribution Center LLC
Vitamin A and D CapNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Vitamin A&d TabAlbi Naturals
Vitamin Ad CapVita Health Products Inc
Vitamin E Cream W Vitamins A and DAdams Labs Ltd.
Vitamines A - D CalciumLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Vitamines Pour Bebes Et EnfantsHerbes Universelles Inc.
Vitamins A and D CapsulesBioforce Canada Inc.
Vitamins A, C, D and FluorideLibertas Pharma, Inc.
Vitamins ChewableStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Vitamins W Iron ChewableStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Vtb Vitamin and Mineral SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
Women's FormulaPro Ma Systems
Zinc Amino Acid Chelate TabQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Zoo ChewsHall Laboratories, Ltd.
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Vitamin A acetate
127-47-9
Thumb
  • InChI Key: QGNJRVVDBSJHIZ-QHLGVNSISA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 328.24023027
  • Average Mass: 328.496
DBSALT001720
Vitamin A palmitate
79-81-2
Thumb
  • InChI Key: VYGQUTWHTHXGQB-FFHKNEKCSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 524.459331164
  • Average Mass: 524.8604
DBSALT000855
Categories
UNIIG2SH0XKK91
CAS number68-26-8
WeightAverage: 286.4516
Monoisotopic: 286.229665582
Chemical FormulaC20H30O
InChI KeyFPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H30O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,21H,7,10,14-15H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+
IUPAC Name
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
SMILES
C\C(=C/CO)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsVitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.
Mechanism of actionVision:Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-cis-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-cis retinal rapidly.
Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Retinol dehydrogenase 12ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ96NR8 details
Retinol-binding protein 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP09455 details
11-cis retinol dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ92781 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 13ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8NBN7 details
Retinol-binding protein 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP10745 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO94788 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00352 details
Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP12271 details
Lecithin retinol acyltransferaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95237 details
Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO75911 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP47895 details
All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ6NUM9 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 11ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8TC12 details
Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9BTZ2 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 14ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9HBH5 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 8ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9NYR8 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionReadily absorbed from the normal gastrointestinal tract
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding<5% of circulating vitamin A is bound to lipoproteins in blood in normal condition, but may be up to 65% when hepatic stores are saturated because of excessive intake. When released from liver, vitamin A is bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). Most vitamin A circulates in the form of retinol bound to RBP.
Metabolism

Hepatic. Retinol is conjugated with glucuronic acid; the B-glucuronide undergoes enterohepatic circulation and oxidation to retinol and retinoic acid. Retinoic acid undergoes decarboxylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life1.9 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAcute toxicity (single ingestion of 7 500 RE or 25 000 IU per kg or more): Signs and symptoms may be delayed for 8 to 24 hours and include: increased intracranial pressure, headache, irritability, drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, bulging of fontanels in infants, diplopia, papilledema. Peeling of skin around mouth may be observed from 1 to several days after ingestion and may spread to the rest of the body. Chronic, excessive ingestion (1 200 RE or 4 000 IU/kg daily for 6 to 15 months) may produce symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri, anorexia, weakness, arthralgias, bone pain, bone demineralization, dry skin, cracked lips, brittle nails, hair loss, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, hypoplastic anemia, leukopenia, optic neuropathy, and blindness. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A occur but do not necessarily correlate with toxicity.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Retinol MetabolismMetabolicSMP00074
Vitamin A DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00336
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
AcitretinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Acitretin.Approved
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Adapalene.Approved
AlitretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Alitretinoin.Approved, Investigational
AnvirzelAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Investigational
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
BexaroteneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Vitamin A.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
IsotretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Isotretinoin.Approved
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Vitamin A can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Vitamin A.Approved, Vet Approved
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

William Oroshnik, “Synthesis of Vitamin A, intermediates and conversion thereof to Vitamin A.” U.S. Patent US4092366, issued May, 1948.

US4092366
General References
  1. Roncone DP: Xerophthalmia secondary to alcohol-induced malnutrition. Optometry. 2006 Mar;77(3):124-33. [PubMed:16513513 ]
External Links
ATC CodesR01AX02D10AD02A11CA01S01XA02
AHFS Codes
  • 88:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (74.8 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9938
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9665
Caco-2 permeable+0.7272
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5939
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8205
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5631
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7646
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8193
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8324
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5522
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.842
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7388
Ames testAMES toxic0.6952
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7004
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5504
Rat acute toxicity2.1249 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8563
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8853
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Chase chemical co lp
  • Everylife
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Sterling winthrop inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Del ray laboratories inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Wharton laboratories inc div us ethicals
  • Arcum pharmaceutical corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionOral
OintmentTopical
EmulsionOral10000 unit
Injection, solutionIntramuscular15 mg/mL
CapsuleOral25000 unit
CapsuleOral50000 unit
LiquidOral10000 unit
CreamTopical
TabletOral1500 unit
Tablet, extended releaseOral
TabletOral700 unit
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
Liquid; tabletOral
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidOral
SolutionOral
Tablet, chewableOral
SyrupOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Solution / dropsOral5000 unit
PowderOral
Tablet, coatedOral
LozengeOral
Capsule; liquidOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
TabletOral5000 unit
CapsuleOral10000 unit
TabletOral10000 unit
TabletOral2000 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Avita 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube149.39USD tube
Avita 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube149.39USD tube
Avita 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube69.21USD tube
Vitamin a palmitate liquid22.33USD ml
Aquasol a 50000 unit/ml vial17.69USD ml
Vitamin a acetate crystals1.99USD g
Gordon's vite a creme0.13USD g
Vitamin a palm 10000 unit tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitamin a cream0.03USD g
Vitamin a 10000 unit tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point63.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility0.671 mg/LNot Available
logP5.68BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00758 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.38ALOGPS
logP4.69ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity97.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (10.5 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0290000000-25c523b646154b291da8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05gj-3900000000-a63c286f931608f650a3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05mo-9700000000-e627db30469c74bb037fView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-052r-2950000000-c24ec8ff8d0ba6c1f23fView in MoNA
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Retinoid skeleton
  • Diterpenoid
  • Fatty alcohol
  • Fatty acyl
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits an oxidoreductive catalytic activity towards retinoids. Most efficient as an NADPH-dependent retinal reductase. Displays high activity toward 9-cis and all-trans-retinol. Also involved in the metabolism of short-chain aldehydes. No steroid dehydrogenase activity detected. Might be the key enzyme in the formation of 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol during regeneration of the cone visu...
Gene Name:
RDH12
Uniprot ID:
Q96NR8
Molecular Weight:
35093.455 Da
References
  1. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Sun W, Jastrzebska B, Hatala DA, Winkens HJ, Hofmann KP, Janssen JJ, Baehr W, Driessen CA, Palczewski K: Retinol dehydrogenase (RDH12) protects photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration in mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 8;281(49):37697-704. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17032653 ]
  2. Thompson DA, Janecke AR, Lange J, Feathers KL, Hubner CA, McHenry CL, Stockton DW, Rammesmayer G, Lupski JR, Antinolo G, Ayuso C, Baiget M, Gouras P, Heckenlively JR, den Hollander A, Jacobson SG, Lewis RA, Sieving PA, Wissinger B, Yzer S, Zrenner E, Utermann G, Gal A: Retinal degeneration associated with RDH12 mutations results from decreased 11-cis retinal synthesis due to disruption of the visual cycle. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Dec 15;14(24):3865-75. Epub 2005 Nov 3. [PubMed:16269441 ]
  3. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber's congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17512723 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP1
Uniprot ID:
P09455
Molecular Weight:
15850.13 Da
References
  1. Yapi HF, Ahiboh H, Ago K, Ake M, Monnet D: [Protein profile and vitamin A in children of school age in Ivory Coast]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2005 May-Jun;63(3):291-5. [PubMed:15951260 ]
  2. Quadro L, Hamberger L, Gottesman ME, Wang F, Colantuoni V, Blaner WS, Mendelsohn CL: Pathways of vitamin A delivery to the embryo: insights from a new tunable model of embryonic vitamin A deficiency. Endocrinology. 2005 Oct;146(10):4479-90. Epub 2005 Jun 30. [PubMed:15994349 ]
  3. Harrison EH: Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:87-103. [PubMed:16011460 ]
  4. Paci E, Greene LH, Jones RM, Smith LJ: Characterization of the molten globule state of retinol-binding protein using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. FEBS J. 2005 Sep;272(18):4826-38. [PubMed:16156801 ]
  5. Folli C, Viglione S, Busconi M, Berni R: Biochemical basis for retinol deficiency induced by the I41N and G75D mutations in human plasma retinol-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Nov 4;336(4):1017-22. [PubMed:16157297 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Stereospecific 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of 11-cis retinaldehyde, the universal chromophore of visual pigments. Also able to oxidize 9-cis-retinol and 13-cis-retinol, but not all-trans-retinol. Active in the presence of NAD as cofactor but not in the presence of NADP.
Gene Name:
RDH5
Uniprot ID:
Q92781
Molecular Weight:
34978.425 Da
References
  1. Zhang M, Hu P, Krois CR, Kane MA, Napoli JL: Altered vitamin A homeostasis and increased size and adiposity in the rdh1-null mouse. FASEB J. 2007 Sep;21(11):2886-96. Epub 2007 Apr 13. [PubMed:17435174 ]
  2. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Golczak M, Moise AR, Palczewski K: Aberrant metabolites in mouse models of congenital blinding diseases: formation and storage of retinyl esters. Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 4;45(13):4210-9. [PubMed:16566595 ]
  3. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17608724 ]
  4. Gidlof AC, Ocaya P, Olofsson PS, Torma H, Sirsjo A: Differences in retinol metabolism and proliferative response between neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):392-8. Epub 2006 Jul 6. [PubMed:16837774 ]
  5. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [PubMed:16860536 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Does not exhibit retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) activity in vitro.
Gene Name:
RDH13
Uniprot ID:
Q8NBN7
Molecular Weight:
35931.85 Da
References
  1. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber's congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17512723 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function:
IRBP shuttles 11-cis and all trans retinoids between the retinol isomerase in the pigment epithelium and the visual pigments in the photoreceptor cells of the retina.
Gene Name:
RBP3
Uniprot ID:
P10745
Molecular Weight:
135361.46 Da
References
  1. Qtaishat NM, Wiggert B, Pepperberg DR: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promotes the release of all-trans retinol from the isolated retina following rhodopsin bleaching illumination. Exp Eye Res. 2005 Oct;81(4):455-63. Epub 2005 Jun 2. [PubMed:15935345 ]
  2. Wu Q, Blakeley LR, Cornwall MC, Crouch RK, Wiggert BN, Koutalos Y: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein is the physiologically relevant carrier that removes retinol from rod photoreceptor outer segments. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 24;46(29):8669-79. Epub 2007 Jun 30. [PubMed:17602665 ]
  3. Kolesnikov AV, Ala-Laurila P, Shukolyukov SA, Crouch RK, Wiggert B, Estevez ME, Govardovskii VI, Cornwall MC: Visual cycle and its metabolic support in gecko photoreceptors. Vision Res. 2007 Feb;47(3):363-74. Epub 2006 Oct 16. [PubMed:17049961 ]
  4. Duncan T, Fariss RN, Wiggert B: Confocal immunolocalization of bovine serum albumin, serum retinol-binding protein, and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein in bovine retina. Mol Vis. 2006 Dec 22;12:1632-9. [PubMed:17200663 ]
  5. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. [PubMed:15928609 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID:
O94788
Molecular Weight:
56723.495 Da
References
  1. Isken A, Holzschuh J, Lampert JM, Fischer L, Oberhauser V, Palczewski K, von Lintig J: Sequestration of retinyl esters is essential for retinoid signaling in the zebrafish embryo. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 12;282(2):1144-51. Epub 2006 Nov 10. [PubMed:17098734 ]
  2. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. [PubMed:17184764 ]
  3. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman's gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. [PubMed:16538685 ]
  4. Szatmari I, Pap A, Ruhl R, Ma JX, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, Rajnavolgyi E, Dezso B, Nagy L: PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006 Oct 2;203(10):2351-62. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16982809 ]
  5. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. [PubMed:17270546 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID:
P00352
Molecular Weight:
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman's gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. [PubMed:16538685 ]
  2. Chambers D, Wilson L, Maden M, Lumsden A: RALDH-independent generation of retinoic acid during vertebrate embryogenesis by CYP1B1. Development. 2007 Apr;134(7):1369-83. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329364 ]
  3. Gyamfi MA, Kocsis MG, He L, Dai G, Mendy AJ, Wan YJ: The role of retinoid X receptor alpha in regulating alcohol metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):360-8. Epub 2006 Jul 7. [PubMed:16829625 ]
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke's pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. [PubMed:17486539 ]
  5. Huq MD, Tsai NP, Gupta P, Wei LN: Regulation of retinal dehydrogenases and retinoic acid synthesis by cholesterol metabolites. EMBO J. 2006 Jul 12;25(13):3203-13. Epub 2006 Jun 8. [PubMed:16763553 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Soluble retinoid carrier essential the proper function of both rod and cone photoreceptors. Participates in the regeneration of active 11-cis-retinol and 11-cis-retinaldehyde, from the inactive 11-trans products of the rhodopsin photocycle and in the de novo synthesis of these retinoids from 11-trans metabolic precursors. The cycling of retinoids between photoreceptor and adjacent pigment epith...
Gene Name:
RLBP1
Uniprot ID:
P12271
Molecular Weight:
36474.02 Da
References
  1. Muniz A, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Thackeray B, Tsin AT: 11-cis-Acyl-CoA:retinol O-acyltransferase activity in the primary culture of chicken Muller cells. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 10;45(40):12265-73. [PubMed:17014079 ]
  2. Wenzel A, von Lintig J, Oberhauser V, Tanimoto N, Grimm C, Seeliger MW: RPE65 is essential for the function of cone photoreceptors in NRL-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb;48(2):534-42. [PubMed:17251447 ]
  3. Vogel JS, Bullen EC, Teygong CL, Howard EW: Identification of the RLBP1 gene promoter. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48(8):3872-7. [PubMed:17652763 ]
  4. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. [PubMed:15928609 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Transfers the acyl group from the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine to all-trans retinol, producing all-trans retinyl esters. Retinyl esters are storage forms of vitamin A. LRAT plays a critical role in vision. It provides the all-trans retinyl ester substrates for the isomerohydrolase which processes the esters into 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium; due to a membrane-associa...
Gene Name:
LRAT
Uniprot ID:
O95237
Molecular Weight:
25702.635 Da
References
  1. Kaschula CH, Jin MH, Desmond-Smith NS, Travis GH: Acyl CoA:retinol acyltransferase (ARAT) activity is present in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Jan;82(1):111-21. Epub 2005 Jul 27. [PubMed:16054134 ]
  2. Liu L, Gudas LJ: Disruption of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene makes mice more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 2;280(48):40226-34. Epub 2005 Sep 20. [PubMed:16174770 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol in the presence of NADPH.
Gene Name:
DHRS3
Uniprot ID:
O75911
Molecular Weight:
33548.115 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Haeseleer F, Huang J, Lebioda L, Saari JC, Palczewski K: Molecular characterization of a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that reduces all-trans-retinal. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 21;273(34):21790-9. [PubMed:9705317 ]
  4. Cerignoli F, Guo X, Cardinali B, Rinaldi C, Casaletto J, Frati L, Screpanti I, Gudas LJ, Gulino A, Thiele CJ, Giannini G: retSDR1, a short-chain retinol dehydrogenase/reductase, is retinoic acid-inducible and frequently deleted in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 15;62(4):1196-204. [PubMed:11861404 ]
  5. Chai Z, Brereton P, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Obeyesekere V, Escher G, Saffery R, Fuller P, Enriquez C, Krozowski Z: 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type XI localizes to human steroidogenic cells. Endocrinology. 2003 May;144(5):2084-91. [PubMed:12697717 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thyroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular Weight:
56107.995 Da
References
  1. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. [PubMed:17270546 ]
  2. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [PubMed:15950969 ]
  3. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. [PubMed:17184764 ]
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke's pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. [PubMed:17486539 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Retinol saturase carrying out the saturation of the 13-14 double bond of all-trans-retinol to produce all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol. Has activity toward all-trans-retinol as substrate. Does not use all-trans-retinoic acid nor 9-cis, 11-cis or 13-cis-retinol isomers as substrates. May play a role in the metabolism of vitamin A (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RETSAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6NUM9
Molecular Weight:
66818.935 Da
References
  1. Moise AR, Isken A, Dominguez M, de Lera AR, von Lintig J, Palczewski K: Specificity of zebrafish retinol saturase: formation of all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol and all-trans-7,8- dihydroretinol. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 20;46(7):1811-20. Epub 2007 Jan 25. [PubMed:17253779 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits an oxidoreductive catalytic activity towards retinoids. Most efficient as an NADPH-dependent retinal reductase. Displays high activity towards 9-cis and all-trans-retinol. Also involved in the metabolism of short-chain aldehydes. No steroid dehydrogenase activity detected.
Gene Name:
RDH11
Uniprot ID:
Q8TC12
Molecular Weight:
35385.955 Da
References
  1. Gallego O, Belyaeva OV, Porte S, Ruiz FX, Stetsenko AV, Shabrova EV, Kostereva NV, Farres J, Pares X, Kedishvili NY: Comparative functional analysis of human medium-chain dehydrogenases, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and aldo-keto reductases with retinoids. Biochem J. 2006 Oct 1;399(1):101-9. [PubMed:16787387 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Reduces all-trans-retinal and 9-cis retinal. Can also catalyze the oxidation of all-trans-retinol with NADP as co-factor, but with much lower efficiency. Reduces alkyl phenyl ketones and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds with aromatic rings, such as pyrimidine-4-aldehyde, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, menadione and 4-hexanoylpyridine. Has no activity towards aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (By...
Gene Name:
DHRS4
Uniprot ID:
Q9BTZ2
Molecular Weight:
29536.885 Da
References
  1. Du K, Liu GF, Xie JP, Song XH, Li R, Liang B, Huang DY: A 27.368 kDa retinal reductase in New Zealand white rabbit liver cytosol encoded by the peroxisomal retinol dehydrogenase-reductase cDNA: purification and characterization of the enzyme. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;85(2):209-17. [PubMed:17534402 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Alcohol dehydrogenase (nadp+) activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits an oxidoreductive catalytic activity towards retinoids. Most efficient as an NADPH-dependent retinal reductase. Displays high activity toward 9-cis and all-trans-retinol. No steroid dehydrogenase activity detected.
Gene Name:
RDH14
Uniprot ID:
Q9HBH5
Molecular Weight:
36864.355 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase with a clear preference for NADP. Converts all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. May play a role in the regeneration of visual pigment at high light intensity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RDH8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYR8
Molecular Weight:
33755.02 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Han W, Shen Y, Wang J, Yip S, Yap MK: [Establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Jul;42(7):642-8. [PubMed:17081426 ]
  4. Han W, Yip SP, Wang J, Yap MK: Using denaturing HPLC for SNP discovery and genotyping, and establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene. J Hum Genet. 2004;49(1):16-23. Epub 2003 Dec 6. [PubMed:14661078 ]
  5. Fishman GA, Roberts MF, Derlacki DJ, Grimsby JL, Yamamoto H, Sharon D, Nishiguchi KM, Dryja TP: Novel mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene (RLBP1) associated with retinitis punctata albescens: evidence of interfamilial genetic heterogeneity and fundus changes in heterozygotes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan;122(1):70-5. [PubMed:14718298 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
Plays a key role in retinoic acid metabolism. Acts on retinoids, including all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and its stereoisomer 9-cis-RA. Capable of both 4-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation. Responsible for generation of several hydroxylated forms of RA, including 4-OH-RA, 4-oxo-RA and 18-OH-RA.
Gene Name:
CYP26A1
Uniprot ID:
O43174
Molecular Weight:
56198.11 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP5
Uniprot ID:
P82980
Molecular Weight:
15931.17 Da
References
  1. O'Byrne SM, Wongsiriroj N, Libien J, Vogel S, Goldberg IJ, Baehr W, Palczewski K, Blaner WS: Retinoid absorption and storage is impaired in mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 21;280(42):35647-57. Epub 2005 Aug 22. [PubMed:16115871 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP7
Uniprot ID:
Q96R05
Molecular Weight:
15535.585 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Caprioli A, Zhu H, Sato TN: CRBP-III:lacZ expression pattern reveals a novel heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells. Genesis. 2004 Nov;40(3):139-45. [PubMed:15493015 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol transporter activity
Specific Function:
Delivers retinol from the liver stores to the peripheral tissues. In plasma, the RBP-retinol complex interacts with transthyretin, this prevents its loss by filtration through the kidney glomeruli.
Gene Name:
RBP4
Uniprot ID:
P02753
Molecular Weight:
23009.8 Da
References
  1. Goodman AB: Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer disease. J Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec;209(3):598-603. [PubMed:17001693 ]
  2. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. [PubMed:17529981 ]
  3. Wolf G: Serum retinol-binding protein: a link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2007 May;65(5):251-6. [PubMed:17566551 ]
  4. Liden M, Eriksson U: Development of a versatile reporter assay for studies of retinol uptake and metabolism in vivo. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Nov 1;310(2):401-8. Epub 2005 Sep 8. [PubMed:16150442 ]
  5. Hinterhuber G, Cauza K, Dingelmaier-Hovorka R, Diem E, Horvat R, Wolff K, Foedinger D: Expression of RPE65, a putative receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein, in nonmelanocytic skin tumours. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;153(4):785-9. [PubMed:16181461 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP2
Uniprot ID:
P50120
Molecular Weight:
15706.595 Da
References
  1. Suruga K, Kitagawa M, Yasutake H, Takase S, Goda T: Diet-related variation in cellular retinol-binding protein type II gene expression in rat jejunum. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec;94(6):890-5. [PubMed:16351764 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23