Identification
NameVitamin A
Accession NumberDB00162  (NUTR00007, APRD00486)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
Description

Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of carotenoids found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
all-trans-retinol
all-trans-retinyl alcohol
all-trans-vitamin A alcohol
Retinol
Vitamin A1
External IDs 11103-57-4
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
Vitamin A acetate3LE3D9D6OY 127-47-9QGNJRVVDBSJHIZ-QHLGVNSISA-NDetails
Vitamin A palmitate1D1K0N0VVC 79-81-2VYGQUTWHTHXGQB-FFHKNEKCSA-NDetails
Product Images
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aquasol AInjection, solution15 mg/mLIntramuscularHospira Worldwide, Inc.1949-05-18Not applicableUs
Aquasol A Cap 25000unitCapsule25000 unitOralRhone Poulenc Rorer1992-12-311996-09-09Canada
Aquasol A Cap 50000unitCapsule50000 unitOralRhone Poulenc Rorer1992-12-311996-09-09Canada
Cataplex A Tab 1500unitTablet1500 unitOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Formula 7115 Tab 700unitTablet700 unitOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin A Cap 25000iuCapsule25000 unitOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Vitamin A Cap 25000iuCapsule25000 unitOralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312015-10-26Canada
Vitamin A Cap 50000iuCapsule50000 unitOralNovopharm Limited1967-12-312015-10-26Canada
Vitamin A Cap 50000iuCapsule50000 unitOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
400 Vitamin A 10000iuCapsule10000 unitOralHerbes Universelles Inc.1972-12-312009-07-15Canada
A Caps 10000 I.U.Capsule10000 unitOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
A Mulsion 10Emulsion10000 unitOralSeroyal International Inc.1982-12-312008-10-09Canada
Arovit Vitamine A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralLes Laboratoires Bio SantÉ Inc.1986-12-311996-09-10Canada
Beta CaroteneLiquid10000 unitOralSeroyal International Inc.1982-12-312001-08-09Canada
Pro-sol A Liq 5000unit/minSolution / drops5000 unitOralProfessional Health Products1990-12-311998-08-13Canada
Super A 40Capsule10000 unitOralFrega Inc.1979-12-312008-07-09Canada
Vitamin ACapsule10000 unitOralSeroyal International Inc.1996-12-312009-07-06Canada
Vitamin A 10000I.U. CapCapsule10000 unitOralNutricorp International1993-12-312009-08-05Canada
Vitamin A 5000 I.U. Dietary SupplementTablet5000 unitOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-252000-06-07Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000iuCapsule10000 unitOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1971-12-312002-07-31Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000iu Natural SourceCapsule10000 unitOralWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.1972-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unitCapsule10000 unitOralEverest Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1982-12-311999-07-14Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unitCapsule10000 unitOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1977-12-312008-07-07Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unit NaturelleCapsule10000 unitOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1976-12-311997-08-11Canada
Vitamin A Cap 10000unit USPCapsule10000 unitOralBioforce Canada Inc.1992-12-311997-04-04Canada
Vitamin A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312001-07-27Canada
Vitamin A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralAlbi Imports Ltd.1979-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin A Tab 10000unitTablet10000 unitOralAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.1985-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin A Tab 2000unit ChewableTablet2000 unitOralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada
Vitamine A Cap 10000unitCapsule10000 unitOralCarmaran LtÉe1979-12-311996-09-09Canada
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlphalinNot Available
Chocola ANot Available
Brand mixtures
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
A & C PowderPowder, for solutionOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
A + D OintmentOintmentTopicalNational Care Products Ltd.1993-12-312002-10-10Canada
A + ZincTabletOralNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc2000-09-012007-07-06Canada
A and D OintmentOintmentTopicalSchering Plough1951-12-312002-07-12Canada
A D Calcium TabTabletOralStar Pharmaceuticals, Llc1979-12-311999-07-21Canada
A-D Calcium CapCapsuleOralVitalab1990-12-312005-07-12Canada
Acti-retinol & Zn CapletTabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-03Canada
Ad & Calcium CapCapsuleOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1977-12-312001-10-15Canada
Ad Calcium CapCapsuleOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1979-12-311997-08-11Canada
Adc ComprimesTabletOralBio Vita1990-12-311996-09-09Canada
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Alsimine W Vitamins A DCapsule; LiquidOralAlsi Cie Ltee1978-12-312003-05-21Canada
Am CapsCapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals Company1998-10-012002-11-20Canada
Antiseptic Skin CreamCreamTopicalArjohuntleigh1993-12-311997-11-12Canada
AppedrineTabletOralChattem, Inc.1975-12-312004-07-08Canada
Aquasol A & D DropsSolution / dropsOralRhone Poulenc Rorer1993-12-311996-09-09Canada
Aquasol A CreamCreamTopicalRhone Poulenc Rorer1993-12-311998-08-12Canada
BacminTablet, coatedOralMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2000-04-01Not applicableUs
Beta Green Enriching FormulaCapsuleOralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.1999-12-062007-08-07Canada
Beta-retinol + Zinc CapletTabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1991-12-312000-03-03Canada
Biovim TabTabletOralLe Naturiste J.M.B. Inc.1977-12-312008-07-31Canada
Budpak Vitamin A and DCreamTopicalBudpak Inc.2015-04-01Not applicableUs
Bugs Bunny and Friends Multiple VitaminsTabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care1996-12-312004-04-15Canada
Bugs Bunny Chew Multi Vit Plus IronTabletOralMiles Inc. Pharmaceutical Division1983-12-311996-09-09Canada
C 106 TabTabletOralNf Formulas Inc.1983-12-312001-09-18Canada
CalcitolCapsuleOralFrega Inc.1979-12-312001-08-09Canada
Calcium A DTabletOralPhyto Health Corporation1973-12-312003-11-03Canada
Cataplex A-C TabTabletOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Cell-wiseTabletOralMelaleuca, Inc.1998-01-122004-07-30Canada
Cell-wise Natural SourceTabletOralMelaleuca, Inc.1998-05-262005-06-28Canada
Central-vite 18 EssentialTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-04-242002-07-31Canada
Century CompleteTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-03-172002-07-31Canada
Ch-P CapCapsuleOralNutri West Products Ltd.1994-12-312002-06-14Canada
Chew.multiple Vits.with Extra C for ChildrenTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1996-09-191999-09-03Canada
Chewable Multiple Vit Plus Iron for ChildrenTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1996-09-191999-09-03Canada
Chewable Multiple Vitamins for ChildrenTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1996-09-191999-09-03Canada
Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus Extra CTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1993-12-311999-09-03Canada
Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron TabTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1993-12-311999-09-03Canada
Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1993-12-311999-09-03Canada
Chewable MultivitaminsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-05-312008-07-17Canada
Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-05-312007-08-07Canada
Children Choice Multivit Chewable TabTabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1990-12-312009-08-04Canada
Children Choice Multivitamin W Iron Chew TabTabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1991-12-312009-08-04Canada
Children Pediatric Vitamins DropsSolution / dropsOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1990-12-312002-07-31Canada
Children Vitamin DropsLiquidOralWampole Brands, A Division Of Pangeo Pharma (Canada) Inc.1998-08-122002-07-29Canada
Children's Chewable Multi Vit W IronTabletOralShoppers Drug Mart Inc.1982-12-311997-08-15Canada
Children's Chewable Multi VitaminsTabletOralShoppers Drug Mart Inc.1982-12-311997-08-15Canada
Children's Chewable Multi Vitamins With Iron TabletsTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-05-202008-08-05Canada
Children's Chewable Multi-vitaminTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2000-03-012007-08-07Canada
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2000-03-012001-07-18Canada
Children's Chewable Multiple Vit.plus IronTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-10-102002-07-31Canada
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins - TabTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-10-102002-07-31Canada
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins (chewable Tablets)TabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-08-162009-07-30Canada
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Extra Vitamin C (chewable Tablets)TabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-08-162009-07-30Canada
Children's Chewable Multiple Vitamins With Iron Tablets (chewable Tablets)TabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-08-162009-07-30Canada
Children's Vitamins ChewableTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1990-12-312002-07-31Canada
Children's Vitamins W Iron ChewableTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1990-12-312002-07-31Canada
Childrens Chew Multi Vitamin TabTabletOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1983-12-311996-09-09Canada
Childrens Chewable Multiple VitaminsTabletOralKsl Pharmaceuticals1994-12-311999-08-12Canada
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins Plus FeTabletOralKsl Pharmaceuticals1994-12-312000-08-29Canada
Childrens Chewable Multiple Vitamins TabTabletOralPharmavite1987-12-312000-08-24Canada
Childrens Chewable MultivitaminsTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1987-12-311997-05-30Canada
Childrens Chewable Multivitamins W IronTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1987-12-311997-05-30Canada
Childrens Chewable Vitamin TabTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1993-12-312006-07-27Canada
Childrens Chewable VitaminsTabletOralD.C. Labs Limited1974-12-312003-07-11Canada
Childrens Multiple Vit and Min Chew TabTabletOralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312008-07-17Canada
Cod Liver OilLiquidOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1966-12-312002-07-31Canada
Cod Liver Oil CapCapsuleOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1980-12-312007-08-01Canada
Cod Liver Oil CapsuleCapsuleOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1987-12-311997-05-30Canada
Cod Liver Oil CapsulesCapsuleOralGerald S Doyle, Division Of T&M Winter Ltd.1951-12-311996-09-18Canada
Cod Liver Oil Capsules 10 MinCapsuleOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Cod Liver Oil CherryLiquidOralVita Health Products Inc1975-12-311996-09-09Canada
Cod Liver Oil Mint FlavLiquidOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-311999-05-10Canada
Cod Liver Oil Mint FlavouredLiquidOralRegal Pharms, Division Of Bradcan Corporation1983-12-311998-07-29Canada
Cod Liver Oil Oleovitamin A & D Caps 20minTabletOralNutricorp International1993-12-312000-09-26Canada
Cod Liver Oil W Added Vit A&dLiquidOralDrug Trading Company Ltd.1978-12-311996-09-17Canada
Complete Multivitamins and Minerals for ChildrenTabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products2001-01-312004-06-29Canada
Complete Multivitamins and Minerals Tablets Timed ReleaseTablet, extended releaseOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-07-262009-07-30Canada
Croq-vit Pour EnfantsTabletOralNutrivac Ltee1987-12-311996-09-09Canada
CyroplexTabletOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1987-12-312003-07-16Canada
Dexatrim TabletsTabletOralChattem, Inc.1996-09-092005-06-29Canada
Dry Super Vitamin A Plus D - CapCapsuleOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182005-08-05Canada
Dynam Ampoule Et TabletLiquid; TabletOralCardinaux Enrg Les Produits Naturels1989-12-311996-09-09Canada
E & I FormulaeCapsuleOralEnrich InternationalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
E.S.T. ComplexTabletOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.2000-12-062004-06-30Canada
E.V.C. Vitamins TabTabletOralSisu Inc.1985-12-312009-08-04Canada
EC + ComplexCapsuleOralSeroyal International Inc.1998-12-312009-07-06Canada
Emulsified Norwegian Cod Liver Oil CapsCapsuleOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
EscaviteTablet, chewableOralGm Pharmaceuticals2012-02-01Not applicableUs
Evc - LiqLiquidOralSisu Inc.1994-12-312007-07-20Canada
Evc Liquid Vitamins A,c,b6 With Beta Caro&znLiquidOralNf Formulas Inc.1992-12-312008-06-26Canada
Everyday Multiple VitaminsTabletOralD.C. Labs Limited1972-12-312003-07-11Canada
Everyday Multiple Vitamins With IronTabletOralD.C. Labs Limited1972-12-312003-07-11Canada
Extra P.N. Vitamin-mineral Drink MixPowderOralChanges InternationalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Fem - ControlTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1998-01-312005-08-19Canada
Feminex 300 TabTabletOralSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe1986-12-311997-09-09Canada
Femitab TabTabletOralLe Groupe Prodeal Ltee1988-12-312009-08-05Canada
Fletanol CapsulesCapsuleOralSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe1981-12-312001-07-06Canada
Flexadyn TabTabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1976-12-311996-09-09Canada
Flinstones Multiple Plus IronTabletOralMiles Inc. Pharmaceutical Division1971-12-311996-09-09Canada
Flintstones Multiple VitaminsTabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care1995-12-312004-06-28Canada
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins Plus IronTabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care1995-12-312004-06-28Canada
Flintstones Multiple Vitamins TabTabletOralMiles Inc. Pharmaceutical Division1970-12-311996-09-09Canada
Flintstones W Extra C TabTabletOralMiles Inc. Pharmaceutical Division1981-12-311996-09-09Canada
FlorivaTablet, chewableOralBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-09-10Not applicableUs
Floriva PlusSolution / dropsOralBon Geo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-12-28Not applicableUs
For Kids Only Chewable Multivit. Plus IronTabletOralKsl Pharmaceuticals1996-12-312002-07-31Canada
For Kids Only Chewable Multivitamins - TabTabletOralKsl Pharmaceuticals1996-12-312002-07-31Canada
Formula Csp With Vitamins A C and Zinc LozLozengeOralQuantum, Inc.1997-09-172005-08-01Canada
Formula Fe-vitamin and Mineral TabTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1996-12-292005-08-19Canada
Formula Im-vitamins and Minerals TabTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1997-01-272006-08-14Canada
Formula L.G.I.TabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1997-06-302002-10-07Canada
Formula OCapsuleOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-09-122005-08-05Canada
Formula OsgTabletOralSeroyal International Inc.1994-12-312000-08-08Canada
Formula R TabTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1997-03-052006-08-29Canada
Formula U - TabTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1997-03-052002-10-07Canada
Formule 7561 CapsCapsuleOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1990-12-312005-07-20Canada
Fortamines 10 CapsulesCapsuleOralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc1974-12-311999-09-27Canada
Fortamines-10 ComprimesTabletOralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc1979-12-312003-09-22Canada
Forty Plus Vitamin SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-10-162000-06-07Canada
G.A.S. ComplexTabletOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.2000-12-062004-06-30Canada
Garfield Chewable Multivits Plus Iron TabTabletOralWhitehall Robins Inc.1993-12-312000-07-26Canada
Gemvites Jr Tab ChewableTabletOralPharmavite Laboratories (1987) Inc.1969-12-311999-10-19Canada
Gestamine ComprimesTabletOralLab Nadeau LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1957-12-311999-09-28Canada
Globucel - MethodeCapsuleOralLes Laboratoires Swisse Inc.1997-08-302009-08-05Canada
Guardyn TabTabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1986-12-311998-08-13Canada
Halibut Liver Oil CapCapsuleOralAlive Vitamins1985-12-312002-07-12Canada
Halibut OilCapsuleOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Hemarexin TabTabletOralLab Bio Chimique Inc.,Division Of Technilab Pharma Inc.1997-12-172004-08-03Canada
Huile De Foie De Fletan CapsulesCapsuleOralBio Vita1987-12-311997-08-07Canada
Huile De Foie De Morue Cap 10minCapsuleOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1983-12-311997-07-31Canada
Huile De Foie De Morue Cap 20 MinCapsuleOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1983-12-311997-07-31Canada
Huile De Foie De Morue CapsulesCapsuleOralBio Vita1987-12-311998-04-21Canada
Huile Foie Morue CapCapsuleOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1980-12-311997-08-11Canada
Hypo Vites TabTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1977-12-312006-07-27Canada
Imm Formula CapCapsuleOralNatures Sunshine Products, Inc.1990-12-312001-07-31Canada
Inatal AdvanceTablet, coatedOralNnodum Pharmaceuticals2005-06-10Not applicableUs
Inatal UltraTablet, coatedOralNnodum Pharmaceuticals2005-06-20Not applicableUs
Infa Drops MultivitaminsLiquidOralVita Health Products Inc1998-05-202002-07-31Canada
Infant Multivitamin DropsSolution / dropsOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2002-10-202005-08-05Canada
Infant's Multiple Vitamin DropsLiquidOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1991-12-312002-07-31Canada
Infantol DropsSolution / dropsOralChurch & Dwight Company, Inc.1988-12-312008-07-30Canada
Infants' Vitamin DropsSolution / dropsOralKsl Pharmaceuticals1991-12-311998-08-13Canada
Infuvite Adult Multiple VitaminsInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Insur-all Vitamin SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-10-162000-06-07Canada
Kenwood Liquid SupplementLiquidOralKenwood Laboratories (Division Of Bradley Pharmaceuticals)Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Kid's Choice Children's Chewable Vitamins - TabTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-04-162002-07-31Canada
Kidmag Vitamins W Magnesium TabTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1989-12-311996-10-02Canada
Kids Stuff TabletsTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-04-202002-07-31Canada
Kids Stuff With Iron TabletsTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-04-202002-07-31Canada
Kimchi Vitamin Chewable MultivitaminTablet, chewableOralTobico2010-03-18Not applicableUs
KindervitesSolution / dropsOralHerbalife International Of America1984-12-312002-09-17Canada
L.I.P. ComplexTabletOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.2000-12-062004-06-30Canada
Liqui Infant VitaminsLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
Liqui VitaLiquidOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
M.V.I. 12LiquidIntravenousAventis Pharma Ltd.1992-12-312002-07-29Canada
M.V.I. PaediatricLiquidIntravenousAventis Pharma Ltd.1988-12-312002-07-29Canada
M.V.I. PediatricInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenousHospira Worldwide, Inc.1983-04-06Not applicableUs
Mag-A-folic TabTabletOralMetagenics, Inc.1989-12-311996-10-02Canada
Maltlevol 12 LiqLiquidOralCarter Horner Corp.1978-12-312002-02-07Canada
Maltlevol LiqLiquidOralCarter Horner Corp.1980-12-312005-03-21Canada
Maxi 10 TabTabletOralDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1979-12-311999-09-17Canada
Maxi 6 LiqLiquidOralDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.1980-12-311999-09-17Canada
Mor-vites TabTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1992-12-312006-07-27Canada
Mr. Tumee Multi-vitaminTablet, chewableOralVitamec Usa2003-04-152006-09-29Canada
Multi - N.T.O.x Formula - TabTabletOralAbundance Naturally LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Multi 12 InjectionLiquidIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Multi Enfants TabTabletOralVitalab1992-12-311997-07-22Canada
Multi RolLiquid; TabletOralRolmex International Inc.1975-12-311997-08-08Canada
Multi Vitamin & MineralsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-01-042008-07-17Canada
Multi Vitamin and FluorideSolution / dropsOralLibertas Pharma, Inc.2011-05-21Not applicableUs
Multi Vitamin Drops With FluorideSolution / dropsOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2014-04-18Not applicableUs
Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride and IronSolution / dropsOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2014-04-18Not applicableUs
Multi Vitamin Drops With Fluoride With IronLiquidOralStratus Pharmaceuticals2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Multi Vitamin Plus IronTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-03-132009-09-28Canada
Multi Vitamin With FluorideTablet, chewableOralQualitest2009-10-092016-10-13Us
Multi Vitamin-mineral FormulaTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1997-04-031998-01-16Canada
Multi Vitamin, Iron and FluorideSolution / dropsOralMayne Pharma2011-05-212019-10-31Us
Multi Vitamines - LiqLiquidOralLand Art Inc.1995-12-312008-06-26Canada
Multi Vitamins & MineralsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2000-01-122001-04-12Canada
Multi Vite Liq AdultLiquidOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1981-12-312001-07-26Canada
Multi Vite Liq JuniorLiquidOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1981-12-312001-07-26Canada
Multi-11SolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2002-01-28Not applicableCanada
Multi-12 PediatricLiquidIntravenousSabex Inc1998-04-092009-11-26Canada
Multi-12/k1 PediatricLiquidIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-11-07Not applicableCanada
Multi-vit With FluorideSolutionOralA S Medication Solutions1997-04-182017-06-20Us
Multi-vit With Fluoride and IronSolutionOralQualitest1998-01-07Not applicableUs
Multi-vitaminLiquidOralLLC Federal Solutions2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Multi-vitamin Dietary SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-222000-06-07Canada
Multi-vitamin Drops With Fluoride and IronLiquidOralMethod Pharmaceuticals2017-02-24Not applicableUs
Multi-vitamin FluorideLiquidOralStratus Pharmaceuticals2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Multi-vitamin Fluoride and Iron DropsSolutionOralBoca Pharmacal, Inc.2011-04-202015-12-29Us
Multi-vitamin Fluoride DropsSolutionOralH.J. Harkins Company2011-05-04Not applicableUs
Multi-vitamin With FluorideTablet, chewableOralGolden State Medical Supply2010-12-17Not applicableUs
Multi-vitamines Enfants ComprimeTabletOralHerbes Universelles Inc.1997-09-292009-07-15Canada
Multi-vitaminsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.1999-12-222008-07-17Canada
Multi-vitamins With MineralsTabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2001-04-122009-09-28Canada
Multiple Vitamin Plus Minerals TabTabletOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Multiple Vitamin TabTabletOralAdams Laboratories1983-12-312009-12-02Canada
Multiple VitaminsTabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-102007-07-20Canada
Multiple Vitamins & Minerals TabletsTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.2002-12-182006-07-27Canada
Multiple Vitamins and Minerals TabTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1987-12-311997-05-30Canada
Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron for WomenTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-08-162006-07-27Canada
Multiple Vitamins Plus Iron TabTabletOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Multiple Vitamins TabTabletOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Multiple Vitamins W Minerals TabTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1976-12-312002-07-31Canada
Multiple Vitamins With IronTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1987-12-312002-07-31Canada
Multiple Vitamins With Minerals TabletsTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-07-162009-07-30Canada
Multivit Et Fer Ampoules Et ComprimesLiquid; TabletOralNobel Pharm Enr.1988-12-311998-08-14Canada
MultivitaminTabletOralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Multivitamin Drops With FluorideSolution / dropsOralSancilio & Company, Inc.2017-04-10Not applicableUs
Multivitamin With FluorideTablet, chewableOralPure Tek Corporation2011-06-01Not applicableUs
MultivitaminesTabletOralRolmex International Inc.1998-05-112007-07-09Canada
Multivitamines Et MinerauxTabletOralLe Groupe M. Vachon Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Multivitamines Et Mineraux Junior RegulierTabletOralLaboratoire Riva Inc1996-10-082008-07-30Canada
Multivitamines Et Mineraux Reguliers / Regular Multivitamins and MineralsTabletOralVita Health Products Inc1998-10-062004-07-26Canada
Multivitamines Plus Fer Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)TabletOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1998-07-032002-09-05Canada
Multivitamines Pour Enfants (chewable Tablets)TabletOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1998-07-032002-09-05Canada
Multivitamins and Minerals - CompleteTabletOralVita Health Products Inc2000-02-012006-07-31Canada
Multivitamins and Multiminerals Formula Regular TabletTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.2001-11-222009-07-30Canada
Multivitamins for ChildrenTabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products2001-01-312004-06-29Canada
Multivitamins W IronTabletOralRandle Pharmaceutical Inc.1987-12-311997-05-30Canada
Munit-E TabletTabletOralHolista Health (Canada) Inc.1996-12-312002-08-06Canada
MvcTablet, chewableOralSancilio & Company Inc.2009-12-20Not applicableUs
Mvc-fluorideTablet, chewableOralSancilio & Company Inc.2011-12-07Not applicableUs
Nata KompleteTabletOralWh Nutritionals, Llc2011-06-252016-12-06Us
NataviteTabletOralSchein Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.1997-07-292004-07-26Canada
Neo Vites TabTabletOralNeolab Inc1979-12-311997-08-12Canada
Neo-vites & Minerals TabTabletOralNeolab Inc1987-12-311997-08-12Canada
No440 CapCapsuleOralHerbes Universelles Inc.1976-12-312009-07-15Canada
Nutrifer Plus TabletsTabletOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-311999-09-23Canada
Nutrol AdCapsuleOralRolmex International Inc.1999-06-292008-07-09Canada
Nutrol Ad CapCapsuleOralRolmex International Inc.1980-12-311999-08-06Canada
O-cal Fa MultivitaminTabletOralPharmics, Inc.1970-01-15Not applicableUs
O-cal Prenatal VitaminTabletOralPharmics, Inc.2002-01-23Not applicableUs
OnccorTabletOralSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
One A Day Advance AdultsTabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care2002-09-122007-08-02Canada
One A Day Advance Adults 50+TabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care2002-09-122007-08-02Canada
One A Day Advance FemTabletOralBayer Inc Consumer Care1999-03-012001-02-22Canada
One A Day TabTabletOralCountry Health Laboratories Ltd.1982-12-312001-07-27Canada
Orifer FTabletOralSanofi Aventis1995-12-312007-11-22Canada
P.R.O. ComplexTabletOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.2000-12-062004-06-30Canada
Paramettes Chewable Multivitamins Plus IronTabletOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-312000-08-02Canada
Paramettes Chewable Multivits With Iron TabTabletOralWhitehall Robins Inc.1994-12-311996-09-09Canada
Paramettes Multivits Plus Iron Tab (teens)TabletOralWhitehall Robins Inc.1993-12-311996-09-09Canada
Paramettes SyrupSyrupOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-312002-07-31Canada
Pediatric Infuvite Multiple VitaminsInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2001-02-21Not applicableUs
Pediatric Infuvite Multiple Vitamins for InfusionInjection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2001-02-21Not applicableUs
Perfect HarvestTabletOralGood Times Merchandising & Licensing Corp.1997-04-212002-09-26Canada
Permathene-12 - CapletTabletOralCca Industries, Inc1995-12-312000-12-14Canada
Phaze 18 ClearskinCreamTopicalPhysician's Choice Of Arizona, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Phytofortis + Calcium A-DLiquid; TabletOralPhyto Health Corporation1983-12-312003-11-27Canada
PhytopureCapsuleOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1993-12-312001-10-15Canada
Pneumodyn TabTabletOralNutri Dyn Products Ltd.1976-12-311996-09-09Canada
Pnv Prenatal Plus MultivitaminTabletOralClinical Solutions Wholsesale2013-04-012017-07-03Us
Pnv Prenatal Vitamin Plus Vitamin ATabletOralSancilio & Company Inc.2012-12-07Not applicableUs
Pnv-selectTablet, film coatedOralAcella Pharmaceuticals, LLC2009-11-02Not applicableUs
Poly-VI-sol DropsLiquidOralMead Johnson Nutritionals1986-12-312000-09-11Canada
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantTabletOralUsana Health Services, Inc.2012-04-11Not applicableUs
Prenatal PlusTablet, film coatedOralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2010-12-09Not applicableUs65162 0668 50 nlmimage10 120e0910
Prenatal Plus IronTablet, film coatedOralMajor2011-06-07Not applicableUs
Prenatal Vitamins PlusTabletOralbryant ranch prepack2011-04-15Not applicableUs
Prenatal Vitamins Plus Low IronTabletOralPatrin Pharma2013-04-01Not applicableUs39328 0106 10 nlmimage10 df476fdb
Prenavite ForteTabletOralAllen & Hanburys A Glaxo Canada Ltd. Co.1986-12-311996-09-10Canada
Prenavite Forte TabletsTabletOralRoberts Pharmaceutical1995-12-311999-08-11Canada
Prenavite TabletsTabletOralRoberts Pharmaceutical1995-12-311999-08-11Canada
Preque 10TabletOralActavis Pharma Company2011-11-01Not applicableUs
Prevital TabTabletOralBio Vita1991-12-312000-07-20Canada
Q.T. Vitamin and Mineral Drink MixPowderOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Real Vitamin Supplement CapCapsuleOralLaer Products Inc.1994-12-311999-09-13Canada
Reaphirm Plant Source DHACapsule, gelatin coatedOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.2011-12-05Not applicableUs
Revit Plus CapCapsuleOralIcn Pharmaceuticals1972-12-311998-08-13Canada
Revit TabTabletOralIcn Pharmaceuticals1980-12-311998-08-13Canada
Revitex Ampoules Et ComprimesLiquid; TabletOralLes Produits Gerbex Inc.1988-12-312005-06-29Canada
Revival 1 TabTabletOralBio Vita1991-12-311999-08-12Canada
Right Choice A.M. Multi Formula - CapletTabletOralBody Wise International LlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Se-natal OneTabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-04-162016-10-13Us
Shen Min Vitamin SupplementTabletOralBiotech Corporation2002-08-262007-06-25Canada
Sincera - TabletsTabletOralScandinavian Formulas Inc.1997-04-082005-02-16Canada
Sopalamine/3b Plus CTabletOralTechnilab Pharma Inc.1987-12-312001-09-05Canada
Spectrum 2 CapCapsuleOralNf Formulas Inc.1988-12-312008-06-26Canada
Strovite Forte CapletTablet, coatedOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.1996-10-01Not applicableUs
Strovite One CapletsTabletOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.2001-05-04Not applicableUs
Sun-rype VitaburstLiquidOralSun Rype Products Ltd.2004-08-102008-03-13Canada
Super Charged EnergyPowderOralSimone Protective Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Super Daily No 2TabletOralW.R. Enterprises Inc.1990-12-312003-07-30Canada
Super-A Vitamins With Selenium Dietary SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-222000-06-07Canada
Super-pote Vitamin SupplementTabletOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-09-252000-06-07Canada
Supravite Pour EnfantsTabletOralPharmalab Inc.1985-12-312008-07-14Canada
SveetsLozengeOralSensible Delights Specialty Foods1998-09-162000-09-19Canada
T.A. Vit A & D OintmentOintmentTopicalJamieson Laboratories Ltd1988-12-312000-09-08Canada
Tender Age Multi VitaminsLiquidOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1982-12-312000-09-08Canada
Tender Age Vit Adc DropsLiquidOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1985-12-312000-09-08Canada
Theraplex AcpTabletOralTherapeutic Foods Co.1988-03-232004-07-22Canada
Thymunase TabTabletOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1983-12-312004-03-15Canada
Tonicol Et A-D-C Ampoules/comprimesLiquid; TabletOralDistributions Multi Pro Inc.1988-12-311999-07-21Canada
Tonimol Cap LiqCapsule; LiquidOralHerbes Universelles Inc.1978-12-312009-07-15Canada
TozalCapsule, gelatin coatedOralFocus Laboratories, Inc.2013-06-012016-10-13Us
Tri Vi Flor TabTabletOralMead Johnson Nutritionals1992-12-311998-09-28Canada
Tri-VI-sol DropsLiquidOralMead Johnson Nutritionals1986-12-312000-09-11Canada
Tri-vit With Fluoride and Iron DropsSolutionOralQualitest1997-11-17Not applicableUs
Tri-vit With Fluoride DropsSolutionOralA S Medication Solutions1995-04-012017-06-20Us
Tri-vitamin With FluorideSolution / dropsOralSancilio & Company Inc.2011-12-20Not applicableUs
Triple Vitamin Drops With FluorideLiquidOralStratus Pharmaceuticals2014-09-01Not applicableUs
Triple-vitamin Drops With FluorideSolution / dropsOralBoca Pharmacal, Inc.2011-06-142016-03-31Us
Ultra HrTabletOralNatural Organics Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vi-daylin Adc Vitamins Drops for InfantsLiquidOralAbbott1993-12-312007-07-31Canada
Vimeral TabTabletOralIcn Pharmaceuticals1979-12-312005-04-26Canada
Vit-HA Multi Vitamin and Zinc SupplementTabletOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1994-12-312007-07-26Canada
Vita A + D CapsulesCapsuleOralViva Pharmaceutical Inc.2001-10-242009-12-18Canada
Vita Day TabTabletOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1993-12-311997-08-13Canada
Vitaday TabTabletOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1977-12-311999-08-13Canada
VitafantTabletOralLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.1994-12-312008-07-09Canada
Vitafol CapletCapsuleOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.1985-05-01Not applicableUs
Vitafol Ob CapletTabletOralExeltis Usa, Inc.2002-12-02Not applicableUs
Vitafol OneCapsule, gelatin coatedOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.2011-06-13Not applicableUs
Vitafol PlusCapsule, liquid filledOralEverett Laboratories, Inc.2012-04-23Not applicableUs
Vitalife - CapsuleCapsuleOralHolista Health (Canada) Inc.1996-11-132002-08-06Canada
Vitamin A (100,000 Iu) and Vitamin E (20 Iu) Oral Liquid PreparationCapsuleOralNutricorp International2017-05-26Not applicableCanada
Vitamin A (200,000 Iu) and Vitamin E (40 Iu) Oral Liquid PreparationCapsuleOralNutricorp International2017-05-26Not applicableCanada
Vitamin A and DCreamTopicalUniversal Distribution Center LLC2016-08-04Not applicableUs
Vitamin A and D CapCapsuleOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1979-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin A&d TabTabletOralAlbi Naturals1983-12-312008-07-17Canada
Vitamin Ad CapCapsuleOralVita Health Products Inc1951-12-311996-09-09Canada
Vitamin E Cream W Vitamins A and DCreamTopicalAdams Laboratories1977-12-312009-12-02Canada
Vitamines A - D CalciumTabletOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamines Pour Bebes Et EnfantsLiquidOralHerbes Universelles Inc.1978-12-312009-07-15Canada
Vitamins A and D CapsulesCapsuleOralBioforce Canada Inc.1994-12-311997-04-04Canada
Vitamins A, C, D and FluorideSolution / dropsOralMayne Pharma2011-05-212019-10-31Us
Vitogen Multiple Vitamins TabTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1966-12-311997-10-14Canada
Vitogen Multiple Vitamins W IronTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1976-12-311997-10-14Canada
Vitreat Chewable Vitamin TabTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1972-12-311997-08-08Canada
Vitreat Chewable Vitamins Plus IronTabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1977-12-311997-08-08Canada
Vtb Vitamin and Mineral SupplementTabletOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Women's FormulaTabletOralPro Ma Systems1998-10-312007-09-25Canada
Zinc Amino Acid Chelate TabTabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1979-12-311999-01-07Canada
Zoo ChewsTabletOralHall Laboratories, Ltd.1981-12-312003-09-11Canada
Categories
UNIIG2SH0XKK91
CAS number68-26-8
WeightAverage: 286.4516
Monoisotopic: 286.229665582
Chemical FormulaC20H30O
InChI KeyFPIPGXGPPPQFEQ-OVSJKPMPSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H30O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,21H,7,10,14-15H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+
IUPAC Name
(2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-1-ol
SMILES
C\C(=C/CO)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C
Pharmacology
Indication

For the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.

Structured Indications Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Vitamin A is effective for the treatment of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A refers to a group of fat-soluble substances that are structurally related to and possess the biological activity of the parent substance of the group called all-trans retinol or retinol. Vitamin A plays vital roles in vision, epithelial differentiation, growth, reproduction, pattern formation during embryogenesis, bone development, hematopoiesis and brain development. It is also important for the maintenance of the proper functioning of the immune system.

Mechanism of action

Vision:Vitamin A (all-trans retinol) is converted in the retina to the 11-cis-isomer of retinaldehyde or 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal functions in the retina in the transduction of light into the neural signals necessary for vision. 11-cis-retinal, while attached to opsin in rhodopsin is isomerized to all-trans-retinal by light. This is the event that triggers the nerve impulse to the brain which allows for the perception of light. All-trans-retinal is then released from opsin and reduced to all-trans-retinol. All-trans-retinol is isomerized to 11-cis-retinol in the dark, and then oxidized to 11-cis-retinal. 11-cis-retinal recombines with opsin to re-form rhodopsin. Night blindness or defective vision at low illumination results from a failure to re-synthesize 11-cis retinal rapidly.
Epithelial differentiation: The role of Vitamin A in epithelial differentiation, as well as in other physiological processes, involves the binding of Vitamin A to two families of nuclear retinoid receptors (retinoic acid receptors, RARs; and retinoid-X receptors, RXRs). These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors that modulate gene transcription. When there is not enough Vitamin A to bind these receptors, natural cell differentiation and growth are interrupted.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Retinol dehydrogenase 12ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ96NR8 details
Retinol-binding protein 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP09455 details
11-cis retinol dehydrogenaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ92781 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 13ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8NBN7 details
Retinol-binding protein 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP10745 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO94788 details
Retinal dehydrogenase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP00352 details
Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP12271 details
Lecithin retinol acyltransferaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO95237 details
Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO75911 details
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP47895 details
All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ6NUM9 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 11ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ8TC12 details
Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9BTZ2 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 14ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9HBH5 details
Retinol dehydrogenase 8ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9NYR8 details
Apolipoprotein DProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP05090 details
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO60760 details
Related Articles
Absorption

Readily absorbed from the normal gastrointestinal tract

Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding

<5% of circulating vitamin A is bound to lipoproteins in blood in normal condition, but may be up to 65% when hepatic stores are saturated because of excessive intake. When released from liver, vitamin A is bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). Most vitamin A circulates in the form of retinol bound to RBP.

Metabolism

Hepatic. Retinol is conjugated with glucuronic acid; the B-glucuronide undergoes enterohepatic circulation and oxidation to retinol and retinoic acid. Retinoic acid undergoes decarboxylation and conjugation with glucuronic acid.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life

1.9 hours

ClearanceNot Available
Toxicity

Acute toxicity (single ingestion of 7 500 RE or 25 000 IU per kg or more): Signs and symptoms may be delayed for 8 to 24 hours and include: increased intracranial pressure, headache, irritability, drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, bulging of fontanels in infants, diplopia, papilledema. Peeling of skin around mouth may be observed from 1 to several days after ingestion and may spread to the rest of the body. Chronic, excessive ingestion (1 200 RE or 4 000 IU/kg daily for 6 to 15 months) may produce symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri, anorexia, weakness, arthralgias, bone pain, bone demineralization, dry skin, cracked lips, brittle nails, hair loss, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, hypoplastic anemia, leukopenia, optic neuropathy, and blindness. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin A occur but do not necessarily correlate with toxicity.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Retinol MetabolismMetabolicSMP00074
Vitamin A DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00336
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
AcitretinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Acitretin.Approved
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Adapalene.Approved
AlitretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Alitretinoin.Approved, Investigational
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
BexaroteneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Vitamin A.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
IsotretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Isotretinoin.Approved
OleandrinAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Experimental
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Vitamin A can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Vitamin A.Approved, Vet Approved
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Vitamin A.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vitamin A is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

William Oroshnik, "Synthesis of Vitamin A, intermediates and conversion thereof to Vitamin A." U.S. Patent US4092366, issued May, 1948.

US4092366
General References
  1. Roncone DP: Xerophthalmia secondary to alcohol-induced malnutrition. Optometry. 2006 Mar;77(3):124-33. [PubMed:16513513 ]
External Links
ATC CodesR01AX02 — RetinolD10AD02 — RetinolA11CA01 — Retinol (vit a)V04CB01 — Vitamin a concentratesS01XA02 — Retinol
AHFS Codes
  • 88:04.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (74.8 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Mycobacterium avium complex infection1
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionHIV/AIDS1
1CompletedTreatmentCancers / Metastases1
1CompletedTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAging / Mineral deficiency / Vitamin Deficiency1
1, 2CompletedPreventionChronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Infant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Respiration, Artificial / Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / Sepsis1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin A / HIV Disease1
2CompletedPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin A / HIV Seronegativity / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionPurpura / Skin Aging1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentEnteric Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentFacial fine wrinkling / Photodamaged Skin1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Mortality1
3CompletedPreventionComplications, Pregnancy / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedPreventionNewborn Infants1
3CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
3CompletedTreatmentDiarrheal Illnesses / Growth Faltering / Respiratory Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Tuberculosis, Pulmonary1
3CompletedTreatmentMycobacterium Tuberculosis1
3CompletedTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)2
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnemias / Low Birth Weight / Neonatal Mortality1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiarrheal Disorder1
4CompletedPreventionLung Cancers1
4CompletedPreventionMorbidity / Mortality3
4CompletedPreventionPremature Births / Retinopathy of Prematurity1
4CompletedPreventionVillage Children1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemias / Worm Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentSepsis1
4RecruitingOtherIntrinsic Aging of Skin1
4RecruitingScreeningType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedPreventionMorbidity / Mortality1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAtherosclerosis2
4Unknown StatusPreventionMorbidity / Mortality1
4Unknown StatusPreventionMorbidity / Mortality, Infant1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentNephritis / Proteinuria / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIron Metabolic Homeostasis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeonatal Vitamin A Supplementation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeural Tube Defects (NTDs)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVisceral Leishmaniasis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiarrhea / Malnutrition / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer Metastatic / Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableEndotoxin Levels / TNF-alfa1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableLatent Tuberculosis Infection (LTI)1
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Banner pharmacaps inc
  • Chase chemical co lp
  • Everylife
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Sterling winthrop inc
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Del ray laboratories inc
  • Bayer pharmaceuticals corp
  • Bristol myers squibb co
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Wharton laboratories inc div us ethicals
  • Arcum pharmaceutical corp
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Hospira inc
  • Bel mar laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionOral
OintmentTopical
EmulsionOral10000 unit
Injection, solutionIntramuscular15 mg/mL
CapsuleOral25000 unit
CapsuleOral50000 unit
LiquidOral10000 unit
CreamTopical
TabletOral1500 unit
Tablet, extended releaseOral
TabletOral700 unit
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
Liquid; tabletOral
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidOral
SolutionOral
SyrupOral
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Tablet, film coatedOral
Solution / dropsOral5000 unit
PowderOral
Tablet, coatedOral
TabletOral
LozengeOral
Capsule; liquidOral
CapsuleOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
TabletOral5000 unit
CapsuleOral10000 unit
TabletOral10000 unit
TabletOral2000 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Avita 0.025% Cream 45 gm Tube149.39USD tube
Avita 0.025% Gel 45 gm Tube149.39USD tube
Avita 0.025% Cream 20 gm Tube69.21USD tube
Vitamin a palmitate liquid22.33USD ml
Aquasol a 50000 unit/ml vial17.69USD ml
Vitamin a acetate crystals1.99USD g
Gordon's vite a creme0.13USD g
Vitamin a palm 10000 unit tablet0.06USD tablet
Vitamin a cream0.03USD g
Vitamin a 10000 unit tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)63.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility0.671 mg/LNot Available
logP5.68BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00758 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.38ALOGPS
logP4.69ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity97.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.43 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9938
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9665
Caco-2 permeable+0.7272
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5939
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8205
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5631
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7646
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8193
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8324
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5522
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.842
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7388
Ames testAMES toxic0.6952
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7004
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5504
Rat acute toxicity2.1249 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8563
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8853
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (10.5 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0290000000-25c523b646154b291da8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05gj-3900000000-a63c286f931608f650a3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05mo-9700000000-e627db30469c74bb037fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-052r-2950000000-c24ec8ff8d0ba6c1f23fView in MoNA
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassRetinoids
Direct ParentRetinoids
Alternative ParentsDiterpenoids / Fatty alcohols / Primary alcohols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
SubstituentsRetinoid skeleton / Diterpenoid / Fatty alcohol / Fatty acyl / Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary alcohol / Organooxygen compound / Alcohol / Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptorsretinol (CHEBI:17336 ) / Retinoids, Fat-soluble vitamins (C00473 ) / Retinoids (LMPR01090000 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits an oxidoreductive catalytic activity towards retinoids. Most efficient as an NADPH-dependent retinal reductase. Displays high activity toward 9-cis and all-trans-retinol. Also involved in the metabolism of short-chain aldehydes. No steroid dehydrogenase activity detected. Might be the key enzyme in the formation of 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol during regeneration of the cone visu...
Gene Name:
RDH12
Uniprot ID:
Q96NR8
Uniprot Name:
Retinol dehydrogenase 12
Molecular Weight:
35093.455 Da
References
  1. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Sun W, Jastrzebska B, Hatala DA, Winkens HJ, Hofmann KP, Janssen JJ, Baehr W, Driessen CA, Palczewski K: Retinol dehydrogenase (RDH12) protects photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration in mice. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 8;281(49):37697-704. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17032653 ]
  2. Thompson DA, Janecke AR, Lange J, Feathers KL, Hubner CA, McHenry CL, Stockton DW, Rammesmayer G, Lupski JR, Antinolo G, Ayuso C, Baiget M, Gouras P, Heckenlively JR, den Hollander A, Jacobson SG, Lewis RA, Sieving PA, Wissinger B, Yzer S, Zrenner E, Utermann G, Gal A: Retinal degeneration associated with RDH12 mutations results from decreased 11-cis retinal synthesis due to disruption of the visual cycle. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Dec 15;14(24):3865-75. Epub 2005 Nov 3. [PubMed:16269441 ]
  3. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber's congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17512723 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP1
Uniprot ID:
P09455
Uniprot Name:
Retinol-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight:
15850.13 Da
References
  1. Yapi HF, Ahiboh H, Ago K, Ake M, Monnet D: [Protein profile and vitamin A in children of school age in Ivory Coast]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2005 May-Jun;63(3):291-5. [PubMed:15951260 ]
  2. Quadro L, Hamberger L, Gottesman ME, Wang F, Colantuoni V, Blaner WS, Mendelsohn CL: Pathways of vitamin A delivery to the embryo: insights from a new tunable model of embryonic vitamin A deficiency. Endocrinology. 2005 Oct;146(10):4479-90. Epub 2005 Jun 30. [PubMed:15994349 ]
  3. Harrison EH: Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A. Annu Rev Nutr. 2005;25:87-103. [PubMed:16011460 ]
  4. Paci E, Greene LH, Jones RM, Smith LJ: Characterization of the molten globule state of retinol-binding protein using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. FEBS J. 2005 Sep;272(18):4826-38. [PubMed:16156801 ]
  5. Folli C, Viglione S, Busconi M, Berni R: Biochemical basis for retinol deficiency induced by the I41N and G75D mutations in human plasma retinol-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Nov 4;336(4):1017-22. [PubMed:16157297 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Stereospecific 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of 11-cis retinaldehyde, the universal chromophore of visual pigments. Also able to oxidize 9-cis-retinol and 13-cis-retinol, but not all-trans-retinol. Active in the presence of NAD as cofactor but not in the presence of NADP.
Gene Name:
RDH5
Uniprot ID:
Q92781
Uniprot Name:
11-cis retinol dehydrogenase
Molecular Weight:
34978.425 Da
References
  1. Zhang M, Hu P, Krois CR, Kane MA, Napoli JL: Altered vitamin A homeostasis and increased size and adiposity in the rdh1-null mouse. FASEB J. 2007 Sep;21(11):2886-96. Epub 2007 Apr 13. [PubMed:17435174 ]
  2. Maeda A, Maeda T, Imanishi Y, Golczak M, Moise AR, Palczewski K: Aberrant metabolites in mouse models of congenital blinding diseases: formation and storage of retinyl esters. Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 4;45(13):4210-9. [PubMed:16566595 ]
  3. Dalfo D, Marques N, Albalat R: Analysis of the NADH-dependent retinaldehyde reductase activity of amphioxus retinol dehydrogenase enzymes enhances our understanding of the evolution of the retinol dehydrogenase family. FEBS J. 2007 Jul;274(14):3739-52. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17608724 ]
  4. Gidlof AC, Ocaya P, Olofsson PS, Torma H, Sirsjo A: Differences in retinol metabolism and proliferative response between neointimal and medial smooth muscle cells. J Vasc Res. 2006;43(4):392-8. Epub 2006 Jul 6. [PubMed:16837774 ]
  5. Belyaeva OV, Kedishvili NY: Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases with dual retinol/sterol substrate specificity. Genomics. 2006 Dec;88(6):820-30. Epub 2006 Jul 24. [PubMed:16860536 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Does not exhibit retinol dehydrogenase (RDH) activity in vitro.
Gene Name:
RDH13
Uniprot ID:
Q8NBN7
Uniprot Name:
Retinol dehydrogenase 13
Molecular Weight:
35931.85 Da
References
  1. Keller B, Adamski J: RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber's congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May;104(3-5):190-4. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17512723 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function:
IRBP shuttles 11-cis and all trans retinoids between the retinol isomerase in the pigment epithelium and the visual pigments in the photoreceptor cells of the retina.
Gene Name:
RBP3
Uniprot ID:
P10745
Uniprot Name:
Retinol-binding protein 3
Molecular Weight:
135361.46 Da
References
  1. Qtaishat NM, Wiggert B, Pepperberg DR: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) promotes the release of all-trans retinol from the isolated retina following rhodopsin bleaching illumination. Exp Eye Res. 2005 Oct;81(4):455-63. Epub 2005 Jun 2. [PubMed:15935345 ]
  2. Wu Q, Blakeley LR, Cornwall MC, Crouch RK, Wiggert BN, Koutalos Y: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein is the physiologically relevant carrier that removes retinol from rod photoreceptor outer segments. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 24;46(29):8669-79. Epub 2007 Jun 30. [PubMed:17602665 ]
  3. Kolesnikov AV, Ala-Laurila P, Shukolyukov SA, Crouch RK, Wiggert B, Estevez ME, Govardovskii VI, Cornwall MC: Visual cycle and its metabolic support in gecko photoreceptors. Vision Res. 2007 Feb;47(3):363-74. Epub 2006 Oct 16. [PubMed:17049961 ]
  4. Duncan T, Fariss RN, Wiggert B: Confocal immunolocalization of bovine serum albumin, serum retinol-binding protein, and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein in bovine retina. Mol Vis. 2006 Dec 22;12:1632-9. [PubMed:17200663 ]
  5. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. [PubMed:15928609 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID:
O94788
Uniprot Name:
Retinal dehydrogenase 2
Molecular Weight:
56723.495 Da
References
  1. Isken A, Holzschuh J, Lampert JM, Fischer L, Oberhauser V, Palczewski K, von Lintig J: Sequestration of retinyl esters is essential for retinoid signaling in the zebrafish embryo. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 12;282(2):1144-51. Epub 2006 Nov 10. [PubMed:17098734 ]
  2. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. [PubMed:17184764 ]
  3. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman's gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. [PubMed:16538685 ]
  4. Szatmari I, Pap A, Ruhl R, Ma JX, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, Rajnavolgyi E, Dezso B, Nagy L: PPARgamma controls CD1d expression by turning on retinoic acid synthesis in developing human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2006 Oct 2;203(10):2351-62. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16982809 ]
  5. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. [PubMed:17270546 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinal dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID:
P00352
Uniprot Name:
Retinal dehydrogenase 1
Molecular Weight:
54861.44 Da
References
  1. Asson-Batres MA, Smith WB: Localization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenases and retinoid binding proteins to sustentacular cells, glia, Bowman's gland cells, and stroma: potential sites of retinoic acid synthesis in the postnatal rat olfactory organ. J Comp Neurol. 2006 May 10;496(2):149-71. [PubMed:16538685 ]
  2. Chambers D, Wilson L, Maden M, Lumsden A: RALDH-independent generation of retinoic acid during vertebrate embryogenesis by CYP1B1. Development. 2007 Apr;134(7):1369-83. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [PubMed:17329364 ]
  3. Gyamfi MA, Kocsis MG, He L, Dai G, Mendy AJ, Wan YJ: The role of retinoid X receptor alpha in regulating alcohol metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):360-8. Epub 2006 Jul 7. [PubMed:16829625 ]
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke's pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. [PubMed:17486539 ]
  5. Huq MD, Tsai NP, Gupta P, Wei LN: Regulation of retinal dehydrogenases and retinoic acid synthesis by cholesterol metabolites. EMBO J. 2006 Jul 12;25(13):3203-13. Epub 2006 Jun 8. [PubMed:16763553 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Soluble retinoid carrier essential the proper function of both rod and cone photoreceptors. Participates in the regeneration of active 11-cis-retinol and 11-cis-retinaldehyde, from the inactive 11-trans products of the rhodopsin photocycle and in the de novo synthesis of these retinoids from 11-trans metabolic precursors. The cycling of retinoids between photoreceptor and adjacent pigment epith...
Gene Name:
RLBP1
Uniprot ID:
P12271
Uniprot Name:
Retinaldehyde-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight:
36474.02 Da
References
  1. Muniz A, Villazana-Espinoza ET, Thackeray B, Tsin AT: 11-cis-Acyl-CoA:retinol O-acyltransferase activity in the primary culture of chicken Muller cells. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 10;45(40):12265-73. [PubMed:17014079 ]
  2. Wenzel A, von Lintig J, Oberhauser V, Tanimoto N, Grimm C, Seeliger MW: RPE65 is essential for the function of cone photoreceptors in NRL-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb;48(2):534-42. [PubMed:17251447 ]
  3. Vogel JS, Bullen EC, Teygong CL, Howard EW: Identification of the RLBP1 gene promoter. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Aug;48(8):3872-7. [PubMed:17652763 ]
  4. Salvador-Silva M, Ghosh S, Bertazolli-Filho R, Boatright JH, Nickerson JM, Garwin GG, Saari JC, Coca-Prados M: Retinoid processing proteins in the ocular ciliary epithelium. Mol Vis. 2005 May 18;11:356-65. [PubMed:15928609 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Transfers the acyl group from the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine to all-trans retinol, producing all-trans retinyl esters. Retinyl esters are storage forms of vitamin A. LRAT plays a critical role in vision. It provides the all-trans retinyl ester substrates for the isomerohydrolase which processes the esters into 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium; due to a membrane-associa...
Gene Name:
LRAT
Uniprot ID:
O95237
Uniprot Name:
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase
Molecular Weight:
25702.635 Da
References
  1. Kaschula CH, Jin MH, Desmond-Smith NS, Travis GH: Acyl CoA:retinol acyltransferase (ARAT) activity is present in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. Exp Eye Res. 2006 Jan;82(1):111-21. Epub 2005 Jul 27. [PubMed:16054134 ]
  2. Liu L, Gudas LJ: Disruption of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene makes mice more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 2;280(48):40226-34. Epub 2005 Sep 20. [PubMed:16174770 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reduction of all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol in the presence of NADPH.
Gene Name:
DHRS3
Uniprot ID:
O75911
Uniprot Name:
Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3
Molecular Weight:
33548.115 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Haeseleer F, Huang J, Lebioda L, Saari JC, Palczewski K: Molecular characterization of a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that reduces all-trans-retinal. J Biol Chem. 1998 Aug 21;273(34):21790-9. [PubMed:9705317 ]
  4. Cerignoli F, Guo X, Cardinali B, Rinaldi C, Casaletto J, Frati L, Screpanti I, Gudas LJ, Gulino A, Thiele CJ, Giannini G: retSDR1, a short-chain retinol dehydrogenase/reductase, is retinoic acid-inducible and frequently deleted in human neuroblastoma cell lines. Cancer Res. 2002 Feb 15;62(4):1196-204. [PubMed:11861404 ]
  5. Chai Z, Brereton P, Suzuki T, Sasano H, Obeyesekere V, Escher G, Saffery R, Fuller P, Enriquez C, Krozowski Z: 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type XI localizes to human steroidogenic cells. Endocrinology. 2003 May;144(5):2084-91. [PubMed:12697717 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thyroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Uniprot Name:
Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3
Molecular Weight:
56107.995 Da
References
  1. Nakazawa N, Montedonico S, Takayasu H, Paradisi F, Puri P: Disturbance of retinol transportation causes nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung. J Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;42(2):345-9. [PubMed:17270546 ]
  2. Everts HB, Sundberg JP, Ong DE: Immunolocalization of retinoic acid biosynthesis systems in selected sites in rat. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Aug 15;308(2):309-19. [PubMed:15950969 ]
  3. Halilagic A, Ribes V, Ghyselinck NB, Zile MH, Dolle P, Studer M: Retinoids control anterior and dorsal properties in the developing forebrain. Dev Biol. 2007 Mar 1;303(1):362-75. Epub 2006 Nov 17. [PubMed:17184764 ]
  4. Maden M, Blentic A, Reijntjes S, Seguin S, Gale E, Graham A: Retinoic acid is required for specification of the ventral eye field and for Rathke's pouch in the avian embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):191-200. [PubMed:17486539 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Retinol saturase carrying out the saturation of the 13-14 double bond of all-trans-retinol to produce all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol. Has activity toward all-trans-retinol as substrate. Does not use all-trans-retinoic acid nor 9-cis, 11-cis or 13-cis-retinol isomers as substrates. May play a role in the metabolism of vitamin A (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RETSAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6NUM9
Uniprot Name:
All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase
Molecular Weight:
66818.935 Da
References
  1. Moise AR, Isken A, Dominguez M, de Lera AR, von Lintig J, Palczewski K: Specificity of zebrafish retinol saturase: formation of all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol and all-trans-7,8- dihydroretinol. Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 20;46(7):1811-20. Epub 2007 Jan 25. [PubMed:17253779 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits an oxidoreductive catalytic activity towards retinoids. Most efficient as an NADPH-dependent retinal reductase. Displays high activity towards 9-cis and all-trans-retinol. Also involved in the metabolism of short-chain aldehydes. No steroid dehydrogenase activity detected.
Gene Name:
RDH11
Uniprot ID:
Q8TC12
Uniprot Name:
Retinol dehydrogenase 11
Molecular Weight:
35385.955 Da
References
  1. Gallego O, Belyaeva OV, Porte S, Ruiz FX, Stetsenko AV, Shabrova EV, Kostereva NV, Farres J, Pares X, Kedishvili NY: Comparative functional analysis of human medium-chain dehydrogenases, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and aldo-keto reductases with retinoids. Biochem J. 2006 Oct 1;399(1):101-9. [PubMed:16787387 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Reduces all-trans-retinal and 9-cis retinal. Can also catalyze the oxidation of all-trans-retinol with NADP as co-factor, but with much lower efficiency. Reduces alkyl phenyl ketones and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds with aromatic rings, such as pyrimidine-4-aldehyde, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, menadione and 4-hexanoylpyridine. Has no activity towards aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (By...
Gene Name:
DHRS4
Uniprot ID:
Q9BTZ2
Uniprot Name:
Dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4
Molecular Weight:
29536.885 Da
References
  1. Du K, Liu GF, Xie JP, Song XH, Li R, Liang B, Huang DY: A 27.368 kDa retinal reductase in New Zealand white rabbit liver cytosol encoded by the peroxisomal retinol dehydrogenase-reductase cDNA: purification and characterization of the enzyme. Biochem Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;85(2):209-17. [PubMed:17534402 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Alcohol dehydrogenase (nadp+) activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits an oxidoreductive catalytic activity towards retinoids. Most efficient as an NADPH-dependent retinal reductase. Displays high activity toward 9-cis and all-trans-retinol. No steroid dehydrogenase activity detected.
Gene Name:
RDH14
Uniprot ID:
Q9HBH5
Uniprot Name:
Retinol dehydrogenase 14
Molecular Weight:
36864.355 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Retinol dehydrogenase with a clear preference for NADP. Converts all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. May play a role in the regeneration of visual pigment at high light intensity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RDH8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYR8
Uniprot Name:
Retinol dehydrogenase 8
Molecular Weight:
33755.02 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Han W, Shen Y, Wang J, Yip S, Yap MK: [Establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Jul;42(7):642-8. [PubMed:17081426 ]
  4. Han W, Yip SP, Wang J, Yap MK: Using denaturing HPLC for SNP discovery and genotyping, and establishing the linkage disequilibrium pattern for the all-trans-retinol dehydrogenase (RDH8) gene. J Hum Genet. 2004;49(1):16-23. Epub 2003 Dec 6. [PubMed:14661078 ]
  5. Fishman GA, Roberts MF, Derlacki DJ, Grimsby JL, Yamamoto H, Sharon D, Nishiguchi KM, Dryja TP: Novel mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein gene (RLBP1) associated with retinitis punctata albescens: evidence of interfamilial genetic heterogeneity and fundus changes in heterozygotes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan;122(1):70-5. [PubMed:14718298 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Lipid transporter activity
Specific Function:
APOD occurs in the macromolecular complex with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. It is probably involved in the transport and binding of bilin. Appears to be able to transport a variety of ligands in a number of different contexts.
Gene Name:
APOD
Uniprot ID:
P05090
Uniprot Name:
Apolipoprotein D
Molecular Weight:
21275.37 Da
References
  1. Breustedt DA, Schonfeld DL, Skerra A: Comparative ligand-binding analysis of ten human lipocalins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb;1764(2):161-73. Epub 2006 Jan 6. [PubMed:16461020 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme which catalyzes both the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2, a prostaglandin involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and the conjugation of glutathione with a wide range of aryl halides and organic isothiocyanates. Also exhibits low glutathione-peroxidase activity towards cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
HPGDS
Uniprot ID:
O60760
Uniprot Name:
Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase
Molecular Weight:
23343.65 Da
References
  1. Breustedt DA, Schonfeld DL, Skerra A: Comparative ligand-binding analysis of ten human lipocalins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb;1764(2):161-73. Epub 2006 Jan 6. [PubMed:16461020 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
Plays a key role in retinoic acid metabolism. Acts on retinoids, including all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and its stereoisomer 9-cis-RA. Capable of both 4-hydroxylation and 18-hydroxylation. Responsible for generation of several hydroxylated forms of RA, including 4-OH-RA, 4-oxo-RA and 18-OH-RA.
Gene Name:
CYP26A1
Uniprot ID:
O43174
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 26A1
Molecular Weight:
56198.11 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP5
Uniprot ID:
P82980
Uniprot Name:
Retinol-binding protein 5
Molecular Weight:
15931.17 Da
References
  1. O'Byrne SM, Wongsiriroj N, Libien J, Vogel S, Goldberg IJ, Baehr W, Palczewski K, Blaner WS: Retinoid absorption and storage is impaired in mice lacking lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 21;280(42):35647-57. Epub 2005 Aug 22. [PubMed:16115871 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP7
Uniprot ID:
Q96R05
Uniprot Name:
Retinoid-binding protein 7
Molecular Weight:
15535.585 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Caprioli A, Zhu H, Sato TN: CRBP-III:lacZ expression pattern reveals a novel heterogeneity of vascular endothelial cells. Genesis. 2004 Nov;40(3):139-45. [PubMed:15493015 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol transporter activity
Specific Function:
Delivers retinol from the liver stores to the peripheral tissues. In plasma, the RBP-retinol complex interacts with transthyretin, this prevents its loss by filtration through the kidney glomeruli.
Gene Name:
RBP4
Uniprot ID:
P02753
Uniprot Name:
Retinol-binding protein 4
Molecular Weight:
23009.8 Da
References
  1. Goodman AB: Retinoid receptors, transporters, and metabolizers as therapeutic targets in late onset Alzheimer disease. J Cell Physiol. 2006 Dec;209(3):598-603. [PubMed:17001693 ]
  2. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sharlach M, Akiyama TE, Berger JP, Viereck J, Hamilton JA, Tang G, Dolnikowski GG, Vogel S, Duester G, Plutzky J: Retinaldehyde represses adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity. Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):695-702. Epub 2007 May 27. [PubMed:17529981 ]
  3. Wolf G: Serum retinol-binding protein: a link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2007 May;65(5):251-6. [PubMed:17566551 ]
  4. Liden M, Eriksson U: Development of a versatile reporter assay for studies of retinol uptake and metabolism in vivo. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Nov 1;310(2):401-8. Epub 2005 Sep 8. [PubMed:16150442 ]
  5. Hinterhuber G, Cauza K, Dingelmaier-Hovorka R, Diem E, Horvat R, Wolff K, Foedinger D: Expression of RPE65, a putative receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein, in nonmelanocytic skin tumours. Br J Dermatol. 2005 Oct;153(4):785-9. [PubMed:16181461 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Intracellular transport of retinol.
Gene Name:
RBP2
Uniprot ID:
P50120
Uniprot Name:
Retinol-binding protein 2
Molecular Weight:
15706.595 Da
References
  1. Suruga K, Kitagawa M, Yasutake H, Takase S, Goda T: Diet-related variation in cellular retinol-binding protein type II gene expression in rat jejunum. Br J Nutr. 2005 Dec;94(6):890-5. [PubMed:16351764 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Uniprot Name:
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Karnaukhova E: Interactions of human serum albumin with retinoic acid, retinal and retinyl acetate. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 15;73(6):901-10. Epub 2006 Dec 2. [PubMed:17217919 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 02, 2017 16:20