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Identification
NameConjugated Equine Estrogens
Accession NumberDB00286  (APRD00396)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionConjugated Equine Estrogens (CEEs) are composed of a mixture of the water-soluble salts of sulfate esters from estrone, equilin, 17 α-dihydroequilin, and other related steroids that are purified from pregnant horse urine. Available as the product Premarin (FDA), this combination of equine-derived estrogenic compounds is indicated for the following conditions: treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy associated with menopause; hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure; palliation of metastatic breast cancer; palliation of advanced androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate; and for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. All estrogen products mimic the effects of endogenous estrogens in the body which are responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors on a wide variety of tissues in the body and modulating the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) through a negative feedback mechanism. Prior to menopause, the primary source of estrogen is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70-500 micrograms of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. However, once a woman stops ovulating there is a sharp decline in the production of progesterone and estradiol by the ovaries and a consequent fluctuation in LH and FSH due to a lack of feedback control. This shift in hormone production is largely responsible for many of the symptoms experienced during and after menopause and includes hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms, painful intercourse, vaginal dryness, and vulvovaginal atrophy. These symptoms are able to be reduced by replacing many of the hormones lost during and following menopause with synthetic or naturally occurring forms, in a therapy known as Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Pharmacologic estrogen products are available in a variety of formats. Although many of them contain several compounds in common (such as the estrogen derivatives sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate), they vary by their original source (such as horse-, human-, or plant-derived), and the remaining mixture of estrogenic derivatives. Conjugated Equine Estrogens (CEEs) are derived from the urine of pregnant mares and contain a blend of at least 10 estrogen derivatives. Marketed under the brand name Premarin, CEEs are the most frequently used form of conjugated estrogens. There is currently no generic form of CEEs available as a detailed analytical characterization of the active ingredients or of their estrogenic activity is not available at this time. Conjugated estrogens are also available in a plant-derived synthetic form that replicates the naturally occurring, horse-derived forms. Available as either "Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A" containing 9 estrogen derivatives (available as Cenestin) or as "Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B" containing 10 estrogen derivatives (available as Enjuvia), these products are isolated as precursors from yam or soy plants and then chemically modified to mimic the products available in their naturally occurring form.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
conjugated estrogens
Estrogens, Conjugated
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
C.E.S. TabletsTablet1.25 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1963-12-312014-07-30Canada
C.E.S. TabletsTablet0.3 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1997-03-142014-07-30Canada
C.E.S. TabletsTablet0.625 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1963-12-31Not applicableCanada
C.E.S. TabletsTablet0.9 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1997-03-142014-07-30Canada
Congest Tab 0.3mgTablet0.3 mgOralLaboratoires Trianon Inc1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Congest Tab 0.625mgTablet0.625 mgOralLaboratoires Trianon Inc1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Congest Tab 0.9mgTablet0.9 mgOralLaboratoires Trianon Inc1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Congest Tab 1.25mgTablet1.25 mgOralLaboratoires Trianon Inc1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Congest Tab 2.5mgTablet2.5 mgOralLaboratoires Trianon Inc1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-conjugated Estrogens C.S.D.Tablet0.3 mgOralPharmascience Inc1999-03-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-conjugated Estrogens C.S.D.Tablet0.9 mgOralPharmascience Inc1999-03-03Not applicableCanada
PMS-conjugated Estrogens C.S.D.Tablet0.625 mgOralPharmascience Inc1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-conjugated Estrogens C.S.D.Tablet1.25 mgOralPharmascience Inc1983-12-31Not applicableCanada
PremarinTablet, film coated.3 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-22Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.9 mg/1OralCardinal Health2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution25 mg/5mLIntramuscular; IntravenousWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.1956-12-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions Llc2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, extended release1.25 mgOralPfizer Canada Inc2014-10-03Not applicableCanada
PremarinTablet, film coated.3 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralCardinal Health2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.9 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-08-03Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.3 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.9 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-22Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet0.625 mgOralPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
PremarinTablet, film coated1.25 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions Llc2004-09-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.9 mg/1OralWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.3 mg/1OralCardinal Health2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, extended release0.3 mgOralPfizer Canada Inc2014-10-03Not applicableCanada
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.45 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-22Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet1.25 mgOralPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-02-08Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.3 mg/1OralWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-21Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated1.25 mg/1OralWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.2004-09-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.45 mg/1OralCardinal Health2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, extended release0.625 mgOralPfizer Canada Inc2014-10-03Not applicableCanada
PremarinTablet, film coated.3 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated1.25 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-03-22Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.3 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-11-16Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.45 mg/1OralWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.2006-01-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet, film coated.625 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
PremarinTablet0.3 mgOralPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Premarin Crm 0.625mg/gmCream.625 mgTopical; VaginalAyerst Laboratories1951-12-311996-09-10Canada
Premarin Inj 25mg/5mlPowder, for solution25 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousAyerst Laboratories1953-12-311996-09-10Canada
Premarin IntravenousPowder, for solution25 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Premarin Tablets 0.3mgTablet0.3 mgOralAyerst Laboratories1951-12-311996-09-10Canada
Premarin Tablets 0.625mgTablet0.625 mgOralAyerst Laboratories1951-12-311996-09-10Canada
Premarin Tablets 0.9mgTablet0.9 mgOralWyeth Canada1993-12-312007-08-13Canada
Premarin Tablets 1.25mgTablet1.25 mgOralAyerst Laboratories1951-12-311996-09-10Canada
Premarin Tablets 2.5mgTablet2.5 mgOralAyerst Laboratories1951-12-311997-08-15Canada
Premarin Tablets 2.5mgTablet2.5 mgOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1996-09-202000-08-02Canada
Premarin VaginalCream.625 mg/gVaginalWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.1978-11-01Not applicableUs
Premarin Vaginal CreamCream0.625 mgTopical; VaginalPfizer Canada Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-conest Tab 0.3mgTablet0.3 mgOralApotex Inc1994-12-312009-10-09Canada
Apo-conest Tab 0.625mgTablet0.625 mgOralApotex Inc1994-12-312009-10-09Canada
Apo-conest Tab 0.9mgTablet0.9 mgOralApotex Inc1994-12-312009-10-09Canada
Apo-conest Tab 1.25mgTablet1.25 mgOralApotex Inc1994-12-312009-10-09Canada
Apo-conest Tab 2.5mgTablet2.5 mgOralApotex Inc1994-12-312009-10-09Canada
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
DuaveeU.S. Pharmaceuticals
DuavivePfizer Canada Inc
Esterified Estrogens and MethyltestosteroneSeton Pharmaceuticals
PremphaseWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.
PremplusPfizer Canada Inc
Premplus CyclePfizer Canada Inc
PremproWyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII6K6FDA543A
CAS number438-67-5
WeightAverage: 372.411
Monoisotopic: 372.100739147
Chemical FormulaC18H21NaO5S
InChI KeyVUCAHVBMSFIGAI-ZFINNJDLSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H22O5S.Na/c1-18-9-8-14-13-5-3-12(23-24(20,21)22)10-11(13)2-4-15(14)16(18)6-7-17(18)19;/h3,5,10,14-16H,2,4,6-9H2,1H3,(H,20,21,22);/q;+1/p-1/t14-,15-,16+,18+;/m1./s1
IUPAC Name
sodium (1S,10R,11S,15S)-15-methyl-14-oxotetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2,4,6-trien-5-yl sulfate
SMILES
[Na+].[H][C@@]12CCC(=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@]1([H])C3=CC=C(OS([O-])(=O)=O)C=C3CC[C@@]21[H]
Pharmacology
IndicationConjugated Equine Estrogens (CEEs) are indicated for the following conditions: treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and vulvovaginal atrophy associated with menopause; hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure; palliation of metastatic breast cancer; palliation of advanced androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate; and for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionAll estrogen products mimic the effects of endogenous estrogens in the body which are responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogens act by binding to estrogen receptors on a wide variety of tissues in the body and modulating the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) through a negative feedback mechanism. Prior to menopause, the primary source of estrogen is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70-500 micrograms of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. However, once a woman stops ovulating there is a sharp decline in the production of progesterone and estradiol by the ovaries and a consequent fluctuation in LH and FSH due to a lack of feedback control. This shift in hormone production is largely responsible for many of the symptoms experienced during and after menopause and includes hot flashes and other vasomotor symptoms, painful intercourse, vaginal dryness, and vulvovaginal atrophy. These symptoms are able to be reduced by replacing many of the hormones lost during and following menopause with synthetic or naturally occurring forms, in a therapy known as Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT).
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Estrogen receptorProteinyes
agonist
HumanP03372 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionConjugated estrogens are water-soluble and are well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after release from the drug formulation. Tablets release conjugated estrogens slowly over several hours.
Volume of distribution

The distribution of exogenous estrogens is similar to that of endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are widely distributed in the body and are generally found in higher concentration in the sex hormone target organs.

Protein bindingEstrogens circulate in the blood largely bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin.
Metabolism

Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is a major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the intestine followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women a significant proportion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that estrogens are metabolized partially by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4).

Route of eliminationEstradiol, estrone, and estriol are excreted in the urine, along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens.
Half lifeFollowing a dose of 0.625 mg of conjugated estrogens, the half life of estrone, baseline-adjusted estrone, and equilin was found to be 26.7 hr, 14.8 hr, and 11.4 hr, respectively.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNausea and vomiting
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe serum concentration of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 19-norandrostenedione can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-DichloroisocoumarinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with 3,4-Dichloroisocoumarin.Experimental
4-(2-AMINOETHYL)BENZENESULFONYL FLUORIDEThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with 4-(2-AMINOETHYL)BENZENESULFONYL FLUORIDE.Experimental
4-AndrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 4-Androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe serum concentration of 5-androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcenocoumarolConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Acetaminophen.Approved
AcitretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Acitretin.Approved
AdapaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Afatinib.Approved
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Albendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AlclometasoneThe serum concentration of Alclometasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental
AlectinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Alectinib.Approved
AlfentanilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlitretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Alitretinoin.Approved, Investigational
AlogliptinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Alogliptin.Approved
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitorThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.Approved
AmantadineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Amantadine.Approved
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental
AmcinonideThe serum concentration of Amcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Aminohippuric acidThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Aminohippuric acid.Approved
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmprenavirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Amprenavir.Approved
AmsacrineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Amsacrine.Approved
AnastrozoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Anastrozole can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
AncrodConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AnecortaveThe serum concentration of Anecortave can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
Anthrax immune globulin humanConjugated Equine Estrogens may increase the thrombogenic activities of Anthrax immune globulin human.Approved
Antithrombin III humanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Apixaban.Approved
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AprotininThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Aprotinin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArdeparinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Artemether.Approved
AstemizoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Astemizole.Approved, Withdrawn
AsunaprevirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Asunaprevir.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Atenolol.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
AzelastineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Azelastine.Approved
AzithromycinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BarbexacloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Barbexaclone.Experimental
BarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Barbital.Illicit
BatimastatThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Batimastat.Experimental
BecaplerminConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BeclomethasoneThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone dipropionate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
BenazeprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BenzamidineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Benzamidine.Experimental
BenzocaineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
BepridilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.Approved, Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.Approved, Investigational
Bi201335The serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Bi201335.Investigational
BiperidenThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Biperiden.Approved
BivalirudinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Bosutinib.Approved
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Bromocriptine.Approved, Investigational
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
BuprenorphineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human)Conjugated Equine Estrogens may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human).Approved
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Recombinant)Conjugated Equine Estrogens may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Recombinant).Approved
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Cabazitaxel.Approved
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Caffeine.Approved
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
CandesartanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Candesartan.Approved
CandoxatrilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CandoxatrilatThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Candoxatrilat.Experimental
CaptoprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarvedilolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CertoparinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
ChloroquineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
CholesterolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Cholesterol.Experimental
CholestyramineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Cholestyramine.Approved
Cholic AcidThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Cholic Acid.Approved
ChymostatinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Chymostatin.Experimental
CiclesonideThe serum concentration of Ciclesonide can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
CilastatinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Cilastatin.Approved
CilazaprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Citalopram.Approved
Citric AcidConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClobetasolThe serum concentration of Clobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe serum concentration of Clobetasol propionate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
ClocortoloneThe serum concentration of Clocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
ClofazimineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Clofazimine.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Colchicine.Approved
ColesevelamThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Colesevelam.Approved
ColestipolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Colestipol.Approved
ColforsinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Colforsin.Experimental
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
Cortisone acetateThe serum concentration of Cortisone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclophosphamideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Cyclophosphamide.Approved, Investigational
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Daclatasvir.Approved
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Dactinomycin.Approved
DalteparinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarunavirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Daunorubicin.Approved
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateThe serum concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesipramineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesirudinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesloratadineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe serum concentration of Desoximetasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone isonicotinate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Vet Approved
DextranConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Conjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Conjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Conjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Dextromethorphan.Approved
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflorasoneThe serum concentration of Diflorasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Difluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
DifluprednateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Digoxin.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DoxazosinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
EcabetThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ecabet.Approved, Investigational
Edetic AcidConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Edoxaban.Approved
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
ElafinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Elafin.Investigational
ElbasvirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Elbasvir.Approved
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Eltrombopag.Approved
ElvitegravirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Elvitegravir.Approved
EnalaprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnalkirenThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Enalkiren.Experimental
EnoxaparinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EntacaponeThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EquileninThe serum concentration of Equilenin can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental
EquilinThe serum concentration of Equilin can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
ErgonovineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ergonovine.Approved
ErgotamineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ergotamine.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EstramustineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Estramustine.Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Estriol.Approved, Vet Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Etoposide.Approved
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.Approved
ExemestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Exemestane can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
ExenatideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Exenatide.Approved, Investigational
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FentanylThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Fidaxomicin.Approved
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
fluasteroneThe serum concentration of fluasterone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
FluindioneConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FlumethasoneThe serum concentration of Flumethasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe serum concentration of Flunisolide can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinolone Acetonide can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinonide can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Fluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe serum concentration of Fluorometholone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FluprednideneThe serum concentration of Fluprednidene can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Fluprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe serum concentration of Flurandrenolide can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
FlurazepamThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone Propionate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FormestaneThe serum concentration of Formestane can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosinoprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabexateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Gabexate.Investigational
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Gefitinib.Approved, Investigational
GeldanamycinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Geldanamycin.Experimental
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GlyburideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Glyburide.Approved
GlycerolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Glycerol.Experimental
GM6001The serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with GM6001.Experimental
Gramicidin DThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Grepafloxacin.Withdrawn
GriseofulvinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Griseofulvin.Approved, Vet Approved
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HE3286The serum concentration of HE3286 can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
HeparinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Hexobarbital.Approved
HirulogThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Hirulog.Experimental
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
idraparinuxThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with idraparinux.Investigational
ImatinibThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImidaprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Indomethacin.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoflurophateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Isoflurophate.Approved, Withdrawn
IsotretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Isotretinoin.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
IstaroximeThe serum concentration of Istaroxime can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ivermectin.Approved, Vet Approved
IxazomibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ixazomib.Approved
KetamineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Lansoprazole.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LenalidomideConjugated Equine Estrogens may increase the thrombogenic activities of Lenalidomide.Approved
LepirudinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Lepirudin.Approved
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Levothyroxine.Approved
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Linagliptin.Approved
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Liothyronine.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Liotrix.Approved
LisinoprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Lomitapide.Approved
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LosartanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
ME-609The serum concentration of ME-609 can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Mebendazole.Approved, Vet Approved
MedrysoneThe serum concentration of Medrysone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
MefloquineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Mefloquine.Approved
Megestrol acetateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MelengestrolThe serum concentration of Melengestrol can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Methadone.Approved
MethohexitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Methohexital.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetreleptinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Metreleptin.Approved
MexiletineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MibefradilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Mibefradil.Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Midazolam.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MitomycinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Mitomycin.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Mitoxantrone.Approved, Investigational
ModafinilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MoexiprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MometasoneThe serum concentration of Mometasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
MorphineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Mycophenolic acid.Approved
N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-ProlineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with N-(3-Propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-Carbonyl)-Isoleucyl-Proline.Experimental
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
NadroparinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Nafamostat.Investigational
NafcillinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NaltrexoneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NaringeninThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Naringenin.Experimental
NCX 1022The serum concentration of NCX 1022 can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
NCX 4016The serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with NCX 4016.Investigational
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeostigmineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
NitroaspirinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NorethisteroneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Norethisterone.Approved
OlaparibThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
Oleoyl estroneThe serum concentration of Oleoyl estrone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational
OmapatrilatThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OspemifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conjugated Equine Estrogens is combined with Ospemifene.Approved
OtamixabanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Otamixaban.Investigational
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Oxcarbazepine.Approved
P-NitrophenolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with P-Nitrophenol.Experimental
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
Palmitic AcidThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Experimental
PantoprazoleThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParamethasoneThe serum concentration of Paramethasone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
ParecoxibParecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PerindoprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenindioneConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenprocoumonConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PhenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PhosphoramidonThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Phosphoramidon.Experimental
PimozideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.Approved
Platelet Activating FactorThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ponatinib.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Nutraceutical
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Pravastatin.Approved
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Prazosin.Approved
PrednicarbateThe serum concentration of Prednicarbate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe serum concentration of Pregnenolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Experimental
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrinomastatThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Prinomastat.Investigational
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.Approved
PropranololThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
Protein CConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
ProtriptylineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Prucalopride.Approved
QuercetinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Quercetin.Experimental
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Quinacrine.Approved
QuinaprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Quinine.Approved
RacecadotrilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Racecadotril.Investigational
RamiprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
ReboxetineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Reboxetine.Approved, Investigational
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Regorafenib.Approved
RemikirenThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Remikiren.Approved
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Reserpine.Approved
ReviparinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved
RifabutinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.Approved
RimexoloneThe serum concentration of Rimexolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
RitonavirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibRofecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational, Withdrawn
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RopiniroleThe serum concentration of Ropinirole can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Saxagliptin.Approved
ScopolamineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe serum concentration of Selegiline can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Sitagliptin.Approved, Investigational
Somatropin recombinantThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SpiraprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StaurosporineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Staurosporine.Experimental
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptozocinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Streptozocin.Approved
SulfinpyrazoneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Sulfinpyrazone.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulodexideConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
SumatriptanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
TacrineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Taurocholic Acid.Experimental
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemocaprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Temsirolimus.Approved
TenofovirThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TerfenadineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Terfenadine.Withdrawn
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.Investigational
TestosteroneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Testosterone.Approved, Investigational
Testosterone PropionateThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Testosterone Propionate.Approved, Vet Approved
ThalidomideConjugated Equine Estrogens may increase the thrombogenic activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiorphanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Thiorphan.Experimental
Thyroid, porcineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thyroid, porcine can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TipranavirConjugated Equine Estrogens may increase the dermatologic adverse activities of Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TixocortolThe serum concentration of Tixocortol can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolcaponeThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Tolvaptan.Approved
TopiramateThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TrandolaprilThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
Tranexamic AcidConjugated Equine Estrogens may increase the thrombogenic activities of Tranexamic Acid.Approved
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when used in combination with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamcinoloneThe serum concentration of Triamcinolone can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Vet Approved
TrifluoperazineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TroleandomycinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
UbenimexThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ubenimex.Experimental
UlinastatinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ulinastatin.Investigational
Ursodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Investigational, Withdrawn
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VildagliptinThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Vildagliptin.Approved, Investigational
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Vinblastine.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Vincristine.Approved, Investigational
VinorelbineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Vinorelbine.Approved, Investigational
Vitamin CThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Nutraceutical
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinConjugated Equine Estrogens may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Ym150The serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when it is combined with Ym150.Investigational
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Vallapa Soong, “Process for the preparation of conjugated estrogens from pregnant mare urine.” U.S. Patent US20020156303, issued October 24, 2002.

US20020156303
General References
  1. 14. (2015). In Pharmacology for Women’s Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
External Links
ATC CodesG03CC07G03CA57
AHFS Codes
  • 68:16.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (5.44 MB)
MSDSDownload (34.7 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.997
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9486
Caco-2 permeable-0.8738
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5295
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5198
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9431
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8313
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7886
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8125
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6454
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8152
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8454
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8017
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9204
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8461
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5177
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5338
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6303
Rat acute toxicity2.3418 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.6053
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7941
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Wyeth pharmaceuticals inc
  • Duramed research inc
  • Teva womens health inc
  • Roche palo alto llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral0.3 mg
TabletOral0.625 mg
TabletOral0.9 mg
TabletOral1.25 mg
TabletOral2.5 mg
Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral
TabletOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous25 mg/5mL
Tablet, extended releaseOral0.3 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral0.625 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral1.25 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral.3 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral.45 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral.625 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral.9 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral1.25 mg/1
CreamTopical; Vaginal.625 mg
Powder, for solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous25 mg
CreamVaginal.625 mg/g
CreamTopical; Vaginal0.625 mg
Kit
Kit; tabletOral
Tablet, sugar coatedOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Premarin 0.625 mg/gm Cream 42.5 gm Tube134.05USD tube
Premarin 25 mg vial107.54USD vial
Premphase 28 0.625-5 mg tablet Disp Pack69.99USD disp
Premarin vaginal cream-appl3.07USD g
Prempro 0.3 mg-1.5 mg tablet2.34USD tablet
Prempro 0.45-1.5 mg tablet2.34USD tablet
Prempro 0.625-2.5 mg tablet2.34USD tablet
Prempro 0.625-5 mg tablet2.34USD tablet
Premarin 0.45 mg tablet1.97USD tablet
Premarin 0.9 mg tablet1.97USD tablet
Premarin 2.5 mg tablet1.83USD tablet
Premarin 2.5 mg Tabs1.82USD tablet
Premarin 0.3 mg tablet1.42USD tablet
Premarin 0.625 mg tablet1.42USD tablet
Premarin 1.25 mg tablet1.42USD tablet
Premarin 0.625 mg/g Cream0.69USD g
C.E.S. 0.625 mg Tablet0.11USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5547948 No1995-01-172015-01-17Us
US5908638 No1995-07-262015-07-26Us
US5998402 No1997-04-042017-04-04Us
US6479535 No1999-05-062019-05-06Us
US7138392 No1997-04-042017-04-04Us
US7683051 No2007-03-102027-03-10Us
US8815934 No1999-05-062019-05-06Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point173 °CNot Available
water solubility0.0036 mg/mlNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0045 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.75ALOGPS
logP3.83ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.5 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity87.95 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.47 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfated steroids. These are sterol lipids containing a sulfate group attached to the steroid skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassSulfated steroids
Direct ParentSulfated steroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sulfated steroid
  • 3-sulfated steroid
  • Sulfated steroid skeleton
  • Oxosteroid
  • 17-oxosteroid
  • Estrane-skeleton
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Sulfuric acid monoester
  • Benzenoid
  • Sulfuric acid ester
  • Sulfate-ester
  • Organic sulfuric acid or derivatives
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic alkali metal salt
  • Organic sodium salt
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription fact...
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Ropero AB, Eghbali M, Minosyan TY, Tang G, Toro L, Stefani E: Heart estrogen receptor alpha: distinct membrane and nuclear distribution patterns and regulation by estrogen. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006 Sep;41(3):496-510. Epub 2006 Jul 28. [PubMed:16876190 ]
  2. Stroud FC, Appt SE, Wilson ME, Franke AA, Adams MR, Kaplan JR: Concentrations of isoflavones in macaques consuming standard laboratory monkey diet. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2006 Jul;45(4):20-3. [PubMed:16884174 ]
  3. Hou NN, Zhu YM, Huang HF: [The expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in the intervention of different estrogens in rat bone metabolism]. Fen Zi Xi Bao Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006 Aug;39(4):289-96. [PubMed:16955786 ]
  4. Gouva L, Tsatsoulis A: The role of estrogens in cardiovascular disease in the aftermath of clinical trials. Hormones (Athens). 2004 Jul-Sep;3(3):171-83. [PubMed:16982590 ]
  5. Smith MR: Selective estrogen receptor modulators to prevent treatment-related osteoporosis. Rev Urol. 2005;7 Suppl 3:S30-5. [PubMed:16985877 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
no
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Lee AJ, Cai MX, Thomas PE, Conney AH, Zhu BT: Characterization of the oxidative metabolites of 17beta-estradiol and estrone formed by 15 selectively expressed human cytochrome p450 isoforms. Endocrinology. 2003 Aug;144(8):3382-98. [PubMed:12865317 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Lin Y, Lu P, Tang C, Mei Q, Sandig G, Rodrigues AD, Rushmore TH, Shou M: Substrate inhibition kinetics for cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Apr;29(4 Pt 1):368-74. [PubMed:11259318 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
O-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular Weight:
30036.77 Da
References
  1. Zhu BT, Wu KY, Wang P, Cai MX, Conney AH: O-methylation of catechol estrogens by human placental catechol-o-methyltransferase: interindividual differences in sensitivity to heat inactivation and to inhibition by dietary polyphenols. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Oct;38(10):1892-9. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.033548. Epub 2010 Jul 6. [PubMed:20606002 ]
  2. Jobe SO, Ramadoss J, Koch JM, Jiang Y, Zheng J, Magness RR: Estradiol-17beta and its cytochrome P450- and catechol-O-methyltransferase-derived metabolites stimulate proliferation in uterine artery endothelial cells: role of estrogen receptor-alpha versus estrogen receptor-beta. Hypertension. 2010 Apr;55(4):1005-11. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146399. Epub 2010 Mar 8. [PubMed:20212268 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular Weight:
169341.14 Da
References
  1. Hirohashi T, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Characterization of the transport properties of cloned rat multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3). J Biol Chem. 1999 May 21;274(21):15181-5. [PubMed:10329726 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Atpase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of substances
Specific Function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification.
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular Weight:
149525.33 Da
References
  1. Zelcer N, Reid G, Wielinga P, Kuil A, van der Heijden I, Schuetz JD, Borst P: Steroid and bile acid conjugates are substrates of human multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) 4 (ATP-binding cassette C4). Biochem J. 2003 Apr 15;371(Pt 2):361-7. [PubMed:12523936 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotrexate, antiviral drugs and other xenobiotics. Confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Hydrolyzes ATP with low efficiency.
Gene Name:
ABCC1
Uniprot ID:
P33527
Molecular Weight:
171589.5 Da
References
  1. Qian YM, Song WC, Cui H, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Glutathione stimulates sulfated estrogen transport by multidrug resistance protein 1. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 2;276(9):6404-11. Epub 2000 Dec 1. [PubMed:11102445 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Gao B, Hagenbuch B, Kullak-Ublick GA, Benke D, Aguzzi A, Meier PJ: Organic anion-transporting polypeptides mediate transport of opioid peptides across blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jul;294(1):73-9. [PubMed:10871297 ]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Fisch T, Oswald M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ, Beuers U, Paumgartner G: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS): identification of a carrier protein in human liver and brain. FEBS Lett. 1998 Mar 13;424(3):173-6. [PubMed:9539145 ]
  3. Kanai N, Lu R, Bao Y, Wolkoff AW, Vore M, Schuster VL: Estradiol 17 beta-D-glucuronide is a high-affinity substrate for oatp organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol. 1996 Feb;270(2 Pt 2):F326-31. [PubMed:8779894 ]
  4. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566 ]
  5. Kontaxi M, Echkardt U, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Meier PJ, Petzinger E: Uptake of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in liver cells occurs via the cloned organic anion transporting polypeptide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Dec;279(3):1507-13. [PubMed:8968376 ]
  6. Pang KS, Wang PJ, Chung AY, Wolkoff AW: The modified dipeptide, enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, is transported by the rat liver organic anion transport protein. Hepatology. 1998 Nov;28(5):1341-6. [PubMed:9794920 ]
  7. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Meier PJ: Multispecific amphipathic substrate transport by an organic anion transporter of human liver. J Hepatol. 1996 Nov;25(5):733-8. [PubMed:8938553 ]
  8. Hagenbuch B, Adler ID, Schmid TE: Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the mouse organic-anion-transporting polypeptide 1 (Oatp1) and mapping of the gene to chromosome X. Biochem J. 2000 Jan 1;345 Pt 1:115-20. [PubMed:10600646 ]
  9. Lee TK, Koh AS, Cui Z, Pierce RH, Ballatori N: N-glycosylation controls functional activity of Oatp1, an organic anion transporter. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Aug;285(2):G371-81. Epub 2003 Apr 17. [PubMed:12702494 ]
  10. Kouzuki H, Suzuki H, Ito K, Ohashi R, Sugiyama Y: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide to uptake of its possible substrates into rat hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Feb;288(2):627-34. [PubMed:9918568 ]
  11. Eckhardt U, Schroeder A, Stieger B, Hochli M, Landmann L, Tynes R, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1999 Apr;276(4 Pt 1):G1037-42. [PubMed:10198348 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis B virus.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular Weight:
38118.64 Da
References
  1. Schroeder A, Eckhardt U, Stieger B, Tynes R, Schteingart CD, Hofmann AF, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Substrate specificity of the rat liver Na(+)-bile salt cotransporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in CHO cells. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb;274(2 Pt 1):G370-5. [PubMed:9486191 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SLC22A10
Uniprot ID:
Q63ZE4
Molecular Weight:
60256.57 Da
References
  1. Youngblood GL, Sweet DH: Identification and functional assessment of the novel murine organic anion transporter Oat5 (Slc22a19) expressed in kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Aug;287(2):F236-44. Epub 2004 Apr 6. [PubMed:15068970 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Ohtsuki S, Kikkawa T, Mori S, Hori S, Takanaga H, Otagiri M, Terasaki T: Mouse reduced in osteosclerosis transporter functions as an organic anion transporter 3 and is localized at abluminal membrane of blood-brain barrier. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jun;309(3):1273-81. Epub 2004 Feb 4. [PubMed:14762099 ]
  2. Mori S, Takanaga H, Ohtsuki S, Deguchi T, Kang YS, Hosoya K, Terasaki T: Rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOAT3) is responsible for brain-to-blood efflux of homovanillic acid at the abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Apr;23(4):432-40. [PubMed:12679720 ]
  3. Nagata Y, Kusuhara H, Endou H, Sugiyama Y: Expression and functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 3 (rOat3) in the choroid plexus. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):982-8. [PubMed:11961115 ]
  4. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
  5. Sweet DH, Miller DS, Pritchard JB, Fujiwara Y, Beier DR, Nigam SK: Impaired organic anion transport in kidney and choroid plexus of organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3 (Slc22a8)) knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 26;277(30):26934-43. Epub 2002 May 13. [PubMed:12011098 ]
  6. Kobayashi Y, Ohshiro N, Tsuchiya A, Kohyama N, Ohbayashi M, Yamamoto T: Renal transport of organic compounds mediated by mouse organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3): further substrate specificity of mOat3. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 May;32(5):479-83. [PubMed:15100168 ]
  7. Kusuhara H, Sekine T, Utsunomiya-Tate N, Tsuda M, Kojima R, Cha SH, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter from rat brain. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 7;274(19):13675-80. [PubMed:10224140 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) are transported with much lower efficiency. May play a signifiant role in regulating T4 flux into and out of the brain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYB5
Molecular Weight:
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Tohyama K, Kusuhara H, Sugiyama Y: Involvement of multispecific organic anion transporter, Oatp14 (Slc21a14), in the transport of thyroxine across the blood-brain barrier. Endocrinology. 2004 Sep;145(9):4384-91. Epub 2004 May 27. [PubMed:15166123 ]
  2. Pizzagalli F, Hagenbuch B, Stieger B, Klenk U, Folkers G, Meier PJ: Identification of a novel human organic anion transporting polypeptide as a high affinity thyroxine transporter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2283-96. [PubMed:12351693 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238 ]
  2. Nozawa T, Tamai I, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-C to hepatic elimination of the opioid pentapeptide analogue [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;55(7):1013-20. [PubMed:12906759 ]
  3. Cui Y, Konig J, Leier I, Buchholz U, Keppler D: Hepatic uptake of bilirubin and its conjugates by the human organic anion transporter SLC21A6. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):9626-30. Epub 2000 Dec 27. [PubMed:11134001 ]
  4. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Contribution of OATP2 (OATP1B1) and OATP8 (OATP1B3) to the hepatic uptake of pitavastatin in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct;311(1):139-46. Epub 2004 May 24. [PubMed:15159445 ]
  5. Nozawa T, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Goto A, Yokoi T, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):291-4. [PubMed:14977862 ]
  6. Matsushima S, Maeda K, Kondo C, Hirano M, Sasaki M, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):1059-67. Epub 2005 May 18. [PubMed:15901800 ]
  7. van Montfoort JE, Schmid TE, Adler ID, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Functional characterization of the mouse organic-anion-transporting polypeptide 2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Aug 19;1564(1):183-8. [PubMed:12101011 ]
  8. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular Weight:
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893 ]
  2. Tamai I, Nozawa T, Koshida M, Nezu J, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Functional characterization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) in comparison with liver-specific OATP-C. Pharm Res. 2001 Sep;18(9):1262-9. [PubMed:11683238 ]
  3. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724351 ]
  4. Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Functional characterization of pH-sensitive organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B in human. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):438-45. Epub 2003 Nov 10. [PubMed:14610227 ]
  5. Satoh H, Yamashita F, Tsujimoto M, Murakami H, Koyabu N, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Citrus juices inhibit the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):518-23. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640378 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Matsushima S, Maeda K, Kondo C, Hirano M, Sasaki M, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):1059-67. Epub 2005 May 18. [PubMed:15901800 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) (By similarity). Mediates the sodium-in...
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular Weight:
61815.78 Da
References
  1. Sweet DH, Miller DS, Pritchard JB, Fujiwara Y, Beier DR, Nigam SK: Impaired organic anion transport in kidney and choroid plexus of organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3 (Slc22a8)) knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 26;277(30):26934-43. Epub 2002 May 13. [PubMed:12011098 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Essential component of the Ost-alpha/Ost-beta complex, a heterodimer that acts as the intestinal basolateral transporter responsible for bile acid export from enterocytes into portal blood. Efficiently transports the major species of bile acids.
Gene Name:
SLC51A
Uniprot ID:
Q86UW1
Molecular Weight:
37734.575 Da
References
  1. Seward DJ, Koh AS, Boyer JL, Ballatori N: Functional complementation between a novel mammalian polygenic transport complex and an evolutionarily ancient organic solute transporter, OSTalpha-OSTbeta. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 25;278(30):27473-82. Epub 2003 Apr 28. [PubMed:12719432 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Essential component of the Ost-alpha/Ost-beta complex, a heterodimer that acts as the intestinal basolateral transporter responsible for bile acid export from enterocytes into portal blood. Efficiently transports the major species of bile acids. Modulates SLC51A glycosylation, membrane trafficking and stability activities.
Gene Name:
SLC51B
Uniprot ID:
Q86UW2
Molecular Weight:
14346.195 Da
References
  1. Seward DJ, Koh AS, Boyer JL, Ballatori N: Functional complementation between a novel mammalian polygenic transport complex and an evolutionarily ancient organic solute transporter, OSTalpha-OSTbeta. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jul 25;278(30):27473-82. Epub 2003 Apr 28. [PubMed:12719432 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Spears KJ, Ross J, Stenhouse A, Ward CJ, Goh LB, Wolf CR, Morgan P, Ayrton A, Friedberg TH: Directional trans-epithelial transport of organic anions in porcine LLC-PK1 cells that co-express human OATP1B1 (OATP-C) and MRP2. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Feb 1;69(3):415-23. Epub 2004 Dec 22. [PubMed:15652233 ]
  2. Matsushima S, Maeda K, Kondo C, Hirano M, Sasaki M, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):1059-67. Epub 2005 May 18. [PubMed:15901800 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate.
Gene Name:
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96BD0
Molecular Weight:
77192.505 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nezu J, Uchino H, Sai Y, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jun 24;273(1):251-60. [PubMed:10873595 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Purine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Participates in physiological processes involving bile acids, conjugated steroids and cyclic nucleotides. Enhances the cellular extrusion of cAMP and cGMP. Stimulates the ATP-dependent uptake of a range of physiological and synthetic lipophilic anions, including the glutathione S-conjugates leukotriene C4 and dinitrophenyl S-glutathione, steroid sulfates such as dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate...
Gene Name:
ABCC11
Uniprot ID:
Q96J66
Molecular Weight:
154299.625 Da
References
  1. Chen ZS, Guo Y, Belinsky MG, Kotova E, Kruh GD: Transport of bile acids, sulfated steroids, estradiol 17-beta-D-glucuronide, and leukotriene C4 by human multidrug resistance protein 8 (ABCC11). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;67(2):545-57. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537867 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP). Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular Weight:
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Cui Y, Konig J, Leier I, Buchholz U, Keppler D: Hepatic uptake of bilirubin and its conjugates by the human organic anion transporter SLC21A6. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 30;276(13):9626-30. Epub 2000 Dec 27. [PubMed:11134001 ]
  2. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [PubMed:11159893 ]
  3. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Contribution of OATP2 (OATP1B1) and OATP8 (OATP1B3) to the hepatic uptake of pitavastatin in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct;311(1):139-46. Epub 2004 May 24. [PubMed:15159445 ]
  4. Nozawa T, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Goto A, Yokoi T, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):291-4. [PubMed:14977862 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds.
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular Weight:
59970.945 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Kusuhara H, Yu E, Kim JY, Kim DK, Sugiyama Y, Kanai Y, Endou H: Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4507-12. [PubMed:10660625 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as estrone-3-sulfate (PubMed:10873595). Mediates transport of prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2, thyroxine (T4), deltorphin II, BQ-123 and vasopressin, but not DPDPE (a derivative of enkephalin lacking an N-terminal tyrosine residue), estrone-3-sulfate, taurocholate, digoxin nor DHEAS (PubMed:16971491).
Gene Name:
SLCO3A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIG8
Molecular Weight:
76552.135 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Nezu J, Uchino H, Sai Y, Oku A, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular identification and characterization of novel members of the human organic anion transporter (OATP) family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jun 24;273(1):251-60. [PubMed:10873595 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Matsushima S, Maeda K, Kondo C, Hirano M, Sasaki M, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Identification of the hepatic efflux transporters of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, OATP1B1/multidrug resistance 1, and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):1059-67. Epub 2005 May 18. [PubMed:15901800 ]
  2. Suzuki M, Suzuki H, Sugimoto Y, Sugiyama Y: ABCG2 transports sulfated conjugates of steroids and xenobiotics. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 20;278(25):22644-9. Epub 2003 Apr 7. [PubMed:12682043 ]
  3. Imai Y, Asada S, Tsukahara S, Ishikawa E, Tsuruo T, Sugimoto Y: Breast cancer resistance protein exports sulfated estrogens but not free estrogens. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;64(3):610-8. [PubMed:12920197 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 02, 2016 02:44