Identification

Name
Rosiglitazone
Accession Number
DB00412  (APRD00403)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. It is marketed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline as a stand-alone drug (Avandia) and in combination with metformin (Avandamet) or with glimepiride (Avandaryl). Like other thiazolidinediones, the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone is by activation of the intracellular receptor class of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPARγ. Rosiglitazone is a selective ligand of PPARγ, and has no PPARα-binding action. Apart from its effect on insulin resistance, it appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect: nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) levels fall and inhibitor (IκB) levels increase in patients on rosiglitazone. Recent research has suggested that rosiglitazone may also be of benefit to a subset of patients with Alzheimer's disease not expressing the ApoE4 allele. This is the subject of a clinical trial currently underway.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (±)-5-[p-[2-(methyl-2-pyridylamino)ethoxy]benzyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione
  • (RS)-5-{4-[2-(Methyl-2-pyridylamino)ethoxy]benzyl}-2,4-thiazolidinedion
  • Rosiglitazon
  • Rosiglitazona
  • Rosiglitazone
  • Rosiglitazonum
External IDs
BRL-49653 / TDZ-01
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Rosiglitazone MaleateKX2339DP44155141-29-0SUFUKZSWUHZXAV-BTJKTKAUSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AvandiaTablet, film coated4 mg/1OralCardinal Health1999-05-292011-11-30Us55154 451320180913 8702 1rwclxk
AvandiaTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralMed Pharma Co., Ltd.2011-06-012012-07-01Us
AvandiaTablet2 mgOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2000-03-21Not applicableCanada
AvandiaTablet8 mgOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2000-03-21Not applicableCanada
AvandiaTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralMed Pharma Co., Ltd.2011-06-012012-07-01Us
AvandiaTablet, film coated4 mg/1OralGlaxoSmithKline LLC2011-05-252011-10-17Us
AvandiaTablet, film coated4 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-02-07Not applicableUs00029 3159 13 nlmimage10 e418f247
AvandiaTablet, film coated4 mg/1OralGlaxosmithkline Inc1999-05-292011-11-18Us0029 315920180907 15195 1a7xgqv
AvandiaTablet4 mgOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2000-03-21Not applicableCanada
AvandiaTablet, film coated8 mg/1OralCardinal Health1999-05-282011-10-31Us55154 451820180913 8702 1fyzbrj
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-rosiglitazoneTablet2 mgOralApotex Corporation2017-02-21Not applicableCanada
Apo-rosiglitazoneTablet8 mgOralApotex Corporation2017-02-21Not applicableCanada
Apo-rosiglitazoneTablet4 mgOralApotex Corporation2017-02-21Not applicableCanada
Dom-rosiglitazoneTablet2 mgOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-rosiglitazoneTablet8 mgOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-rosiglitazoneTablet4 mgOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mylan-rosiglitazoneTablet4 mgOralMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mylan-rosiglitazoneTablet2 mgOralMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mylan-rosiglitazoneTablet8 mgOralMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PHL-rosiglitazoneTablet4 mgOralPharmel IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AvandametRosiglitazone (1 mg) + Metformin Hydrochloride (500 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2003-02-182013-04-05Canada
AvandametRosiglitazone (4.00 mg) + Metformin Hydrochloride (1000 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2004-01-192016-03-24Canada
AvandametRosiglitazone Maleate (4 mg/1) + Metformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-08-25Not applicableUs
AvandametRosiglitazone Maleate (2 mg/1) + Metformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2011-05-242016-05-07Us
AvandametRosiglitazone Maleate (2 mg/1) + Metformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2002-10-182011-11-18Us
AvandametRosiglitazone Maleate (2 mg/1) + Metformin Hydrochloride (1000 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2011-05-242016-05-07Us
AvandametRosiglitazone Maleate (4 mg/1) + Metformin Hydrochloride (500 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMed Pharma Co., Ltd.2011-06-012012-07-01Us
AvandametRosiglitazone Maleate (4 mg/1) + Metformin Hydrochloride (1000 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-08-252012-06-30Us54868 526220180907 15195 2qo27j
AvandametRosiglitazone Maleate (4 mg/1) + Metformin Hydrochloride (1000 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralMed Pharma Co., Ltd.2011-06-012012-07-01Us
AvandametRosiglitazone (2 mg) + Metformin Hydrochloride (500 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc2003-02-182016-06-07Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AvaglimRosiglitazone (4 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (8 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (8 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (4 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (8 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (4 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (4 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (8 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (4 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
AvaglimRosiglitazone (8 mg) + Glimepiride (4 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSmith Kline Beecham2006-06-272011-08-12Eu
International/Other Brands
Blutab (Werrick) / DH-Rosidia (Hasan) / Diaben (Elea) / Diaglinex (Farmindustria) / Gaudil (Craveri) / Gliximina (Denver) / Naidi (Hisun) / Rogelin (Torrent) / Roglit (Gedeon Richter) / Romerol (Drug International) / Rosit (Delta) / Rosix (Garmisch) / Rossini (Trima) / Sensulin (Square) / Sheng Ao (Hengrui) / Sheng Min (ShengJiTang Pharmaceutical)
Categories
UNII
05V02F2KDG
CAS number
122320-73-4
Weight
Average: 357.427
Monoisotopic: 357.114712179
Chemical Formula
C18H19N3O3S
InChI Key
YASAKCUCGLMORW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H19N3O3S/c1-21(16-4-2-3-9-19-16)10-11-24-14-7-5-13(6-8-14)12-15-17(22)20-18(23)25-15/h2-9,15H,10-12H2,1H3,(H,20,22,23)
IUPAC Name
5-[(4-{2-[methyl(pyridin-2-yl)amino]ethoxy}phenyl)methyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
CN(CCOC1=CC=C(CC2SC(=O)NC2=O)C=C1)C1=CC=CC=N1

Pharmacology

Indication

Rosiglitazone is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

When rosiglitazone is used as monotherapy, it is associated with increases in total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL. It is also associated with decreases in free fatty acids. Increases in LDL occurred primarily during the first 1 to 2 months of therapy with AVANDIA and LDL levels remained elevated above baseline throughout the trials. In contrast, HDL continued to rise over time. As a result, the LDL/HDL ratio peaked after 2 months of therapy and then appeared to decrease over time.

Mechanism of action

Rosiglitazone acts as a highly selective and potent agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors regulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. In this way, rosiglitazone enhances tissue sensitivity to insulin.

TargetActionsOrganism
APeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
agonist
Human
ULong-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4
inhibitor
Human
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltaNot AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphaNot AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid receptor RXR-betaNot AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid receptor RXR-gammaNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of rosiglitazone is 99%. Peak plasma concentrations are observed about 1 hour after dosing. Administration of rosiglitazone with food resulted in no change in overall exposure (AUC), but there was an approximately 28% decrease in Cmax and a delay in Tmax (1.75 hours). These changes are not likely to be clinically significant; therefore, rosiglitazone may be administered with or without food. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the curve (AUC) of rosiglitazone increase in a dose-proportional manner over the therapeutic dose range.

Volume of distribution
  • 17.6 L [oral volume of distribution Vss/F]
  • 13.5 L [population mean, pediatric patients]
Protein binding

99.8% bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin.

Metabolism

Hepatic. Rosiglitazone is extensively metabolized in the liver to inactive metabolites via N-demethylation, hydroxylation, and conjugation with sulfate and glucuronic acid. In vitro data have shown that Cytochrome (CYP) P450 isoenzyme 2C8 (CYP2C8) and to a minor extent CYP2C9 are involved in the hepatic metabolism of rosiglitazone.

Route of elimination

Following oral or intravenous administration of [14C]rosiglitazone maleate, approximately 64% and 23% of the dose was eliminated in the urine and in the feces, respectively.

Half life

3-4 hours (single oral dose, independent of dose)

Clearance
  • Oral clearance (CL) = 3.03 ± 0.87 L/hr [1 mg Fasting]
  • Oral CL = 2.89 ± 0.71 L/hr [2 mg Fasting]
  • Oral CL = 2.85 ± 0.69 L/hr [8 mg Fasting]
  • Oral CL = 2.97 ± 0.81 L/hr [8 mg Fed]
  • 3.15 L/hr [Population mean, Pediatric patients]
Toxicity

Side effects include fluid retention, congestive heart failure (CHF), liver disease

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Rosiglitazone Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Rosiglitazone is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be increased when used in combination with 5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Manne Reddy, "Amorphous form of rosiglitazone maleate and process for preparation thereof." U.S. Patent US20040242658, issued December 02, 2004.

US20040242658
General References
  1. Mohanty P, Aljada A, Ghanim H, Hofmeyer D, Tripathy D, Syed T, Al-Haddad W, Dhindsa S, Dandona P: Evidence for a potent antiinflammatory effect of rosiglitazone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2728-35. [PubMed:15181049]
  2. Kahn SE, Haffner SM, Heise MA, Herman WH, Holman RR, Jones NP, Kravitz BG, Lachin JM, O'Neill MC, Zinman B, Viberti G: Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 7;355(23):2427-43. Epub 2006 Dec 4. [PubMed:17145742]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0005031
KEGG Drug
D00596
PubChem Compound
77999
PubChem Substance
46504556
ChemSpider
70383
BindingDB
50030474
ChEBI
50122
ChEMBL
CHEMBL121
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000271
PharmGKB
PA451283
IUPHAR
1056
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
BRL
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Rosiglitazone
ATC Codes
A10BD03 — Metformin and rosiglitazoneA10BG02 — RosiglitazoneA10BD04 — Glimepiride and rosiglitazone
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.28 — Thiazolidinediones
FDA label
Download (86.2 KB)
MSDS
Download (30 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Metabolism1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m2 / Healthy Volunteers / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1CompletedTreatmentAnemias / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
1CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
1CompletedTreatmentChemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
1CompletedTreatmentErectile Dysfunction (ED)1
1CompletedTreatmentFollicular Thyroid Cancer / Huerthle Cell Thyroid Cancer / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma / Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma1
1CompletedTreatmentGlomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms1
1CompletedTreatmentSolid Cancers1
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1TerminatedTreatmentPlasmodium Infections1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBody Weight Changes / HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Insulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMalaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHemangioma Liver1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
2CompletedBasic ScienceChange in Bone Marrow Fat Content / Change in Bone Mineral Density1
2CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedPreventionIschemia-Reperfusion Injury / The Metabolic Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionOral Leukoplakia1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)3
2CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia / Insulin Resistance1
2CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)1
2CompletedTreatmentCutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) / Mycosis Fungoides (MF) / Sezary Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Insulin Resistance1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hyperlipidemias1
2CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Metabolic Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentInflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
2CompletedTreatmentNon Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentSarcomas1
2CompletedTreatmentTransplant, Kidney1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Features of Insulin Resistance1
2TerminatedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
2TerminatedTreatmentCushing's Disease1
2TerminatedTreatmentEndometriosis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentNonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailablePre-Diabetic1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial1
2, 3WithdrawnDiagnosticEndometriosis1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Inflammatory Reaction1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Isolated Impaired Fasting Glucose1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Glucose Metabolism Disorders / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
3CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
3CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Prostate / Prostate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)2
3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus Non Insulin Dependent Oral Agent Therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentHyperlipidemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance1
3CompletedTreatmentMicroalbuminuria / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus18
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Insulin Resistance1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
3TerminatedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Glucose Metabolism Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Unknown StatusPreventionGlucose tolerance impaired1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCritical Illness / Multiple Organ Failure1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus / Vascular Diseases1
4CompletedNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedBasic ScienceInflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)1
4CompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Menopause / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionSchizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Puberty: >Tanner 2 Breast Development or Testis >4ml1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Viral Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes2
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Sensitivity / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentPolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus14
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus / Vascular Diseases1
4TerminatedPreventionNASH (Non-alcoholic Steato-hepatitis)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAngina Pectoris / Metabolic Syndromes1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Fatty Liver1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4TerminatedTreatmentFatty Liver / Hepatitis C Viral Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Liver Diseases / Steatosis1
4TerminatedTreatmentHypertriglyceridemia in Type 4 Hyperlipidemia / Non Diabetic Subjects With Normoglycemia1
4TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAngina Pectoris / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic SciencePolycystic Ovaries Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCarotid Atherosclerosis / Metabolic Syndromes / Strokes / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus7
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hyperinsulinemia / Lipodystrophies1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHypertriglyceridemias / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOvert Diabetic Nephropathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPituitary Neoplasms1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPlasmodium Infections1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Atherosclerosis1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableCongestive Cardiomyopathy1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceFatty Liver / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Disease, Chronic / Kidney Diseases1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBladder Cancers1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Sb pharmco puerto rico inc
  • Glaxosmithkline
Packagers
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Cardinal Health
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • GlaxoSmithKline Inc.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmacy Service Center
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Searle and Co.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral4 mg
TabletOral8 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral2 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral2 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral4 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral4 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral8 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral8 mg
TabletOral2 mg/1
TabletOral4 mg/1
TabletOral8 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Avandia 8 mg tablet8.69USD tablet
Avandia 4 mg tablet4.72USD tablet
Avandia 2 mg tablet3.22USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5002953No1991-03-262011-09-17Us
CA2143849No2000-04-252013-09-01Canada
CA1328452No1994-04-122011-04-12Canada
US5965584No1999-10-122016-06-19Us
US6166042No2000-12-262016-06-19Us
US6288095Yes2001-09-112017-08-11Us
US7358366Yes2008-04-152020-10-19Us
US8236345No2012-08-072022-10-07Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)122-123 °CNot Available
logP2.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.038 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.95ALOGPS
logP2.45ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area71.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity97.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9861
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8994
Caco-2 permeable-0.5451
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6535
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5274
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6289
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5203
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7418
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5744
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5391
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.5783
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.846
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5884
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7213
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.687
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9465
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8635
Rat acute toxicity2.4515 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8055
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7768
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0109000000-d527d5c2b5f1de352264
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4r-1609000000-585d240b82e4a1918a29
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0309000000-a9fa2307075b611cffcc

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenol ethers
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Phenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Dialkylarylamines / Aminopyridines and derivatives / Alkyl aryl ethers / Imidolactams / Thiazolines / Heteroaromatic compounds / Organic carbonic acids and derivatives / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Azacyclic compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Dialkylarylamine / Alkyl aryl ether / Aminopyridine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Pyridine / Imidolactam / Heteroaromatic compound / Meta-thiazoline
show 15 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
aminopyridine, thiazolidenediones (CHEBI:50122)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Su JL, Winegar DA, Wisely GB, Sigel CS, Hull-Ryde EA: Use of a PPAR gamma-specific monoclonal antibody to demonstrate thiazolidinediones induce PPAR gamma receptor expression in vitro. Hybridoma. 1999 Jun;18(3):273-80. [PubMed:10475242]
  2. Rieusset J, Auwerx J, Vidal H: Regulation of gene expression by activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) in human adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Nov;265(1):265-71. [PubMed:10548525]
  3. Kameda N, Okuya S, Oka Y: [Rosiglitazone (BRL-49653)]. Nihon Rinsho. 2000 Feb;58(2):401-4. [PubMed:10707565]
  4. Johnson BA, Wilson EM, Li Y, Moller DE, Smith RG, Zhou G: Ligand-induced stabilization of PPARgamma monitored by NMR spectroscopy: implications for nuclear receptor activation. J Mol Biol. 2000 Apr 28;298(2):187-94. [PubMed:10764590]
  5. Camp HS, Li O, Wise SC, Hong YH, Frankowski CL, Shen X, Vanbogelen R, Leff T: Differential activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by troglitazone and rosiglitazone. Diabetes. 2000 Apr;49(4):539-47. [PubMed:10871190]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Very long-chain fatty acid-coa ligase activity
Specific Function
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses arachidonate and eicosapentaenoate as substrates.
Gene Name
ACSL4
Uniprot ID
O60488
Uniprot Name
Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4
Molecular Weight
79187.38 Da
References
  1. Askari B, Kanter JE, Sherrid AM, Golej DL, Bender AT, Liu J, Hsueh WA, Beavo JA, Coleman RA, Bornfeldt KE: Rosiglitazone inhibits acyl-CoA synthetase activity and fatty acid partitioning to diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol via a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-independent mechanism in human arterial smooth muscle cells and macrophages. Diabetes. 2007 Apr;56(4):1143-52. Epub 2007 Jan 26. [PubMed:17259370]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Inoue I, Itoh F, Aoyagi S, Tazawa S, Kusama H, Akahane M, Mastunaga T, Hayashi K, Awata T, Komoda T, Katayama S: Fibrate and statin synergistically increase the transcriptional activities of PPARalpha/RXRalpha and decrease the transactivation of NFkappaB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):131-9. [PubMed:11779144]
  2. Drevon CA: Fatty acids and expression of adipokines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 30;1740(2):287-92. Epub 2004 Dec 8. [PubMed:15949695]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-lin...
Gene Name
PPARD
Uniprot ID
Q03181
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Molecular Weight
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Inoue I, Itoh F, Aoyagi S, Tazawa S, Kusama H, Akahane M, Mastunaga T, Hayashi K, Awata T, Komoda T, Katayama S: Fibrate and statin synergistically increase the transcriptional activities of PPARalpha/RXRalpha and decrease the transactivation of NFkappaB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Jan 11;290(1):131-9. [PubMed:11779144]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRA
Uniprot ID
P19793
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha
Molecular Weight
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [PubMed:23843199]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRB
Uniprot ID
P28702
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta
Molecular Weight
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [PubMed:23843199]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRG
Uniprot ID
P48443
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma
Molecular Weight
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [PubMed:23843199]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Bazargan M, Foster DJ, Davey AK, Muhlhausler BS: Rosiglitazone Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes Using a Substrate Depletion Method. Drugs R D. 2017 Mar;17(1):189-198. doi: 10.1007/s40268-016-0166-4. [PubMed:28074333]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
  3. Rosiglitazone FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Supporting data are limited to in vitro studies.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Sahi J, Black CB, Hamilton GA, Zheng X, Jolley S, Rose KA, Gilbert D, LeCluyse EL, Sinz MW: Comparative effects of thiazolidinediones on in vitro P450 enzyme induction and inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Apr;31(4):439-46. [PubMed:12642470]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Sahi J, Black CB, Hamilton GA, Zheng X, Jolley S, Rose KA, Gilbert D, LeCluyse EL, Sinz MW: Comparative effects of thiazolidinediones on in vitro P450 enzyme induction and inhibition. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Apr;31(4):439-46. [PubMed:12642470]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Jaakkola T, Backman JT, Neuvonen M, Neuvonen PJ: Effects of gemfibrozil, itraconazole, and their combination on the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 May;77(5):404-14. doi: 10.1016/j.clpt.2004.12.266. [PubMed:15900286]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Sugiura S, Nakajima M, Goto A, Yokoi T, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptides in the transport of troglitazone sulfate: implications for understanding troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Mar;32(3):291-4. [PubMed:14977862]
  2. Karlgren M, Ahlin G, Bergstrom CA, Svensson R, Palm J, Artursson P: In vitro and in silico strategies to identify OATP1B1 inhibitors and predict clinical drug-drug interactions. Pharm Res. 2012 Feb;29(2):411-26. doi: 10.1007/s11095-011-0564-9. Epub 2011 Aug 23. [PubMed:21861202]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 16, 2018 06:38