Identification

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Name
Rifamycin
Accession Number
DB11753  (DB05378)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Rifamycin is the prime member of the rifamycin family which are represented by drugs that are a product of fermentation from the gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis mediterranei, also known as Streptomyces mediterranei. The parent compound of rifamycin was rifamycin B which was originally obtained as a main product in the presence of diethylbarburitic acid. Some small modifications where performed in this inactive compound and with the creation of rifamycin SV there was the first antibiotic used intravenously for the treatment of tuberculosis.2

Rifamycin has had several direct derivative products such as rifamycin SV, rifaximin, rifampin and rifamycin CV. All of the derivatives have slight different physicochemical properties when compared to the parent structure.1

Rifamycin was further developed by Cosmo Technologies Ltd and approved in November 16, 2018 by the FDA as a prescription drug after being granted the designation of Qualified Infectious Disease Product which allowed it to have a status a priority review.10 This drug was also sent for review to the EMA in 2015 by Dr. Falk Pharma Gmbh and it was granted a waiver for the tested conditions.11

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Rifamicina
  • Rifamicine SV
  • Rifamycin
  • Rifamycin SV
  • Rifamycine
  • Rifamycinum
  • Rifomycin SV
External IDs
M-14
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Rifamycin sodium32086GS35Z14897-39-3YVOFSHPIJOYKSH-NLYBMVFSSA-M
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AemcoloTablet, delayed release194 mg/1OralAries Pharmaceuticals Inc2019-02-01Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Categories
UNII
DU69T8ZZPA
CAS number
6998-60-3
Weight
Average: 697.778
Monoisotopic: 697.309825957
Chemical Formula
C37H47NO12
InChI Key
HJYYPODYNSCCOU-ODRIEIDWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C37H47NO12/c1-16-11-10-12-17(2)36(46)38-23-15-24(40)26-27(32(23)44)31(43)21(6)34-28(26)35(45)37(8,50-34)48-14-13-25(47-9)18(3)33(49-22(7)39)20(5)30(42)19(4)29(16)41/h10-16,18-20,25,29-30,33,40-44H,1-9H3,(H,38,46)/b11-10+,14-13+,17-12-/t16-,18+,19+,20+,25-,29-,30+,33+,37-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(7S,9E,11S,12R,13S,14R,15R,16R,17S,18S,19E,21Z)-2,15,17,27,29-pentahydroxy-11-methoxy-3,7,12,14,16,18,22-heptamethyl-6,23-dioxo-8,30-dioxa-24-azatetracyclo[23.3.1.1^{4,7}.0^{5,28}]triaconta-1(28),2,4,9,19,21,25(29),26-octaen-13-yl acetate
SMILES
CO[C@H]1\C=C\O[C@@]2(C)OC3=C(C2=O)C2=C(C(O)=C3C)C(O)=C(NC(=O)\C(C)=C/C=C/[C@H](C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](C)[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)[C@H](OC(C)=O)[C@@H]1C)C=C2O

Pharmacology

Indication

Rifamycin is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of E. coli. The status of the disease should not be complicated by fever or blood in the stool. To prevent drug-resistant bacteria, it is important to mention that the use of rifamycin for this indication should be only done in cases where the infection is proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.12

Travallers' diarrhea is very common problem affecting 20-60% of the travellers and it is defined as an increase in frequency of bowel movements to three or more loose stools per day during a trip abroad. This condition is rarely life threatening but in severe cases it can produce dehydration and sepsis. The most common cause of travellers' diarrhea is a pathogen and from the pathogens identified, bacteria is the most common cause followed by norovirus, rotavirus and similar viruses.3

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Rifamycin is known to be effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and mycobacteria. It is very effective against E. coli reporting a MIC90 of 64-128 mcg/ml without showing cross-resistance with other antimicrobial agents.4

The specific indication of rifampycin is extremely important as ther were previous reports that indicated a high risk factor in the generation of resistant E. coli strains in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.13

In clinical trials, rifamycin was tested in a randomized clinical trial of travellers' coming from Mexico and Guatemala. In this trial, rifamycin was proven to significantly reduce the symptoms of travellers' diarrhea.12

Mechanism of action

Rifamycins, as well as all the other members of this group, present an antibacterial mechanism of action related to the inhibition of RNA synthesis. This mechanism of action is done by the strong binding to the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of prokaryotes. The inhibition of the RNA synthesis is thought to be related with the initiation phase of the process and to involve stacking interactions between the naphthalene ring and the aromatic moiety in the polymerase. As well, it has been suggested that the presence of zinc atoms in the polymerase allows for the binding of phenolic -OH groups of the naphthalene ring.9

In eukaryotic cells, the binding is significantly reduced making them at least 100 to 10,000 times less sensitive to the action of rifamycins. The members of the rifamycin family present the same mechanism of action and the structural modifications are usually related to pharmacokinetic properties as well as to the interaction with eukaryotic cells.8

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta
binder
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
ADNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha
binder
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
ADNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta'
binder
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Rifamycin has a very poor absorption4 and thus, the generation of an oral modified-release formulation using the technology of the multi-matrix structure was required for the generation of the FDA approved product. This preparation allows the delivery of the active ingredient in the distal small bowel and colon without interfering with the flora in the upper gastrointestinal tract.5

The multi-matrix is made by a lipophiic matrix surrounded in a hydrophilic matrix which allows for the protection of the active ingredient from dissolution in the intestinal aqueous fluids before it arrives in the cecum. All this matrix is surrounded by a gastro-resistant polymer that only desintegrate in a pH lower than 7.6

All this administration-customed formulation allows for a bioavailability of <0.1% and the plasma concentrations are reported to be of <2 ng/ml in patients receiving a dose of 400 mg. This confirms that the site of action of rifamycin stays in the small intestine and colon which prevents the need for dose adjustments in special populations as well as systemic drug interactions.6

The reported Cmax, tmax, AUC and mean residence time after a dosage of 250 mg of rifamycin is 36 mg/L, 5 min, 11.84 mg.h/L and 0.49 h respectively.6

Volume of distribution

The reported volume of distribution after measured after a dosage of 250 mg of rifamycin is 101.8 L.6

Protein binding

The protein binding of rifamycin is of about 80-95%.7

Metabolism

When absorbed, rifamycin is mainly metabolzied in hepatocytes and intestinal microsomes to a 25-deacetyl metabolite.6

Route of elimination

From the administered dose, 18%, 50% and 21% is recovered in feces during the first 24, 48 and 72h after administration. This will represent about 90% of the administered dose eliminated by the feces while the urinary secretion is negligible.6

Half life

The reported half-life when a dose of 250 mg of rifamycin was administered is 3 h.6

Clearance

The reported clearance when a dose of 250 mg of rifamycin was administered is 23.3 L/h.6

Toxicity

In safety studies with rifamycin, it was reported a potential of hepatotoxicity due to the depletion of glutathione and the generation of reactive oxygen species in liver microsomes. It is important to mention that this effect is mainly observed in the intravenous administration as the oral dosage does not have a significant systemic absorption.7

Rifamycin is not genotoxic in bacterial mutation assays, mouse cell mutation assay or mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. There is no current information about the effects on fertility, overdosage or carcinogenesis.Label

Affected organisms
  • Escherichia coli
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Rifamycin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Rifamycin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Rifamycin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Rifamycin.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be decreased when combined with Rifamycin.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Rifamycin.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Rifamycin.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Rifamycin.
9-aminocamptothecinThe metabolism of 9-aminocamptothecin can be increased when combined with Rifamycin.
9-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Rifamycin.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Lin SW, Lin CJ, Yang JC: Rifamycin SV MMX for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017 Aug;18(12):1269-1277. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2017.1353079. Epub 2017 Jul 27. [PubMed:28697313]
  2. Sensi P: History of the development of rifampin. Rev Infect Dis. 1983 Jul-Aug;5 Suppl 3:S402-6. [PubMed:6635432]
  3. Barrett J, Brown M: Travellers' diarrhoea. BMJ. 2016 Apr 19;353:i1937. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1937. [PubMed:27094342]
  4. Ross AG, Olds GR, Cripps AW, Farrar JJ, McManus DP: Enteropathogens and chronic illness in returning travelers. N Engl J Med. 2013 May 9;368(19):1817-25. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1207777. [PubMed:23656647]
  5. Rosette C, Buendia-Laysa F Jr, Patkar S, Moro L, Celasco G, Bozzella R, Ajani M, Gerloni M: Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of rifamycin SV. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 Aug;42(2):182-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.04.020. Epub 2013 Jun 5. [PubMed:23756321]
  6. Di Stefano AF, Rusca A, Loprete L, Droge MJ, Moro L, Assandri A: Systemic absorption of rifamycin SV MMX administered as modified-release tablets in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 May;55(5):2122-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01504-10. Epub 2011 Mar 14. [PubMed:21402860]
  7. Aristoff PA, Garcia GA, Kirchhoff PD, Showalter HD: Rifamycins--obstacles and opportunities. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2010 Mar;90(2):94-118. doi: 10.1016/j.tube.2010.02.001. Epub 2010 Mar 16. [PubMed:20236863]
  8. Floss HG, Yu TW: Rifamycin-mode of action, resistance, and biosynthesis. Chem Rev. 2005 Feb;105(2):621-32. doi: 10.1021/cr030112j. [PubMed:15700959]
  9. Kerr P. (2013). Fighting multidrug resistance with herbal extracts, essential oils and their components. Academic Press.
  10. FDA approvals [Link]
  11. EMA approvals [Link]
  12. FDA news [Link]
  13. Bentham Science [Link]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D02549
KEGG Compound
C12044
PubChem Substance
347911235
ChemSpider
16735998
BindingDB
50391000
ChEBI
29673
ChEMBL
CHEMBL437765
Wikipedia
Rifamycin
ATC Codes
S01AA16 — RifamycinS02AA12 — RifamycinJ04AB03 — Rifamycin
FDA label
Download (349 KB)
MSDS
Download (23.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedOtherAdverse Drug Interactions1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentInfectious Diarrhoea1
2CompletedTreatmentUncomplicated Diverticulitis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTravelers' Diarrhea2
2RecruitingTreatmentDiarrhoea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentHepatic Encephalopathy / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentTravelers' Diarrhea2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, delayed releaseOral194 mg/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8741948No2014-06-032025-05-03Us
US8263120No2012-09-112025-05-03Us
US8529945No2013-09-102025-05-03Us
US8486446No2013-07-162025-05-03Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

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Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)171 ºC'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)972.8 ºC at 760 mm Hg'MSDS'
water solubilityInsolubleShu-Wen L., Chun-Jung L. and Jyh-Chin Y. (2017). Expert Opinion in Pharmacotherapy. Vol 18.
logP5Shu-Wen L., Chun-Jung L. and Jyh-Chin Y. (2017). Expert Opinion in Pharmacotherapy. Vol 18.
pKa1.8Stefano A., Rusca A., Loprete L., Droge M., Moro L. and Assandri A. (2011). Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0147 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.15ALOGPS
logP4.17ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area201.31 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity187.8 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability72.07 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Ribonucleoside binding
Specific Function
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
Gene Name
rpoB
Uniprot ID
P0A8V2
Uniprot Name
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta
Molecular Weight
150631.165 Da
References
  1. Floss HG, Yu TW: Rifamycin-mode of action, resistance, and biosynthesis. Chem Rev. 2005 Feb;105(2):621-32. doi: 10.1021/cr030112j. [PubMed:15700959]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. This subunit plays an important role in subunit assembly s...
Gene Name
rpoA
Uniprot ID
P0A7Z4
Uniprot Name
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
36511.35 Da
References
  1. Floss HG, Yu TW: Rifamycin-mode of action, resistance, and biosynthesis. Chem Rev. 2005 Feb;105(2):621-32. doi: 10.1021/cr030112j. [PubMed:15700959]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Dna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
Gene Name
rpoC
Uniprot ID
P0A8T7
Uniprot Name
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta'
Molecular Weight
155158.84 Da
References
  1. Floss HG, Yu TW: Rifamycin-mode of action, resistance, and biosynthesis. Chem Rev. 2005 Feb;105(2):621-32. doi: 10.1021/cr030112j. [PubMed:15700959]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Pea F, Furlanut M: Pharmacokinetic aspects of treating infections in the intensive care unit: focus on drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2001;40(11):833-68. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200140110-00004. [PubMed:11735605]
  2. Edwards RJ, Price RJ, Watts PS, Renwick AB, Tredger JM, Boobis AR, Lake BG: Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes in cultured precision-cut human liver slices. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Mar;31(3):282-8. [PubMed:12584154]
  3. Ridtitid W, Wongnawa M, Mahatthanatrakul W, Punyo J, Sunbhanich M: Rifampin markedly decreases plasma concentrations of praziquantel in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Nov;72(5):505-13. doi: 10.1067/mcp.2002.129319. [PubMed:12426514]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
Inducer
Curator comments
Rifamycin derivatives are inducers of CYP2C9 hepatic enzyme. This enzyme action is based on the drug class of Rifamycin.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  2. Chen Y, Ferguson SS, Negishi M, Goldstein JA: Induction of human CYP2C9 by rifampicin, hyperforin, and phenobarbital is mediated by the pregnane X receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Feb;308(2):495-501. Epub 2003 Nov 4. [PubMed:14600250]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Di Stefano AF, Rusca A, Loprete L, Droge MJ, Moro L, Assandri A: Systemic absorption of rifamycin SV MMX administered as modified-release tablets in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 May;55(5):2122-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01504-10. Epub 2011 Mar 14. [PubMed:21402860]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Drug-drug interaction between pitavastatin and various drugs via OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.009290. Epub 2006 Apr 4. [PubMed:16595711]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostagland...
Gene Name
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID
Q9Y6L6
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1
Molecular Weight
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Drug-drug interaction between pitavastatin and various drugs via OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.009290. Epub 2006 Apr 4. [PubMed:16595711]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotre...
Gene Name
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID
Q9NPD5
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Molecular Weight
77402.175 Da
References
  1. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Drug-drug interaction between pitavastatin and various drugs via OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.009290. Epub 2006 Apr 4. [PubMed:16595711]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
May mediate the release of newly synthesized prostaglandins from cells, the transepithelial transport of prostaglandins, and the clearance of prostaglandins from the circulation. Transports PGD2, a...
Gene Name
SLCO2A1
Uniprot ID
Q92959
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1
Molecular Weight
70043.33 Da
References
  1. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Drug-drug interaction between pitavastatin and various drugs via OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.009290. Epub 2006 Apr 4. [PubMed:16595711]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Drug-drug interaction between pitavastatin and various drugs via OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.009290. Epub 2006 Apr 4. [PubMed:16595711]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfat...
Gene Name
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID
Q96FL8
Uniprot Name
Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1
Molecular Weight
61921.585 Da
References
  1. Hirano M, Maeda K, Shitara Y, Sugiyama Y: Drug-drug interaction between pitavastatin and various drugs via OATP1B1. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1229-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.106.009290. Epub 2006 Apr 4. [PubMed:16595711]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da

Drug created on October 20, 2016 14:45 / Updated on November 02, 2019 04:34