Gastric Ulcer (GU)

Also known as: Gastric Ulcer / Stomach Ulcer / Gastric Ulcers / NSAID-induced ulcer / NSAID Associated Gastric Ulcers / Prophylaxis of NSAID-induced ulcer / Prophylaxis of NSAID gastric ulceration / Gastric ulcer caused by NSAID / Ulcers, Stomach / Ulcer gastric / Ulcus ventriculi / Ulcer stomach / GU / Gastric ulcer prophylaxis / Prophylaxis against gastrointestinal ulcer

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB01050IbuprofenIbuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) derived from propionic acid and it is considered the first of the propionics.[A39074] The formula of ibuprofen is 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid and its initial development was in 1960 while researching for a safer alternative for aspirin.[A39075] Ibuprofen was finally patented in 1961 and this drug was first launched against rheumatoid arthritis in the UK in 1969 and USA in 1974. It was the first available over-the-counter NSAID.[A39076] On the available products, ibuprofen is administered as a racemic mixture. Once administered, the R-enantiomer undergoes extensive interconversion to the S-enantiomer _in vivo_ by the activity of the alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase. In particular, it is generally proposed that the S-enantiomer is capable of eliciting stronger pharmacological activity than the R-enantiomer.[A39194]
DB00929MisoprostolA synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
DB00585NizatidineA histamine H2 receptor antagonist with low toxicity that inhibits gastric acid secretion. The drug is used for the treatment of duodenal ulcers.
DB00338OmeprazoleOriginally approved by the FDA in 1989, omeprazole is a _proton-pump inhibitor_, used to treat gastric acid-related disorders. These disorders may include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, and other diseases characterized by the oversecretion of gastric acid. This drug was the first clinical useful drug in its class, and its approval was followed by the formulation of many other proton pump inhibitor drugs [A174232]. Omeprazole is generally effective and well-tolerated, promoting its popular use in children and adults [FDA label].
DB00213PantoprazolePantoprazole is a first-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used for the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), for gastric protection to prevent recurrence of stomach ulcers or gastric damage from chronic use of NSAIDs, and for the treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger-Ellison (ZE) Syndrome. It can also be found in quadruple regimens for the treatment of _H. pylori_ infections along with other antibiotics including [DB01060], [DB01211], and [DB00916], for example [A177271][F4498]. Its efficacy is considered similar to other medications within the PPI class including [DB00338], [DB00736], [DB00448], [DB05351], and [DB01129]. Pantoprazole exerts its stomach acid-suppressing effects by preventing the final step in gastric acid production by covalently binding to sulfhydryl groups of cysteines found on the (H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme at the secretory surface of gastric parietal cell. This effect leads to inhibition of both basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion, irrespective of the stimulus. As the binding of pantoprazole to the (H+, K+)-ATPase enzyme is irreversible and new enzyme needs to be expressed in order to resume acid secretion, pantoprazole's duration of antisecretory effect persists longer than 24 hours [FDA Label]. Due to their good safety profile and as several PPIs are available over the counter without a prescription, their current use in North America is widespread. Long term use of PPIs such as pantoprazole have been associated with possible adverse effects, however, including increased susceptibility to bacterial infections (including gastrointestinal _C. difficile_), reduced absorption of micronutrients including iron and B12, and an increased risk of developing hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia which may contribute to osteoporosis and bone fractures later in life [A177571]. PPIs such as pantoprazole have also been shown to inhibit the activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), an enzyme necessary for cardiovascular health. DDAH inhibition causes a consequent accumulation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginie (ADMA), which is thought to cause the association of PPIs with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with unstable coronary syndromes [A177577, A177580]. Pantoprazole doses should be slowly lowered, or tapered, before discontinuing as rapid discontinuation of PPIs such as pantoprazole may cause a rebound effect and a short term increase in hypersecretion [A177574].
DB01129RabeprazoleRabeprazole is an antiulcer drug in the class of proton pump inhibitors. It is a prodrug - in the acid environment of the parietal cells it turns into active sulphenamide form. Rabeprazole inhibits the H+, K+ATPase of the coating gastric cells and dose-dependent oppresses basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion.
DB00863RanitidineRanitidine is a commonly used drug, classified as a _histamine H2-receptor antagonist_. This drug helps to prevent and treat gastric-acid related conditions, including ulcers, because of its ability to decrease gastric acid secretion [A176759], [FDA label]. It is often referred to as _Zantac_, and is available in various forms, including a regular tablet, injection, and effervescent tablet [FDA label], [F4253]. One common use of this drug is to relieve the symptoms of gastric esophageal reflux disease (GERD) [FDA label], which often leads to heartburn symptoms and acid regurgitation. The prevalence of GERD is thought to be 10-20% in western countries [A176843]. Ranitidine has proven to be an effective agent in relieving the above symptoms and is therefore widely used in GERD and other gastric-acid related conditions [A176849], [FDA label].
DB00364SucralfateSucralfate is a medication that is widely used to prevent and treat a number of diseases in the gastrointestinal tract such as duodenal ulcers [FDA label], gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, stress ulcer, in addition to dyspepsia [A177655]. It is considered a _cytoprotective agent_, protecting cells in the gastrointestinal tract from damage caused by agents such as gastric acid, bile salts, alcohol, and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), among other substances [A177655, F4519]. Sucralfate has been shown to be a well-tolerated and safe drug. It is sold under many brands and is available in both tablet and suspension forms. It was approved by the FDA 1982 in tablet form, and in 1994 for the suspension form [L6073, L6076].
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB01050IbuprofenProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenSerum albumincarrier
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 4transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB01050IbuprofenSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01050IbuprofenApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
DB01050IbuprofenThrombomodulintarget
DB01050IbuprofenFatty acid-binding protein, intestinaltarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB01050IbuprofenCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB01050IbuprofenPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01050IbuprofenPlatelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chaintarget
DB01050IbuprofenProtein S100-A7target
DB01050IbuprofenAlpha-methylacyl-CoA racemaseenzyme
DB00929MisoprostolProstaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtypetarget
DB00929MisoprostolProstaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtypetarget
DB00929MisoprostolProstaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtypetarget
DB00585NizatidineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB00585NizatidineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00585NizatidineCholinesteraseenzyme
DB00338OmeprazolePotassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 1target
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 2transporter
DB00338OmeprazoleMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00338OmeprazoleATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00338OmeprazoleAryl hydrocarbon receptortarget
DB00213PantoprazolePotassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 1target
DB00213PantoprazoleCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00213PantoprazoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00213PantoprazoleMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00213PantoprazoleATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB00213PantoprazoleSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00213PantoprazoleN(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1target
DB01129RabeprazolePotassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 1target
DB01129RabeprazoleCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01129RabeprazoleCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01129RabeprazoleATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB01129RabeprazoleCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB01129RabeprazoleCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01129RabeprazoleCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01129RabeprazoleCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01129RabeprazoleCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00863RanitidineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB00863RanitidineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00863RanitidineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00863RanitidineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00863RanitidineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00863RanitidineSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00863RanitidineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00863RanitidineAcetylcholinesterasetarget
DB00863RanitidineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00863RanitidineCholinesterasetarget
DB00364SucralfateFibrinogentarget
DB00364SucralfatePepsintarget
DB00364SucralfatePro-epidermal growth factortarget
DB00364SucralfateFibroblast growth factor 2target
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB12770Lafutidine1Completed1
DB00338Omeprazole1Completed2
DB15377ATB-3461 / 2Completed1
DB00788Naproxen1 / 2Completed1
DB01060Amoxicillin2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB01211Clarithromycin2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00916Metronidazole2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB01129Rabeprazole2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00945Acetylsalicylic acid3Completed2
DB01060Amoxicillin3Unknown Status1
DB00482Celecoxib3Completed1
DB01211Clarithromycin3Unknown Status1
DB00586Diclofenac3Terminated1
DB00736Esomeprazole3Completed7
DB00736Esomeprazole3Recruiting1
DB00736Esomeprazole3Terminated1
DB12079Gefarnate3Completed1
DB12079Gefarnate3Terminated1
DB00448Lansoprazole3Completed6
DB00448Lansoprazole3Recruiting1
DB00448Lansoprazole3Terminated1
DB00448Lansoprazole3Unknown Status1
DB00929Misoprostol3Terminated1
DB00788Naproxen3Completed3
DB00788Naproxen3Terminated1
DB00338Omeprazole3Completed3
DB00863Ranitidine3Completed1
DB11656Rebamipide3Completed1
DB11739Vonoprazan3Recruiting1
DB01060Amoxicillin4Recruiting1
DB04115Berberine4Recruiting1
DB01294Bismuth subsalicylate4Recruiting1
DB00736Esomeprazole4Completed1
DB00736Esomeprazole4Recruiting1
DB00614Furazolidone4Recruiting1
DB00448Lansoprazole4Completed1
DB00338Omeprazole4Completed1
DB01129Rabeprazole4Completed1
DB11656Rebamipide4Completed2
DB00759Tetracycline4Recruiting1
DB00213PantoprazoleNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11656RebamipideNot AvailableCompleted1