Identification

Name
Sevoflurane
Accession Number
DB01236  (APRD00219)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Sevoflurane (2,2,2-trifluoro-1-[trifluoromethyl]ethyl fluoromethyl ether), also called fluoromethyl, is a sweet-smelling, non-flammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Together with desflurane, it is replacing isoflurane and halothane in modern anesthesiology. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane
  • Sevofluran
  • Sevoflurane
  • Sevoflurano
  • Sevofluranum
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SevofluraneLiquid99.97 %Respiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories2007-04-11Not applicableCanada
Sevorane AFLiquid99.97 %Respiratory (inhalation)Abbvie1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sojourn SevofluraneLiquid99.97 %Respiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2009-11-18Not applicableCanada
UltaneLiquid250 mL/250mLRespiratory (inhalation)Abbvie1995-06-07Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SevofluraneLiquid250 mL/250mLRespiratory (inhalation)Sandoz Inc.2017-01-25Not applicableUs
SevofluraneLiquid250 mL/250mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories2002-07-07Not applicableUs
SevofluraneLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Halocarbon Products Corp.2007-11-19Not applicableUs
SevofluraneLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2011-07-15Not applicableUs
SevofluraneLiquid250 mL/250mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories2002-07-02Not applicableUs
SojournLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2010-04-13Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Sevorane
Categories
UNII
38LVP0K73A
CAS number
28523-86-6
Weight
Average: 200.0548
Monoisotopic: 200.007212153
Chemical Formula
C4H3F7O
InChI Key
DFEYYRMXOJXZRJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H3F7O/c5-1-12-2(3(6,7)8)4(9,10)11/h2H,1H2
IUPAC Name
1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane
SMILES
FCOC(C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adult and pediatric patients for inpatient and outpatient surgery.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Sevoflurane (also called fluoromethyl) is a halogenated ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Together with desflurane, it is replacing isoflurane and halothane in modern anesthesiology. It is often administered in nitrous oxide and pure oxygen. After desflurane it is the volatile anesthetic with the fastest onset and offset. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.

Mechanism of action

Sevoflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Sevoflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase and also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor, and the glycine receptor.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlutamate receptor 1
antagonist
Human
APotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
inducer
Human
ACalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
inhibitor
Human
UATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
other/unknown
Human
UNADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
unknown
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed into circulation via the lungs, however solubility in the blood is low.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Relatively little biotransformation, only 5% is metabolized by cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 to hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) with release of inorganic fluoride and CO2. No other metabolic pathways have been identified for sevoflurane.

Route of elimination

The low solubility of sevoflurane facilitates rapid elimination via the lungs. In vivo metabolism studies suggest that approximately 5% of the sevoflurane dose may be metabolized. Up to 3.5% of the sevoflurane dose appears in the urine as inorganic fluoride.

Half life

15-23 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LC50=49881 ppm/hr (rat), LD50=10.8 g/kg (rat)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S---Not Availablec.3257G>A / c.520C>TADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details
Ryanodine receptor 1---Not Availablec.103T>C / c.487C>T  … show all ADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Sevoflurane.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Sevoflurane.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Sevoflurane.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Ross C. Terrell, "Method for the preparation of sevoflurane." U.S. Patent US5969193, issued December, 1979.

US5969193
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015366
KEGG Drug
D00547
KEGG Compound
C07520
PubChem Compound
5206
PubChem Substance
46508591
ChemSpider
5017
ChEBI
9130
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200694
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000694
PharmGKB
PA451341
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Sevoflurane
ATC Codes
N01AB08 — Sevoflurane
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.16 — Inhalation Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (188 KB)
MSDS
Download (49.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Drug Effects1
0CompletedBasic ScienceValvular Heart Disease1
0Enrolling by InvitationDiagnosticLaparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery1
0RecruitingPreventionColorectal Cancers1
1CompletedSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentInflammatory Reaction2
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Renal Failure1
1RecruitingScreeningHeart Diseases1
1, 2CompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Reperfusion Injury / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRadical Mastectomy1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionInflammatory Lung Injury / Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury / Postoperative Pulmonary Complications1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1, 2WithdrawnOtherActive Emergence From General Anesthesia1
2CompletedNot AvailableAlcohol-Related Disorders / Opioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
2CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
2CompletedDiagnosticKidney Transplant; Complications1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anxiety1
2CompletedSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Undescended Testis1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
2CompletedTreatmentAdult Patients / Patients Covered by French Health Care System / Patients Who Have Given Their Consent / Requiring Sedation by Sevoflurane in ICU1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Coronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
2CompletedTreatmentCerebral Oxygenation1
2CompletedTreatmentDelirium1
2CompletedTreatmentTransplant; Failure, Kidney1
2CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2RecruitingSupportive CareDown Syndrome (DS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentSubarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH)1
2TerminatedTreatmentBrain Injury1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentNewborns / Pain Measurement1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Lung1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchBaxter Anaesthesia Brand of Desflurane / Cystoscopes / Sevoflurane1
3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedPreventionOrthopedic Disorders1
3CompletedPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
3CompletedScreeningCoronary Arteries Disease Risk / Elevated Cardiac Risk1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Craniotomy / Neurosurgery1
3CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia With Use of LMA (Laryngeal Mask Airway)1
3CompletedTreatmentAnesthetics, Inhalation / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Sevoflurane / Xenon1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebral Aneurysms / Cerebral Arterial Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Coronary Artery Disease / General Anesthetic Drug Allergy1
3CompletedTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic End-Stage Renal Disease / Severe Acute Kidney Failure / Transplantation, Renal1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingSupportive CareFluoride Poisoning / Hepatic Function / Poisoning by Inhaled Anaesthetic / Recovery From Sedation / Renal Function1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Child's Development / Neurologic toxicity1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentIntubation, Endotracheal1
3WithdrawnPreventionMalignancies1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherCardiac Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnesthesia, Intratracheal / Hernia / Intravenous Anesthesia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionLong-Term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Electroconvulsive Therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOxygenation During One Lung Ventilation1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Loss of Consciousness1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAortic Diseases / Valvular Heart Disease1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceSevoflurane Anesthesia1
4CompletedDiagnosticAdenotonsillectomy / Emergence Delirium / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy / Electroencephalography/ Drug Effect1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionAirway Complication of Anaesthesia / Healthy Volunteers1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Palonosetron / Ponv1
4CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedPreventionCarotid Stenosis / Cerebral Arterial Aneurysm1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionCoughing on Induction / Vapors; Inhalation1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedPreventionDrug Usage1
4CompletedPreventionEndovascular Repair of Aortic Aneurysm / Endovascular Treatment of Arteriosclerosis Obliterans of Lower Extremities1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionMyocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionPostreperfusion Syndrome / Transplantation, Liver1
4CompletedPreventionSleep Apnea Syndromes / Sleep Apnea, Obstructive1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Blood Loss1
4CompletedSupportive CareCalculi / Excessive Repair / Exposure Laser / Injury of Bladder / Ureteral Stent Occlusion / Ureterostomy; Functional Disturbance / Vaginal Diseases1
4CompletedSupportive CarePost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAbdominal / Aneurysms / Aortic Diseases / General Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Reflexes, Protective / Anesthetic Recovery / Recovery After Neuromuscular Block1
4CompletedTreatmentAmbulatory Surgery / Anaesthesia therapy / Energy Expenditure / Food Intake1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Electroconvulsive Therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthetics Gases, Xenon / Anaesthetics Volatile, Sevoflurane / Depth of Anaesthesia / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4CompletedTreatmentCarotid Stenosis1
4CompletedTreatmentClosed Fracture of Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentElective Laparoscopic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentElectroconvulsive Therapy / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentFemale Breast Carcinoma1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Generic Drugs / Sevoflurane1
4CompletedTreatmentGynecological Disease / Healthy Adults1
4CompletedTreatmentHemodynamic Stability1
4CompletedTreatmentHysteroscopic Surgery / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4CompletedTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Undescended Testis1
4CompletedTreatmentIntracranial Aneurysms1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Middle Aged Patients / Sevoflurane1
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Middle Aged Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentMuscle Relaxation1
4CompletedTreatmentMuscle Relaxation Caused by Sevoflurane1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Sleep Quality1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Aspiration1
4CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Resection1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Disorders1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareSmooth muscle relaxation prior to radiological procedures1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticGlycogen Synthase Kinase 31
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDelirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGynecology / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPost-transplantation Liver Allograft Function1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceArterial Hypotension1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceConsciousness / Loss of Consciousness1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceGeneral Surgery / Renal Cancers1
4RecruitingDiagnosticAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Laryngeal Masks / Respiratory System Abnormalities1
4RecruitingDiagnosticOxygen Saturation1
4RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Anaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingPreventionCholangiocarcinomas / Gallbladder Neoplasms / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma1
4RecruitingPreventionIntra-abdominal and Intrapelvic Surgery / Intra-abdominal Surgery1
4RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4RecruitingPreventionVascular Surgery1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia, Conduction / Drug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnesthesia; Adverse Effect1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBehaviors / Cognitive Change1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColonic Neoplasms / Neoplasms, Breast / Rectal Neoplasms1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Rejection in Kidney Transplantation / Delayed Graft Function / Renal Outcome After Kidney Transplantation1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Chronic Rhinosinusitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAmnestic / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium / Dementias1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Delirium / Hip Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthetic Complication Spinal / Microcirculation1
4RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Propofol / Sevoflurane1
4RecruitingTreatmentDefect, Congenital Heart1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-operative Residual Curarization1
4TerminatedDiagnosticVentricular Dysfunction / Young Healthy Adults1
4TerminatedPreventionDelirium on Emergence1
4TerminatedPreventionLaryngospasm1
4TerminatedTreatmentArterial Hypotension1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticCognitive Impairments1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAnaesthetic Preconditioning / Myocardial Injury1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCerebral Hypoxia / Postoperative Delirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Geriatric Patients1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CarePectus Excavatum1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hemodynamics / Oxidative Stress1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBispectral Index / Etomidate / Induction / Pediatric1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEmergence Agitation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHaemodynamic Rebound1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHyperalgesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIschemia/Reperfusion Injury1
4WithdrawnPreventionMemory Disorders / Other Functional Disturbances Following Cardiac Surgery1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAirway Management During Operative Procedure1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Effects of Dexmedetomidine / Elderly Patients / Emergence From Anesthesia / Recovery From Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnesthetics, Inhalation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBiliary Atresia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlindness1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardioprotection / Hepatic Function / Recovery From Sedation / Renal Function / Sevoflurane Consumption1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLiver Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNephrectomy,Kidney Donation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeurotoxic Effect of Sevoflurane‑Based Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOpioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDrug Interaction Potentiation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics of Inhaled Anesthetics1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceUnconscious (Psychology)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchDelayed Recovery From Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherAnesthesia Awareness1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEntropion1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAmbulation Difficulty / Children / Urologic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Catheter Site Discomfort / Complications / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDelirium on Emergence1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDesflurane Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEnd-stage Liver Disease (ESLD)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHigh Sensitive Troponin T Release1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLaryngeal Injuries1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionReperfusion Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionThoracic Surgery With One-lung Ventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVocal Cord; Injury, Superficial1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAirway Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia; Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCataracts / Corneal Inflammation / Pterygium / Retina Detachment / Vitreous Hemorrhage1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareEndarterectomy / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareMyocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRenal Transplant Recipient Patients1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Bispectral Index Monitoring / Delirium / Dementias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Immunotoxicity / Inert Gas Narcosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBlood Loss1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiac On-pump Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCerebral Palsy (CP) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEar Deformities, Acquired1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEmergence Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMicrovascular Breast Flap in Plastic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Termination / Uterine Curettage1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBrain Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Central Nervous System Diseases / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Cerebrovascular Stroke / Ischemia, Brain / Nervous System Diseases / Strokes / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherCochlear Hearing Loss / Homocysteine / Propofol / Sevoflurane1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherIntubation, Endotracheal / Sevoflurane1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionChildren / Transplantation, Liver1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableHyperperfusion Syndrome / Moyamoya Disease1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableSex / TOF1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionHip Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionRobotic-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareFemale Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareUterine Malignancies / Uterus Myoma1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Recovery / Transurethral Resection of the Bladder / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableCardiovascular Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableGeneral Anesthetics Toxicity / Lymphocyte Destruction / Metastatic Colorectal Cancers / Molecular Mechanism of Pharmacological Action / Survival Rate1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableInflammatory Responses1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableInhalation and Intravenous Anesthesia / Microcirculatory Effects of Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableLeft Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePituitary Adenomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePropofol / Sevoflurane1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticVentricular Tachycardia (VT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherMitochondrial Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthesia Recovery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionHyperglycemia Stress1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIntubation; Difficult or Failed1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Invasive Mechanical Ventilation1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Children / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBlood Loss,Surgical / Blood Transfusions1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCardiac Arrest / Therapeutic Hypothermia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Pain, Postoperative / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Infant, Premature, Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentElderly Patients / General Anesthetic Drug Adverse Reaction / Postoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSepsis1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionMyocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionPostoperative pain / Varicosities of the great saphenous vein1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareMitochondrial Diseases1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentChronic Rhinosinusitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableIOP Changes Due to Anesthesia (Healthy Patients)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableLung Cancers / Neoplasms, Lung1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchDuration of Hospitalization1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusScreeningAnesthesia Recovery Period / Delirium, Dementia, Cognitive Disorders / Mental Competency / Neurobehavioural Manifestation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentArterial hypoxia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionNeoplasms, Brain1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Abbott Laboratories Ltd.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Minrad Inc.
  • Rx Elite
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/1mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)250 mL/250mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99.97 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ultane 250 ml pen bottle1.16USD ml
Sojourn inhalation liquid0.99USD ml
Sevoflurane inhalation liquid0.89USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6288127Yes2001-09-112017-07-27Us
US5990176Yes1999-11-232017-07-27Us
US6074668Yes2000-06-132018-07-09Us
US6444859Yes2002-09-032017-07-27Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)< 25 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)58.5 °CPhysProp
water solubilityVery slightly solubleNot Available
logP2.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.48 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.44ALOGPS
logP2.27ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity23.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.83 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9963
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9941
Caco-2 permeable+0.6134
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8839
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8807
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5436
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8649
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.9039
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6876
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5254
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7941
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9114
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5569
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7006
Ames testAMES toxic0.5082
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7014
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8564
Rat acute toxicity1.3361 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9485
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8685
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkyl ethers. These are organic compounds containing the dialkyl ether functional group, with the formula ROR', where R and R' are alkyl groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Ethers
Direct Parent
Dialkyl ethers
Alternative Parents
Organofluorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Alkyl fluorides
Substituents
Dialkyl ether / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organofluoride / Organohalogen compound / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound, ether (CHEBI:9130)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIA1
Uniprot ID
P42261
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:1990381...
Gene Name
KCNA1
Uniprot ID
Q09470
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
Molecular Weight
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport comp...
Gene Name
ATP5D
Uniprot ID
P30049
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Unknown
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID
P03886
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
Molecular Weight
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 20, 2018 00:52