Identification

Name
Clopidogrel
Accession Number
DB00758  (APRD00444)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Clopidogrel, an antiplatelet agent structurally and pharmacologically similar to ticlopidine, is used to inhibit blood clots in a variety of conditions such as peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Clopidogrel is sold under the name Plavix by Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb. The drug is an irreversible inhibitor of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor found on the membranes of platelet cells. Clopidogrel use is associated with several serious adverse drug reactions such as severe neutropenia, various forms of hemorrhage, and cardiovascular edema.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-Clopidogrel
  • clopidogrel
  • clopidogrelum
External IDs
R 130964 / R-130964 / SR 25990 / SR-25990
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Clopidogrel besilateBL9VGG8BHW744256-69-7CUZIJKLLBDXNFV-RSAXXLAASA-N
Clopidogrel bisulfate08I79HTP27120202-66-6FDEODCTUSIWGLK-RSAXXLAASA-N
Clopidogrel hydrochloride426O7XWS6Y120202-65-5XIHVAFJSGWDBGA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Act ClopidogrelTablet75 mgOralActavis Pharma Company2011-12-07Not applicableCanada
ClopidogrelTablet75 mgOralSivem Pharmaceuticals Ulc2012-06-11Not applicableCanada
ClopidogrelTablet75 mgOralSanis Health Inc2013-02-13Not applicableCanada
ClopidogrelTablet75 mgOralPro Doc Limitee2012-11-22Not applicableCanada
Clopidogrel ZentivaTablet, film coated75 mgOralZentiva K.S.2008-07-16Not applicableEu
Clopidogrel ZentivaTablet, film coated75 mgOralZentiva K.S.2008-07-16Not applicableEu
Clopidogrel ZentivaTablet, film coated300 mgOralZentiva K.S.2008-07-16Not applicableEu
Clopidogrel ZentivaTablet, film coated75 mgOralZentiva K.S.2008-07-16Not applicableEu
Clopidogrel ZentivaTablet, film coated75 mgOralZentiva K.S.2008-07-16Not applicableEu
Clopidogrel ZentivaTablet, film coated75 mgOralZentiva K.S.2008-07-16Not applicableEu
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Abbott-clopidogrelTablet75 mgOralAbbott2014-03-172015-12-31Canada
Accel-clopidogrelTablet75 mgOralAccel Pharma Inc2014-09-042015-11-09Canada
Accel-clopidogrelTablet300 mgOralAccel Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ag-clopidogrelTablet75 mgOralAngita Pharma Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Apo-clopidogrelTablet75 mgOralApotex Corporation2011-12-19Not applicableCanada
Apo-clopidogrelTablet300 mgOralApotex Corporation2013-01-21Not applicableCanada
Auro-clopidogrelTablet75 mgOralAuro Pharma Inc2014-02-06Not applicableCanada
Bio-clopidogrelTablet75 mgOralBiomed PharmaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Clopidogre RatiopharmTablet, film coated75 mgOralTeva B.V.2015-02-19Not applicableEu
ClopidogrelTablet, film coated300 mg/1OralWockhardt2012-11-13Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Clopidogrel KitClopidogrel bisulfate (75 mg/1) + Acetylsalicylic acid (81 mg/1)KitCambridge Therapeutics Technologies, Llc2017-07-01Not applicableUs
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
DuoplavinClopidogrel (75 mg) + Acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralSanofi Pharma Bristol Myers Squibb Snc2010-03-15Not applicableEu
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Clopido Grel 1a PharmaClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Pharma Gmb H2009-07-282013-01-18Eu
Clopidogrel 1a PharmaClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Pharma Gmb H2009-07-282013-01-18Eu
Clopidogrel 1a PharmaClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Pharma Gmb H2009-07-282013-01-18Eu
Clopidogrel 1a PharmaClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Pharma Gmb H2009-07-282013-01-18Eu
Clopidogrel 1a PharmaClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Pharma Gmb H2009-07-282013-01-18Eu
Clopidogrel 1a PharmaClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Pharma Gmb H2009-07-282013-01-18Eu
Clopidogrel 1a PharmaClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Pharma Gmb H2009-07-282013-01-18Eu
Clopidogrel AcinoClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Ag2009-07-282018-01-04Eu
Clopidogrel AcinoClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Ag2009-07-282018-01-04Eu
Clopidogrel AcinoClopidogrel (75 mg)Tablet, film coatedOralAcino Ag2009-07-282018-01-04Eu
Categories
UNII
A74586SNO7
CAS number
113665-84-2
Weight
Average: 321.822
Monoisotopic: 321.059027158
Chemical Formula
C16H16ClNO2S
InChI Key
GKTWGGQPFAXNFI-HNNXBMFYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H16ClNO2S/c1-20-16(19)15(12-4-2-3-5-13(12)17)18-8-6-14-11(10-18)7-9-21-14/h2-5,7,9,15H,6,8,10H2,1H3/t15-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
methyl (2S)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-{4H,5H,6H,7H-thieno[3,2-c]pyridin-5-yl}acetate
SMILES
[H][C@@](N1CCC2=C(C1)C=CS2)(C(=O)OC)C1=CC=CC=C1Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

For the reduction of atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death) in patients with atherosclerosis documented by recent stroke, recent myocardial infarction, or established peripheral arterial disease.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Since clopidogrel is a prodrug, it must be metabolized by CYP450 enzymes to produce the active metabolite that inhibits platelet aggregation. This active metabolite selectively inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP) binding to its platelet P2Y12 receptor and subsequently the ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation.

Mechanism of action

The active metabolite of clopidogrel prevents binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor, impairing the ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex. It is proposed that the inhibition involves a defect in the mobilization from the storage sites of the platelet granules to the outer membrane. he drug specifically and irreversibly inhibits the P2Y12 subtype of ADP receptor, which is important in aggregation of platelets and cross-linking by the protein fibrin. No direct interference occurs with the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. As the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex is the major receptor for fibrinogen, its impaired activation prevents fibrinogen binding to platelets and inhibits platelet aggregation. By blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP, platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by the active metabolite of clopidogrel.

TargetActionsOrganism
AP2Y purinoceptor 12
antagonist
Human
Absorption

Absorption is at least 50% based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel-related metabolites. Bioavailability has not been found to be affected by food.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

98%

Metabolism

Hepatic, extensive and rapid, by hydrolysis to the main circulating metabolite, a carboxylic acid derivative, which accounts for approximately 85% of the circulating drug-related compounds. A glucuronic acid derivative of the carboxylic acid derivative has also been found in plasma and urine. Neither the parent compound nor the carboxylic acid derivative has a platelet inhibiting effect.

Route of elimination

Following an oral dose of 14C-labeled clopidogrel in humans, approximately 50% of total radioactivity was excreted in urine and approximately 46% in feces over the 5 days post-dosing.

Half life

Carboxylic acid derivative: 8 hours (after single and multiple doses). Covalent binding to platelets has accounted for 2% of radiolabeled clopidogrel with a half-life of 11 days.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

A single dose of clopidogrel at 1500 or 2000 mg/kg was lethal to mice and rats, with 3000 mg/kg lethal to baboons. Symptoms included vomiting, breathing difficulty, hemorrhage, and prostration.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolism
Clopidogrel Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*3(C;C) / (A;C)C AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of clopidogrel resulting in reduced plasma concentrations of its active metabolite.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2(A;A) / (A;G)G > AEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of clopidogrel resulting in reduced plasma concentrations of its active metabolite.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2Not Available681G>AADR Directly StudiedPatients with this polymorphism in CYP2C19 are poor metabolizers of clopidogrel and are associated with diminished platelet response and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events in response to clopidogrel therapy.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*3Not Available636G>ADirectly Studied EffectThe presence of this polymorphism in CYP2C19 is associated with reduced or poor metabolism of clopidogrel.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2ANot Available681G>AADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2BNot Available681G>AADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*4Not Available1A>GADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*5Not Available1297C>TADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*6Not Available395G>AADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*7Not Available19294T>AADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*22Not Available557G>C / 991A>GADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*24Not Available99C>T / 991A>G  … show all ADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*35Not Available12662A>GADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events and lower efficacy. Alternative recommended.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*6Not Available818delAEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*15Not Available485C>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*25Not Available353_362delAGAAATGGAAEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*35Not Available374G>T / 430C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*2Not Available430C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*4Not Available1076T>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*5Not Available1080C>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*8Not Available449G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*11Not Available1003C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*12Not Available1465C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*13Not Available269T>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*14Not Available374G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*16Not Available895A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*18Not Available1075A>C / 1190A>C  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*26Not Available389C>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*28Not Available641A>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*30Not Available1429G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*33Not Available395G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2ANot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*2BNot Available681G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*3Not Available636G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*4Not Available1A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*5Not Available1297C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*6Not Available395G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*7Not Available19294T>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*22Not Available557G>C / 991A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*24Not Available99C>T / 991A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C19CYP2C19*35Not Available12662A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements, higher risk for drug-drug interactionsDetails

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Clopidogrel can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
6-O-benzylguanineThe serum concentration of 6-O-benzylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
7-DeazaguanineThe serum concentration of 7-Deazaguanine can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
7,9-DimethylguanineThe serum concentration of 7,9-Dimethylguanine can be increased when it is combined with Clopidogrel.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Revital Lifshitz-Liron, "Novel crystal forms III, IV, V, and novel amorphous form of clopidogrel hydrogensulfate, processes for their preparation, processes for the preparation of form I, compositions containing the new forms and methods of administering the new forms." U.S. Patent US20030114479, issued June 19, 2003.

US20030114479
General References
  1. Chan FK, Ching JY, Hung LC, Wong VW, Leung VK, Kung NN, Hui AJ, Wu JC, Leung WK, Lee VW, Lee KK, Lee YT, Lau JY, To KF, Chan HL, Chung SC, Sung JJ: Clopidogrel versus aspirin and esomeprazole to prevent recurrent ulcer bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 20;352(3):238-44. [PubMed:15659723]
  2. Perry CG, Shuldiner AR: Pharmacogenomics of anti-platelet therapy: how much evidence is enough for clinical implementation? J Hum Genet. 2013 Jun;58(6):339-45. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2013.41. Epub 2013 May 23. [PubMed:23697979]
  3. Furlong MT, Savant I, Yuan M, Scott L, Mylott W, Mariannino T, Kadiyala P, Roongta V, Arnold ME: A validated HPLC-MS/MS assay for quantifying unstable pharmacologically active metabolites of clopidogrel in human plasma: application to a clinical pharmacokinetic study. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 May 1;926:36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.02.031. Epub 2013 Mar 1. [PubMed:23542721]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0005011
KEGG Drug
D00769
PubChem Compound
60606
PubChem Substance
46507295
ChemSpider
54632
BindingDB
50318910
ChEBI
37941
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1771
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000178
PharmGKB
PA449053
HET
CGE
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Clopidogrel
ATC Codes
B01AC04 — Clopidogrel
AHFS Codes
  • 20:12.18 — Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
PDB Entries
3me6 / 4h1n
FDA label
Download (402 KB)
MSDS
Download (57.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceAortic Valve Stenosis / Inflammatory Reaction / Thrombotic events1
0RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Elevated Lipoprotein(a)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacodynamic Interaction1
1CompletedNot AvailablePharmacodynamics1
1CompletedNot AvailableThrombotic events1
1CompletedBasic ScienceBioequivalence, AUC, Cmax, Pharmacokinetics1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCYP2C19 Genotypes1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Artery Disease1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedBasic ScienceInhibition on Platelet Aggregation1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedScreeningAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)2
1CompletedTreatmentAntiplatelet Effect1
1CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
1CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease4
1CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemia (Fredrickson Type Ⅱa) / Mixed hypercholesterolemia1
1CompletedTreatmentFasting2
1CompletedTreatmentFocus of Study / Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers9
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Hemostasis1
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentPlatelet Aggregation1
1RecruitingOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentAorta-iliac Segment Lesion (C,D Type by TASC II)1
1RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
1RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedHealth Services ResearchComparative Bioavailability of Clopidogrel Tablets1
1TerminatedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
1TerminatedScreeningAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
1TerminatedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
1TerminatedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers / Hemostasis1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematous1
2CompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedDiagnosticClopidogrel1
2CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Retinopathy, Diabetic1
2CompletedDiagnosticDisease Susceptibility1
2CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Inflammatory Reaction1
2CompletedPreventionPeptic Ulcers1
2CompletedScreeningAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Stent Thrombosis1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)5
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedTreatmentBlood Platelet Disorders / Defect, Congenital Heart1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Coronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Thromboembolism1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2CompletedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication1
2CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentPercutaneous Coronary Intervention1
2CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2CompletedTreatmentStable Angina (SA)1
2CompletedTreatmentStable Coronary Artery Disease2
2CompletedTreatmentTransient ischemia attacks1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenosine / Antiplatelet Therapy / Coronary Artery Disease / Platelet Aggregation / Renal Function Abnormal1
2RecruitingTreatmentCarotid Artery Stenosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors1
2RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntracerebral Hemorrhage / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
2TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
2Unknown StatusBasic ScienceAsthma Bronchial1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPolycythemia Vera (PV)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3CompletedDiagnosticPlatelet Reactivity1
2, 3CompletedPreventionStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / Strokes1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentClopidogrel, Poor Metabolism of / Coronary Artery Disease1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Pregnancy Losses1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCLOPIDOGREL, POOR METABOLISM of (Disorder)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentStroke, Ischemic / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticAortic Valve Stenosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Valve Diseases / Thrombotic events / Ventricular Outflow Obstruction1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionTranscatheter Aortic Valve Replacement1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Pancreas / Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer / Pancreatic Cancer Metastatic1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentST Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction / Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Flow1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTransient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
3CompletedNot AvailableIschaemic Heart Diseases1
3CompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease / Endothelial Function1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchPharmacodynamics / Pharmacodynamics of Antiplatelet Agent1
3CompletedPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)2
3CompletedPreventionAtrial Septal Aneurysm / Migraines / Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) / Stroke, Ischemic1
3CompletedPreventionHemodialysis Fistula Thrombosis / Renal Failure1
3CompletedPreventionMyocardial Infarction / Stable Angina (SA)1
3CompletedPreventionNSTEACS / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors1
3CompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Vascular Risk1
3CompletedPreventionPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
3CompletedPreventionPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
3CompletedPreventionRenal Failure1
3CompletedPreventionStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Disease / Angina Unstable1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)6
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Unstable Angina (UA)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentArteriosclerosis1
3CompletedTreatmentCarotid Artery Dissection / Cervical Artery Dissection / Strokes / Vertebral Artery Dissection1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Accidents / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hemodialysis Treatment1
3CompletedTreatmentClopidogrel Non-Responsiveness1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Coronary Artery Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease7
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Stent Implantation / Platelet Inhibition1
3CompletedTreatmentHeart Defects,Congenital2
3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction3
3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) <= 12 Hours / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
3CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
3CompletedTreatmentPlatelet Reactivity1
3CompletedTreatmentThrombotic events1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Stenosis / Intracranial Embolism / Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEndovascular Procedures / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntracranial Atherosclerosis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3RecruitingPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
3RecruitingPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
3RecruitingPreventionNoncardioembolic Cerebral Infarction1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)2
3RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia / Stent Thrombosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentCarotid Artery Occlusion / Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion / Strokes1
3RecruitingTreatmentCarotid Stenosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Aneurysms1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Heart Attacks / Stroke, Ischemic1
3RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Acute1
3TerminatedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Vascular Risk1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Atherosclerosis1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Myocardial Infarction1
3TerminatedTreatmentAd Hoc Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris1
3TerminatedTreatmentAngina Pectoris / Silent Ischemia1
3TerminatedTreatmentStrokes1
3Unknown StatusBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Polyvascular Disease1
3Unknown StatusPreventionST Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Graft Patency / Hypercoagulability / Thrombotic events1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Stenosis / High Post-Treatment Platelet Reactivity / Late Platelet Aggregation / Maximal Platelet Aggregation1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNon ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPercutaneous Coronary Intervention / Stable Angina (SA)1
3WithdrawnBasic ScienceCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionMigraines1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Angina Pectoris / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGastrointestinal Bleedings1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPatients Who Are Scheduled to Undergo a PCI (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) for CTO (Chronic Total Occlusion)1
4CompletedNot AvailableCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableGastroduodenal Ulcers1
4CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Artery Disease2
4CompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Artery Disease / Endothelial Dysfunction / Myocardial Ischemia1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDrug reactions1
4CompletedDiagnosticAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
4CompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease / Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Stent Thrombosis1
4CompletedDiagnosticCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchCoronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4CompletedPreventionAortic Valve Disorder / Haemorrhage / Major Bleeding / Myocardial Infarction / Strokes1
4CompletedPreventionAortic Valve Disorder / Myocardial Infarction / Strokes1
4CompletedPreventionAspirin Resistance / Coronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionCerebral Infarctions1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease2
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease / Platelet Aggregation / Platelet Transcriptome1
4CompletedPreventionStroke, Ischemic1
4CompletedPreventionStrokes1
4CompletedScreeningHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedSupportive CareCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)8
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Clopidogrel Low Responsiveness / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)2
4CompletedTreatmentAngina Pectoris / Atherosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAntiplatelet Therapy of Coronary Artery Bypass1
4CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cerebral Infarctions1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >27 kg/m2 / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedTreatmentBlood Pressures / Endothelial Function / Platelet Function1
4CompletedTreatmentCVD1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest / Postresuscitation Syndrome / ST Elevation (STEMI) and Non-ST Elevation (NSTEMI) Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCarotid Stenosis1
4CompletedTreatmentCerebral Infarctions1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Stable Angina (SA)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease15
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Drug Interaction Potentiation / VA Drug Interactions [VA Drug Interaction]1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Ischemia / Stent Thrombosis1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)3
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Action Increased1
4CompletedTreatmentFibrinolysis / P2Y12 Inhibitor / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF)1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentInfluence of Aspirin on the Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Clopidogrel / Influence of Genotype of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme or Transporter on the Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Clopidogrel1
4CompletedTreatmentIschaemic Heart Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentNon ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4CompletedTreatmentNon-ST or ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)2
4CompletedTreatmentPlaque, Atherosclerotic1
4CompletedTreatmentPlatelet Reactivity1
4CompletedTreatmentSaphenous Vein Graft Atherosclerosis1
4CompletedTreatmentStable Angina (SA)1
4CompletedTreatmentStable Coronary Artery Disease2
4CompletedTreatmentStrokes1
4CompletedTreatmentThrombotic events1
4CompletedTreatmentTransient ischemia attacks1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentCerebral Infarctions / CLOPIDOGREL, POOR METABOLISM of (Disorder)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentChronic Total Occlusion of Coronary Artery / Coronary Artery Disease / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Viable Myocardium1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplete Occlusion of Coronary Artery / Hibernation, Myocardial1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceArtery Occlusion / Aspirin Sensitivity / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Clopidogrel, Poor Metabolism of / Coronary Artery Disease / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / Platelet Thrombus / Platelets Dysfunction1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchCoronary Artery Disease1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMinor Stroke / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Stenosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Platelet Function Tests / Predictive Value of Tests / Thrombelastography / Thrombotic events / Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Angioplasty / NSTEMI - Non-ST Segment Elevation MI / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCritical Limb Ischemia (CLI)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEmbolic Stroke1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Thrombotic events1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLeft Atrial Appendage Closure / Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
4RecruitingNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceMyocardial Infarction1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceMyocardial Infarction / Platelets Dysfunction / Thrombotic events1
4RecruitingDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD) / Stroke, Ischemic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4RecruitingPreventionAortic Valve Disorder / Haemorrhage / Myocardial Infarction / Strokes1
4RecruitingPreventionAtherosclerosis1
4RecruitingPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Myocardial Ischemia1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Stenosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAngina Pectoris1
4RecruitingTreatmentAngina Pectoris / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Artery Disease / Heart Diseases / Infarction / Myocardial Infarction / Systemic Embolism / Thoracic Pain / Thrombotic events / Transient ischemia attacks / Vascular Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Stenosis / Strokes1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Artery Disease / Stents1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiovascular Mortality / Cerebrovascular Accidents / Hemorrhage / Myocardial Infarction1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Non ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Kidney Diseases / Myocardial Infarction1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Myocardial Infarction / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentEndothelial Dysfunction / Vascular Inflammation1
4RecruitingTreatmentGastrointestinal Injury / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Attacks1
4RecruitingTreatmentInfertility Female1
4RecruitingTreatmentIschemic Cerebrovascular Accident1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Fibrosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4RecruitingTreatmentNon-ST-elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes / Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction / Unstable Angina (UA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPlatelet Reactivity2
4RecruitingTreatmentProlonged DAPT in ACS Patients With Hisk of Both Ischemic and Hemorrhage1
4RecruitingTreatmentST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)2
4TerminatedTreatmentAntiplatelet Therapy / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Stable Coronary Syndrome / Ticagrelor1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Haemorrhage / Myocardial Ischemia1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Thrombotic events1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Graft Patency1
4TerminatedTreatmentNon ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome1
4TerminatedTreatmentNon-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusBasic SciencePeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4Unknown StatusHealth Services ResearchAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / ST Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Myocardial Infarction1
4Unknown StatusPreventionCarotid Stenosis1
4Unknown StatusScreening30 Healthy People1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease5
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus / Vascular Diseases1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / No-Reflow Phenomenon1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPatients Who Are Hospitalized and Expected to Undergo PCI for Acute Coronary Syndrome, Including Acute Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPrimary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnkle Brachial Index (0.9 or Less) / Arterial Occlusion Disease / Intermittent Claudication / Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) / Vascular Diseases1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
4WithdrawnTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) / Stable Angina (SA) / Unstable Angina (UA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingDiagnosticPlatelet Dysfunction Due to Drugs / Risk Factor, Cardiovascular1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAPT(Antiplatelet Therapy) / HOTPR(High on Treat Platelet Reactivity) / PRU(Platelet Reactivity Unit)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Clopidogrel / Haemorrhage / Novel Anti-platelets / Ticagrelor1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Drug-eluting Stent (DES) / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Ischaemic Heart Diseases / Secondary Preventions / Strokes1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHip Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIschemia, Brain / Ischemic Attack1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMyocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePlatelet Aggregation Inhibitors1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePlatelets Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBlood Platelets / Clopidogrel1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Artery Disease / Thoracic Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceEndotoxaemia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCLOPIDOGREL, POOR METABOLISM of (Disorder) / Myocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAngioplasty / Atherosclerosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnti Platelet Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarotid Artery Stenosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentClopidogrel Non-Responsiveness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIschaemic Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMetabolism of Clopidogrel1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPercutaneous Coronary Intervention1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAcute Ischemic Stroke AIS / Intracranial Atherosclerosis ICAS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease / Hyperuricemia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionStroke, Acute / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAngina Pectoris / Coronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMCA - Middle Cerebral Artery Dissection1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePlatelet Aggregation Onhibitors1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableStroke, Ischemic1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceStable Angina (SA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionComplication of Cardiac Defibrillator / Disorder of Cardiac Pacemaker System / Venous Occlusion1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
Not AvailableTemporarily Not AvailableNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableStrokes1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticAortic Valve Disorder1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCarotid Artery Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / PCI- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHigh Cholesterol / Thrombotic events1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / Unstable Angina (UA)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionCarotid Artery Injury / Vertebral Artery Injury1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Dr reddys laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • Doctor Reddys Laboratories Ltd.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physician Partners Ltd.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Promex Medical Inc.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Squibb Manufacturing Co.
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral75 mg
TabletOral75 mg/1
Kit
Tablet, film coatedOral300 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
TabletOral300 mg
TabletOral75 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral75 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Plavix 300 mg tablet24.86USD tablet
Plavix 75 mg tablet9.23USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US4847265No1989-07-112011-11-17Us
CA2334870No2005-03-152019-06-10Canada
CA1336777No1995-08-222012-08-22Canada
US6429210Yes2002-08-062019-12-10Us
US6504030Yes2003-01-072019-12-10Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)158 °CNot Available
water solubility50.78 mg/LNot Available
logP2.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0118 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.84ALOGPS
logP4.03ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.54 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity84.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.19 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9847
Caco-2 permeable+0.5777
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6664
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6556
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5558
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6368
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6339
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.724
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5223
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.5712
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8071
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7389
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9188
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7112
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9597
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9911
Rat acute toxicity2.4887 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7548
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6329
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (71.9 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0229-0967000000-6c51c479e90818ec703b
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-be6dbedd4a0c4f60d0dd

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acid esters. These are ester derivatives of alpha amino acids.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acid esters
Alternative Parents
Thienopyridines / Aralkylamines / Chlorobenzenes / Aryl chlorides / Pyridines and derivatives / Methyl esters / Heteroaromatic compounds / Thiophenes / Trialkylamines / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives
show 6 more
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid ester / Thienopyridine / Chlorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aralkylamine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Pyridine / Benzenoid
show 21 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
methyl ester, monochlorobenzenes, thienopyridine (CHEBI:37941)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system. Not activated by UDP and UTP. Required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.
Gene Name
P2RY12
Uniprot ID
Q9H244
Uniprot Name
P2Y purinoceptor 12
Molecular Weight
39438.355 Da
References
  1. Dorsam RT, Murugappan S, Ding Z, Kunapuli SP: Clopidogrel: interactions with the P2Y12 receptor and clinical relevance. Hematology. 2003 Dec;8(6):359-65. [PubMed:14668029]
  2. Herbert JM, Savi P: P2Y12, a new platelet ADP receptor, target of clopidogrel. Semin Vasc Med. 2003 May;3(2):113-22. [PubMed:15199474]
  3. Taubert D, Kastrati A, Harlfinger S, Gorchakova O, Lazar A, von Beckerath N, Schomig A, Schomig E: Pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel after administration of a high loading dose. Thromb Haemost. 2004 Aug;92(2):311-6. [PubMed:15269827]
  4. Wang L, Jacobsen SE, Bengtsson A, Erlinge D: P2 receptor mRNA expression profiles in human lymphocytes, monocytes and CD34+ stem and progenitor cells. BMC Immunol. 2004 Aug 3;5:16. [PubMed:15291969]
  5. Wihlborg AK, Wang L, Braun OO, Eyjolfsson A, Gustafsson R, Gudbjartsson T, Erlinge D: ADP receptor P2Y12 is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and stimulates contraction in human blood vessels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Oct;24(10):1810-5. Epub 2004 Aug 12. [PubMed:15308557]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Gladding P, Webster M, Zeng I, Farrell H, Stewart J, Ruygrok P, Ormiston J, El-Jack S, Armstrong G, Kay P, Scott D, Gunes A, Dahl ML: The pharmacogenetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel response: an analysis from the PRINC (Plavix Response in Coronary Intervention) trial. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2008 Dec;1(6):620-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2008.09.008. [PubMed:19463375]
  8. Savi P, Zachayus JL, Delesque-Touchard N, Labouret C, Herve C, Uzabiaga MF, Pereillo JM, Culouscou JM, Bono F, Ferrara P, Herbert JM: The active metabolite of Clopidogrel disrupts P2Y12 receptor oligomers and partitions them out of lipid rafts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 18;103(29):11069-74. Epub 2006 Jul 11. [PubMed:16835302]
  9. van Gestel MA, Heemskerk JW, Slaaf DW, Heijnen VV, Reneman RS, oude Egbrink MG: In vivo blockade of platelet ADP receptor P2Y12 reduces embolus and thrombus formation but not thrombus stability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Mar 1;23(3):518-23. Epub 2003 Jan 23. [PubMed:12615691]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Saw J, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB, Kereiakes DJ, Serebruany VL, Brennan D, Topol EJ: Lack of adverse clopidogrel-atorvastatin clinical interaction from secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled clopidogrel trial. Circulation. 2003 Aug 26;108(8):921-4. Epub 2003 Aug 18. [PubMed:12925453]
  3. Neubauer H, Gunesdogan B, Hanefeld C, Spiecker M, Mugge A: Lipophilic statins interfere with the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel on platelet function--a flow cytometry study. Eur Heart J. 2003 Oct;24(19):1744-9. [PubMed:14522569]
  4. Lau WC, Gurbel PA, Watkins PB, Neer CJ, Hopp AS, Carville DG, Guyer KE, Tait AR, Bates ER: Contribution of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolic activity to the phenomenon of clopidogrel resistance. Circulation. 2004 Jan 20;109(2):166-71. Epub 2004 Jan 5. [PubMed:14707025]
  5. Mukherjee D, Kline-Rogers E, Fang J, Munir K, Eagle KA: Lack of clopidogrel-CYP3A4 statin interaction in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Heart. 2005 Jan;91(1):23-6. [PubMed:15604326]
  6. Poulsen TS, Vinholt P, Mickley H, Korsholm L, Kristensen SR, Damkier P: Existence of a clinically relevant interaction between clopidogrel and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors? Re-evaluating the evidence. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Feb;96(2):103-10. [PubMed:15679472]
  7. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  8. Clarke TA, Waskell LA: The metabolism of clopidogrel is catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A and is inhibited by atorvastatin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jan;31(1):53-9. [PubMed:12485953]
Details
2. Cytochrome P450 2B6
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. [PubMed:17101742]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Details
4. Cytochrome P450 2C19
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Farid NA, Payne CD, Small DS, Winters KJ, Ernest CS 2nd, Brandt JT, Darstein C, Jakubowski JA, Salazar DE: Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 May;81(5):735-41. doi: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100139. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17361128]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Clopidogrel inhibited CYP2C9 at high concentrations in vitro, but showed no effects on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin (CYP2C9 substrate) when clopidogrel was administered at 75 mg a day [F1912].
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Richter T, Murdter TE, Heinkele G, Pleiss J, Tatzel S, Schwab M, Eichelbaum M, Zanger UM: Potent mechanism-based inhibition of human CYP2B6 by clopidogrel and ticlopidine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jan;308(1):189-97. doi: 10.1124/jpet.103.056127. Epub 2003 Oct 16. [PubMed:14563790]
  2. Farid NA, Payne CD, Small DS, Winters KJ, Ernest CS 2nd, Brandt JT, Darstein C, Jakubowski JA, Salazar DE: Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 May;81(5):735-41. doi: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100139. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17361128]
  3. Clopidogrel FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Farid NA, Payne CD, Small DS, Winters KJ, Ernest CS 2nd, Brandt JT, Darstein C, Jakubowski JA, Salazar DE: Cytochrome P450 3A inhibition by ketoconazole affects prasugrel and clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics differently. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 May;81(5):735-41. doi: 10.1038/sj.clpt.6100139. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [PubMed:17361128]
  4. Sangkuhl K, Klein TE, Altman RB: Clopidogrel pathway. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010 Jul;20(7):463-5. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283385420. [PubMed:20440227]
  5. Clopidogrel FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Triglyceride lipase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the activation of ester and amide prodrugs. Hydrolyzes aromatic and aliphatic esters, but has no catalytic activity toward amides or a fatty acy...
Gene Name
CES1
Uniprot ID
P23141
Uniprot Name
Liver carboxylesterase 1
Molecular Weight
62520.62 Da
References
  1. Zhu HJ, Wang X, Gawronski BE, Brinda BJ, Angiolillo DJ, Markowitz JS: Carboxylesterase 1 as a determinant of clopidogrel metabolism and activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Mar;344(3):665-72. doi: 10.1124/jpet.112.201640. Epub 2012 Dec 28. [PubMed:23275066]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Taubert D, von Beckerath N, Grimberg G, Lazar A, Jung N, Goeser T, Kastrati A, Schomig A, Schomig E: Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov;80(5):486-501. [PubMed:17112805]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 18, 2018 13:32