Identification

Name
Ketamine
Accession Number
DB01221  (APRD00493)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a potent anesthetic effect.[6] It was developed in 1963 as a replacement for phencyclidine (PCP) by Calvin Stevens at Parke Davis Laboratories. It started being used for veterinary purposes in Belgium and in 1964 was proven that compared to PCP, it produced minor hallucinogenic effects and shorter psychotomimetic effects. It was FDA approved in 1970, and from there, it has been used as an anesthetic for children or patients undergoing minor surgeries but mainly for veterinary purposes.[14]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-Ketamine
  • (±)-ketamine
  • 2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone
  • 2-(methylamino)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)cyclohexanone
  • 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone
  • DL-ketamine
  • Ketamina
  • Kétamine
  • Ketaminum
  • NMDA
  • Special K
External IDs
100477-72-3 / NSC-70151
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ketamine hydrochlorideO18YUO0I831867-66-9VCMGMSHEPQENPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
KetalarSolution10 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
KetalarSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
KetalarInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1970-02-192007-10-01Us
KetalarInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1970-02-192007-10-01Us
KetalarInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2012-10-17Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1970-02-192007-10-01Us
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection SdzSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012018-05-06Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-10-16Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-12Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMylan Institutional LLC2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2018-02-28Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousRemedy Repack2017-05-302017-05-30Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012018-05-12Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals1996-07-012013-03-31Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-10-11Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.2004-11-30Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Topical Nerve PainKetamine (0.1 g/100mL) + Diazepam (0.1 g/100mL) + Diclofenac sodium (0.1 g/100mL) + Gabapentin (0.1 g/100mL)CreamTopicalDr Marc's Manufacturing And Sales2016-02-232018-04-18Us
International/Other Brands
Ketaject (Bristol-Myers Squibb) / Ketanest (Parke Davis)
Categories
UNII
690G0D6V8H
CAS number
6740-88-1
Weight
Average: 237.725
Monoisotopic: 237.092041846
Chemical Formula
C13H16ClNO
InChI Key
YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexan-1-one
SMILES
CNC1(CCCCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

Ketamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.[15]

Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.[7] These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.[16, 8]

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Ketamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression. The anesthetic state produced by Ketamine has been termed as "dissociative anesthesia" in that it appears to selectively interrupt association pathways of the brain before producing somesthetic sensory blockade. It may selectively depress the thalamoneocortical system before significantly obtunding the more ancient cerebral centers and pathways (reticular-activating and limbic systems).[2]

Ketamine enhances descending inhibiting serotoninergic pathways and can exert antidepressive effects. These effects are seen in concentrations ten times lower than the needed concentration for anesthetic proposes. The effect of ketamine can be described as analgesic by the prevention of central sensitization in dorsal horn neurons as well as by the inhibition on the synthesis of nitric oxide. Ketamine can present cardiovascular changes and bronchodilatation.[9]

Mechanism of action

Ketamine interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.[5]

TargetActionsOrganism
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
antagonist
Human
USubstance-P receptor
antagonist
Human
UD(2) dopamine receptor
agonist
partial agonist
Human
UDelta-type opioid receptor
binder
Human
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
UKappa-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
UMu-type opioid receptor
binder
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor
binder
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2
antagonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
potentiator
Human
AAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit
antagonist
Human
ACholinesterase
inhibitor
Human
ANitric oxide synthase, brain
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Ketamine absorption is very rapid and the bioavailability is around 93%. After the first pass metabolism, only 17% of the administered dose is absorbed.[10] It distributes very rapidly and presents a distribution half-life of 1.95 min.[12] The Cmax levels at peak reach 0.75 mcg/ml in plasma and 0.2 mcg/ml in cerebrospinal fluid.[15]

Volume of distribution

The apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and at steady-state are 371.3 ml/kg and 4060.3 ml/kg, respectively.[13]

Protein binding

The plasma protein binding of ketamine accounts for 53.5% of the administered dose.[12]

Metabolism

Ketamine presents a mainly hepatic metabolism and its major metabolite is norketamine. The biotransformation of ketamine corresponds to N-dealkylation, hydroxylation of the cyclohexone ring, conjugation to glucuronic acid and dehydration of the hydroxylated metabolites for the formation of cyclohexene derivatives.[10]

Route of elimination

Pharmacokinetic studies have resulted in the recovery of 85-95% of the administered dose in urine mainly in the form of metabolites. Some other routes of elimination of ketamine are bile and feces. When administered intravenously the resultant recovery is distributed by 91% of the administered dose in urine and 3% in feces.[15]

Half life

The reported half-life in preclinical studies for ketamine is 186 min.[10]

Clearance

The clearance rate of ketamine is high and of around 95 L/h/70kg.[11]

Toxicity

Preclinical studies related to the blocking of NMDA receptors have shown an increase in apoptosis in the developing brain which results in cognitive deficits when used for longer than 3 hours. Toxicity studies regarding carcinogenesis have not been performed. Regarding mutagenesis and fertility, ketamine showed to be clastogenic and to not have effects on fertility.[Label]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

John A. Flores, Kenton L. Crowley, "Process for the preparation of ketamine ointment." U.S. Patent US5817699, issued June, 1995.

US5817699
General References
  1. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237]
  2. Bergman SA: Ketamine: review of its pharmacology and its use in pediatric anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 1999 Winter;46(1):10-20. [PubMed:10551055]
  3. Bonanno FG: Ketamine in war/tropical surgery (a final tribute to the racemic mixture). Injury. 2002 May;33(4):323-7. [PubMed:12091028]
  4. Lankenau SE, Sanders B, Bloom JJ, Hathazi D, Alarcon E, Tortu S, Clatts MC: First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Mar 16;87(2-3):183-93. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16979848]
  5. Reboso Morales JA, Gonzalez Miranda F: [Ketamine]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1999 Mar;46(3):111-22. [PubMed:10228376]
  6. Ivani G, Vercellino C, Tonetti F: Ketamine: a new look to an old drug. Minerva Anestesiol. 2003 May;69(5):468-71. [PubMed:12768186]
  7. Yang Y, Cui Y, Sang K, Dong Y, Ni Z, Ma S, Hu H: Ketamine blocks bursting in the lateral habenula to rapidly relieve depression. Nature. 2018 Feb 14;554(7692):317-322. doi: 10.1038/nature25509. [PubMed:29446381]
  8. Kirby T: Ketamine for depression: the highs and lows. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;2(9):783-4. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00392-2. [PubMed:26360893]
  9. Xu J, Lei H: Ketamine-an update on its clinical uses and abuses. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014 Dec;20(12):1015-20. doi: 10.1111/cns.12363. [PubMed:25417928]
  10. Clements JA, Nimmo WS, Grant IS: Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and analgesic activity of ketamine in humans. J Pharm Sci. 1982 May;71(5):539-42. [PubMed:7097501]
  11. Fanta S, Kinnunen M, Backman JT, Kalso E: Population pharmacokinetics of S-ketamine and norketamine in healthy volunteers after intravenous and oral dosing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Apr;71(4):441-7. doi: 10.1007/s00228-015-1826-y. Epub 2015 Mar 1. [PubMed:25724645]
  12. Kaka JS, Hayton WL: Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and two metabolites in the dog. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1980 Apr;8(2):193-202. [PubMed:7431222]
  13. Pypendop BH, Ilkiw JE: Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and its metabolite, norketamine, after intravenous administration of a bolus of ketamine to isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2005 Dec;66(12):2034-8. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.2034. [PubMed:16379643]
  14. Ketamine [Link]
  15. Ketamine monograph [Link]
  16. Time magazine [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015352
KEGG Drug
D08098
KEGG Compound
C07525
PubChem Compound
3821
PubChem Substance
46508295
ChemSpider
3689
BindingDB
50044140
ChEBI
6121
ChEMBL
CHEMBL742
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001148
PharmGKB
PA450144
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ketamine
ATC Codes
N01AX03 — Ketamine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00 — General Anesthetics
  • 28:04.92 — Miscellaneous General Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (228 KB)
MSDS
Download (67.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression1
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHemorrhoids / Perianal Fistulas1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Malignancies1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
0CompletedPreventionDepression1
0CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
0CompletedTreatmentLumbar Spinal Instability / Lumbar Spine Degeneration / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost-Mastectomy Chronic Pain Syndrome / Postoperative pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Sedation, Conscious1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
0RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Malignancies / Tiredness1
0WithdrawnPreventionDepression / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCognitive Symptom / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePsychiatric Disorder NOS1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceChanges in Striatal [11C]ORM-13070 Binding1
1CompletedBasic ScienceConfusion and disorientation / Perceptual Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDepression1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceKetamine-Induced Brain Activity Changes / Psychotic-like Symptoms1
1CompletedBasic ScienceSchizophrenic Disorders2
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Depression1
1CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentCortical Spreading Depolarization / Cortical Spreading Depression / Subarachoid Hemorrhage / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1CompletedTreatmentDepression1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
1Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Unipolar Depression1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingOtherDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Episode / Unipolar Depression1
1RecruitingOtherMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pain Management / Amputation of Lower Extremity, All Causes / Analgesic, Nonopioid1
1RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Healthy Volunteers / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
1TerminatedNot AvailableOpioid Tolerance / Sedation therapy1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedOtherDepression / Depressive Disorder, Recurrent / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Relapses1
1TerminatedTreatmentAcute Depression1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS / Traumatic Limb Injury1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Substance Abuse1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Episode / Suicidal Thoughts1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableCognitive Dysfunctions1
1, 2CompletedOtherDepression / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depresssion / Moods Disorders1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPost Operative Pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
1, 2RecruitingSupportive CareMalignancies / Pain NOS1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Tiredness1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts1
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionTonsillectomy1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentSepsis1
2Active Not RecruitingOtherDepression1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Suicidal Thoughts / Suicide, Attempted1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2CompletedNot AvailableObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
2CompletedPreventionStrabismus1
2CompletedPreventionVentricular Septal Defects1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anxiety1
2CompletedSupportive CareHead and Neck Carcinoma / Mucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CarePain, Neuropathic1
2CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hysterectomy / Ketamine / Morphine1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Depression / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / General Surgery1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine Dependence Related Impairments in Motivation for Change, and in Cue-induced Arousal / Dependence, Cocaine1
2CompletedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression2
2CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide1
2CompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease)1
2CompletedTreatmentLaceration1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentMucositis1
2CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)2
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS3
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentProgressive Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis1
2CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSevere Depression1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenoid Hypertrophy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHead Trauma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRett's Syndrome1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts / Suicide1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthesia Awareness1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression / Healthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2RecruitingPreventionSedation During Spinal Anesthesia1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdministration and Dosage of Ketamine / Endoscopic Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Malignancies / Palliative Care1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorders / Major depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Refractory Cancer Pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Violent Aggressive Behavior1
2RecruitingTreatmentLaceration1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) / Posttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Alcohol Use Disorder1
2RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders / Vaso-Occlusive Crises1
2RecruitingTreatmentTraumas1
2TerminatedSupportive CareDepression / Feeling Anxious / Malignancies1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
2TerminatedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2TerminatedTreatmentPruritus1
2TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
2WithdrawnBasic ScienceTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2WithdrawnSupportive CarePatients With "ASA 3" Designation / Patients With ASA 3 Designation1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
2WithdrawnTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3CompletedPreventionObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Postoperative Complications / Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Lower Abdominal Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiseases of the Digestive System / Pain, Acute / Respiratory Tract Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFemale Genital Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Post Operative Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Pain, Acute1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionRefractory Epilepsy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Bronchospasm / Critical Illness1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Ketamine / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Major Depressive Episode / Psychiatric Disorders / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) / Unipolar Depression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Impulses / Suicidal Thoughts1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative Depression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic / Rotator Cuff Tendinitis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic2
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionDelirium1
3CompletedPreventionHyperalgesia / Inflammatory Responses / Pain NOS1
3CompletedSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Leukemias / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Neurologic toxicity / Pain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Post Thoracotomy Pain / Ketamine / Neurocostal neuralgia / Pain NOS / Thoracotomy1
3CompletedTreatmentFractures, Bone1
3CompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Intranasal Ketamine1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS3
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Traumatic Limb Injury1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
3CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation and Analgesia1
3Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAcute Traumatic Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingOtherAcute Traumatic Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shock, Septic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Suicidal Thoughts1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Suicide1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone / Joint dislocations1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStatus Asthmaticus1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Depression / Suicidal Thoughts1
3RecruitingTreatmentCancer: Breakthrough Pain / Cancer: Extreme Pain on Movement1
3RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Closed1
3RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Neurocostal neuralgia / Pain, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Burning1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Intractable1
3RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
3RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depressive Disorder1
3RecruitingTreatmentRefractory seizure disorders1
3SuspendedTreatmentAlcoholic Patient / Carcinological Surgery ORL1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Free Anaesthesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain, Acute / Trauma, Multiple1
3TerminatedTreatmentHeadaches1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignancies / Mucositis1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain NOS1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableInduction of Total Intravenous General Anesthesia1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareMalignancies1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Pain NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
3WithdrawnDiagnosticSuicidal Thoughts / Suicide1
3WithdrawnPreventionPhantom Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsies / Refractory seizure disorders1
3WithdrawnTreatmentMucositis1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Chronic / SC Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherCardiac Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnesthesia, Intratracheal / Hernia / Intravenous Anesthesia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionArterial hypoxia / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain NOS1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Scoliosis / Post-Operative Pain / Scoliosis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
4CompletedNot AvailableFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedBasic SciencePost-anesthesia Recovery1
4CompletedOtherDepression / Depression, Anxiety / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedOtherHeart Septal Defects, Atrial / Heart Valve Disease1
4CompletedPreventionAdenotonsillectomy1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Delivery / Ketamine / Perinatal Depression / Postpartum Depression1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Pain, Postoperative1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4CompletedPreventionHemodynamics Instability / Renal Function Disorder1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionIdiopathic Scoliosis / Spondylolisthesis1
4CompletedPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Premedication1
4CompletedPreventionPersistent Pain / Postoperative Hyperalgesia1
4CompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
4CompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia; Reaction1
4CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Control / Anaesthesia therapy / Complications / Intubations1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Phacoemulsification1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Conscious Sedation Failure During Procedure / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy / Sedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure2
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation / Delayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Unipolar Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentEfficacy and Safety of Mivacurium Chloride for Pediatric Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentElectroconvulsive Therapy / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentEmergency Psychiatric / Psychiatric Disorders / Psychomotor Agitation / Tranquilizers1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Controls1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentIntubation; Difficult1
4CompletedTreatmentKetamine Induced Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
4CompletedTreatmentModerate, Deep Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
4CompletedTreatmentOpiate Dependence1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS6
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Pain, Acute2
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Sickle Cell Crisis1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4CompletedTreatmentPediatric Rigid Bronchoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentPsychoses, Substance-Induced1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation for Mechanical Ventilation1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy2
4CompletedTreatmentShivering1
4CompletedTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts1
4CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionTourniquet Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBronchoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Depression / Ketamine1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Electroconvulsive Therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChild, Only / Postoperative pain / Sleep Disorder; Breathing-Related1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4RecruitingNot AvailableGeneral Surgery1
4RecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceConsciousness / Loss of Consciousness1
4RecruitingDiagnosticAnesthesia Intubation Complications1
4RecruitingOtherOtolaryngeal Cancer1
4RecruitingPreventionAmnestic / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium / Dementias / Inflammatory Reaction1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic, severe Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Lungcancer / Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
4RecruitingPreventionGallbladder Inflammation1
4RecruitingPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Delirium1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBariatrics / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Bypass, Gastric / Endoscopy / Sleep Apnea Syndromes1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers / Hemorrhage1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Impaired Renal Function / Pharmacokinetics / Renal Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardio Respiratory Arrest / Respiratory Arrest1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaries of Infancy / Dental Anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression2
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
4RecruitingTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Pediatric ALL / Procedural anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntensive Care / Pain Management / Pain, Intractable / Pressure Ulcers1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntubation Complications1
4RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaceration of Skin1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaminectomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
4RecruitingTreatmentNon Elective Cesarean Section and Ketamine Analgesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative Period1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures / Wounds and Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
4RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
4SuspendedBasic SciencePain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain, Acute / Posttraumatic Stress Disorders / Wound Care1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
4TerminatedTreatmentThoracic Surgery1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailablePost Operative Inflammatory Marker Levels1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHyperalgesia / Illness, Chronic / Pain NOS / Pain, Neuropathic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Abdomen / Back Pain, Acute / Extremity Pain, Acute / Flank Pain, Acute / Other Acute Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast / Pain NOS1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Symptoms / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Impaired Cognition1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaceration1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLacertaions1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSternotomy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Agitation1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Pain NOS1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Thoughts / Suicide1
4WithdrawnTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Pain NOS / Thermal Hyperalgesia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCognitive Disorders / Delirium / Depression / Seizures1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareIntra-operative Anesthesia2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareIntra-operative Anesthesia and Analgesia Effects1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableColonoscopy / Fentanyl / Ketamine1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntubating Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAbnormal Vascular Flow / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceFunctional Neuroimaging1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceThe Pk of IV Ketamine in Children With Heart Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchAlcohol Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchChronic Cough (CC)1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchHyperalgesia / Pain NOS / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Respiratory Failure / Reduction in Opiate Use1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAlveolar Hypoventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBlood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionChronic Post-thoracotomy Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionQt Interval, Variation in1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAbscesses / Fracture Bone1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAdult Patients Undergoing ERCP1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Fracture Bone / Joint dislocations1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnal Condyloma / Fissure in Ano / Hemorrhoids / Rectal Fistulas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComplication of Labor and/or Delivery / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy / Ketamine Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Thoughts1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide Ideation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOrientation / Post-anesthesia Recovery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Thoracotomy Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherConsciousness, Loss of / Electroencephalogram1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherDepression in Old Age / Ketamine1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Shoulder Dislocation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSuicide1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m2 / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableQuality of Recovery1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAmnesia / Anaesthesia therapy / Anesthetics / Pain NOS / Sedation, Conscious1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticNeurocostal neuralgia1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchOpioid Free Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchSedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain, Acute1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKetamine Adverse Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKetamine; Depression Symptom; Brain Tumor; Outcome / Ketamine; Depressive Symptom; Neurosurgery; Perioperative Period1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Severe Depression / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceChanges in Brain Network Connectivity1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherDepression1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHysterectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain NOS / Sickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProcedural Sedation / Procedural Sedation and Analgesia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSedation therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentThoracotomy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChildren Requiring Sedation for MRI/CT1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Necrosis of Femoral Head1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Thyroid1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareVirtual Reality Therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHyperalgesia / Post Operative Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMalignancies / Pain NOS / Tolerance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS / Psychomotor Agitation / Respiratory Insufficiency1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHypercarbia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain NOS / Traumas1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Hospira Inc.
  • JHP Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Monarch Pharmacy
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg
CreamTopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ketamine hcl powder7.22USD g
Ketamine hcl-ns 50 mg/5 ml syr2.82USD ml
Ketamine 100 mg/ml vial2.36USD ml
Ketalar 100 mg/ml vial1.95USD ml
Ketamine hcl-ns 100 mg/10 ml1.95USD ml
Ketamine HCl 50 mg/ml Solution1.77USD ml
Ketalar 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketamine 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketalar 50 mg/ml vial0.75USD ml
Ketamine 50 mg/ml vial0.61USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)92.5ºCMedical toxicology of drug abuse. (2012)
water solubilitySoluble'MSDS'
logP3.120Medical toxicology of drug abuse. (2012)
pKa7.5Ketamine monograph
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0464 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.69ALOGPS
logP3.35ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity65.55 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9826
Caco-2 permeable+0.6326
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5753
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5948
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6737
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6363
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7323
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7985
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6912
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5347
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8253
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5426
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7223
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8878
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9937
Rat acute toxicity2.3939 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8859
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6047
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0930000000-8216e02922628a5070cf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-7704dbbfa717abc4bab2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-aff2b684d97275321043
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-1707dec51cc3e89964c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0940000000-59871faec16835eb1b3a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-ca62e82b4a1dfb81b3b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-6c243d7b1c2e8cf69efa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-441a423105753e2c8b9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-24585e7c2431b3b9319e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-c9d734b085ec94dabd9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0940000000-054d77385726d4e35e20
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-8c263bb521fb6ebe6cac
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-702873d66ce0d419711d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-e23ba411aa96df9b5d6f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-5f14196db213c95f3e71
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-85385cf96aa2ac05921a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05br-0390000000-9177663a5915fac51aa7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0910000000-d00d242dae695dc5aff9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-95c2a8805f1587266fea
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-1900000000-9e61adc80771178de9d3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0190000000-686c139c454aea662d84

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Chlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / Aryl chlorides / Cyclic ketones / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Chlorobenzene / Aralkylamine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Ketone / Cyclic ketone / Secondary aliphatic amine / Secondary amine / Amine / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
secondary amino compound, monochlorobenzenes, cyclohexanones (CHEBI:6121)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17502428]
  2. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237]
  3. Sinner B, Graf BM: Ketamine. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(182):313-33. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15. [PubMed:18175098]
  4. Radovanovic D, Pjevic M: [Ketamine: the past 30 years and its future]. Med Pregl. 2003 Sep-Oct;56(9-10):439-45. [PubMed:14740534]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Tachykinin receptor activity
Specific Function
This is a receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance P. It is probably associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of aff...
Gene Name
TACR1
Uniprot ID
P25103
Uniprot Name
Substance-P receptor
Molecular Weight
46250.5 Da
References
  1. Okamoto T, Minami K, Uezono Y, Ogata J, Shiraishi M, Shigematsu A, Ueta Y: The inhibitory effects of ketamine and pentobarbital on substance p receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jul;97(1):104-10, table of contents. [PubMed:12818951]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
Partial agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H: Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide, salvinorin A, and modafinil. Synapse. 2009 Aug;63(8):698-704. doi: 10.1002/syn.20647. [PubMed:19391150]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
OPRD1
Uniprot ID
P41143
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Salt PJ, Barnes PK, Beswick FJ: Inhibition of neuronal and extraneuronal uptake of noradrenaline by ketamine in the isolated perfused rat heart. Br J Anaesth. 1979 Sep;51(9):835-8. [PubMed:508488]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
OPRK1
Uniprot ID
P41145
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
OPRM1
Uniprot ID
P35372
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...

Components:
References
  1. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...

Components:
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...

Components:
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Interaction of i.v. anaesthetic agents with 5-HT3 receptors. Br J Anaesth. 1996 Feb;76(2):271-3. [PubMed:8777109]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
Q693P7
Uniprot Name
Alpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit
Molecular Weight
2987.635 Da
References
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, NO displays many properties of a neurotransmitter. P...
Gene Name
NOS1
Uniprot ID
P29475
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, brain
Molecular Weight
160969.095 Da
References
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
Curator comments
One in vivo study in rats demonstrated the induction of CYP3A4 by ketamine. Several other studies indicate that ketamine is a CYP3A4 substrate.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Lin F, He Y, Zhang L, Zhang M, Zhang Y, Wen C: Assessment of the effect of ketamine on cytochrome P450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Mar 15;8(3):4335-41. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26064350]
  4. Mossner LD, Schmitz A, Theurillat R, Thormann W, Mevissen M: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in ketamine metabolism by use of liver microsomes and specific cytochrome P450 enzymes from horses, dogs, and humans. Am J Vet Res. 2011 Nov;72(11):1505-13. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.72.11.1505. [PubMed:22023129]
  5. Yanagihara Y, Kariya S, Ohtani M, Uchino K, Aoyama T, Yamamura Y, Iga T: Involvement of CYP2B6 in n-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Jun;29(6):887-90. [PubMed:11353758]
  6. Hijazi Y, Boulieu R: Contribution of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 isoforms to N-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):853-8. [PubMed:12065445]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  3. Lin F, He Y, Zhang L, Zhang M, Zhang Y, Wen C: Assessment of the effect of ketamine on cytochrome P450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Mar 15;8(3):4335-41. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26064350]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 12, 2018 07:28