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Accession Number
DB01221  (APRD00493)
Small Molecule
Approved, Vet approved

Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a potent anesthetic effect.6 It was developed in 1963 as a replacement for phencyclidine (PCP) by Calvin Stevens at Parke Davis Laboratories. It started being used for veterinary purposes in Belgium and in 1964 was proven that compared to PCP, it produced minor hallucinogenic effects and shorter psychotomimetic effects. It was FDA approved in 1970, and from there, it has been used as an anesthetic for children or patients undergoing minor surgeries but mainly for veterinary purposes.14

  • (+-)-Ketamine
  • (±)-ketamine
  • 2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone
  • 2-(methylamino)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)cyclohexanone
  • 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone
  • DL-ketamine
  • Ketamina
  • Ketamine
  • Kétamine
  • Ketaminum
  • NMDA
  • Special K
External IDs
100477-72-3 / NSC-70151
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ketamine hydrochlorideO18YUO0I831867-66-9VCMGMSHEPQENPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
KetalarInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
KetalarInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1970-02-192007-10-01Us
KetalarInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-10-17Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1970-02-192007-10-01Us
KetalarSolution10 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
KetalarInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1970-02-192007-10-01Us
KetalarInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2007-10-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection SdzSolutionIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012018-05-06Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.2018-02-28Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2012-10-11Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals1996-07-012013-03-31Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution10 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMylan Institutional LLC2013-06-04Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.2004-11-30Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousRemedy Repack2017-05-302017-05-30Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-06-162011-06-30Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp1996-07-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.2004-11-30Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
MKH Dose PackKetamine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Hydroxyzine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Midazolam (3 mg/1)TrocheSublingualImprimis Njof, Llc2019-03-04Not applicableUs
MKO MeltKetamine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Midazolam (3 mg/1) + Ondansetron hydrochloride dihydrate (2 mg/1)TrocheSublingualImprimis Njof, Llc2018-12-01Not applicableUs
MKO Melt Dose PackKetamine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Midazolam (3 mg/1) + Ondansetron hydrochloride (2 mg/1)TrocheSublingualImprimis Njof, Llc2019-03-04Not applicableUs
Topical Nerve PainKetamine (0.1 g/100mL) + Diazepam (0.1 g/100mL) + Diclofenac sodium (0.1 g/100mL) + Gabapentin (0.1 g/100mL)CreamTopicalDr Marc's Manufacturing And Sales2016-02-232018-04-18Us
International/Other Brands
Ketaject (Bristol-Myers Squibb) / Ketanest (Parke Davis)
CAS number
Average: 237.725
Monoisotopic: 237.092041846
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



Ketamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.15,Label

Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.7 These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.16,8

Associated Therapies

Ketamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression. The anesthetic state produced by Ketamine has been termed as "dissociative anesthesia" in that it appears to selectively interrupt association pathways of the brain before producing somesthetic sensory blockade. It may selectively depress the thalamoneocortical system before significantly obtunding the more ancient cerebral centers and pathways (reticular-activating and limbic systems).2

Ketamine enhances descending inhibiting serotoninergic pathways and can exert antidepressive effects. These effects are seen in concentrations ten times lower than the needed concentration for anesthetic proposes. The effect of ketamine can be described as analgesic by the prevention of central sensitization in dorsal horn neurons as well as by the inhibition on the synthesis of nitric oxide. Ketamine can present cardiovascular changes and bronchodilatation.9

Mechanism of action

Ketamine interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.5

AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
UNeurokinin 1 receptor
UDopamine D2 receptor
partial agonist
UDelta-type opioid receptor
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
UKappa-type opioid receptor
UMu-type opioid receptor
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
AAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit
ANitric oxide synthase, brain
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Ketamine absorption is very rapid and the bioavailability is around 93%. After the first pass metabolism, only 17% of the administered dose is absorbed.10 It distributes very rapidly and presents a distribution half-life of 1.95 min.12 The Cmax levels at peak reach 0.75 mcg/ml in plasma and 0.2 mcg/ml in cerebrospinal fluid.15

Volume of distribution

The apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and at steady-state are 371.3 ml/kg and 4060.3 ml/kg, respectively.13

Protein binding

The plasma protein binding of ketamine accounts for 53.5% of the administered dose.12


Ketamine presents a mainly hepatic metabolism and its major metabolite is norketamine. The biotransformation of ketamine corresponds to N-dealkylation, hydroxylation of the cyclohexone ring, conjugation to glucuronic acid and dehydration of the hydroxylated metabolites for the formation of cyclohexene derivatives.10

Route of elimination

Pharmacokinetic studies have resulted in the recovery of 85-95% of the administered dose in urine mainly in the form of metabolites. Some other routes of elimination of ketamine are bile and feces. When administered intravenously the resultant recovery is distributed by 91% of the administered dose in urine and 3% in feces.15

Half life

The reported half-life in preclinical studies for ketamine is 186 min.10


The clearance rate of ketamine is high and of around 95 L/h/70kg.11


Preclinical studies related to the blocking of NMDA receptors have shown an increase in apoptosis in the developing brain which results in cognitive deficits when used for longer than 3 hours. Toxicity studies regarding carcinogenesis have not been performed. Regarding mutagenesis and fertility, ketamine showed to be clastogenic and to not have effects on fertility.Label

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of Tachycardia can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be increased when combined with Ketamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action

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Food Interactions
Not Available


Synthesis Reference

John A. Flores, Kenton L. Crowley, "Process for the preparation of ketamine ointment." U.S. Patent US5817699, issued June, 1995.

General References
  1. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237]
  2. Bergman SA: Ketamine: review of its pharmacology and its use in pediatric anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 1999 Winter;46(1):10-20. [PubMed:10551055]
  3. Bonanno FG: Ketamine in war/tropical surgery (a final tribute to the racemic mixture). Injury. 2002 May;33(4):323-7. [PubMed:12091028]
  4. Lankenau SE, Sanders B, Bloom JJ, Hathazi D, Alarcon E, Tortu S, Clatts MC: First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Mar 16;87(2-3):183-93. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16979848]
  5. Reboso Morales JA, Gonzalez Miranda F: [Ketamine]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1999 Mar;46(3):111-22. [PubMed:10228376]
  6. Ivani G, Vercellino C, Tonetti F: Ketamine: a new look to an old drug. Minerva Anestesiol. 2003 May;69(5):468-71. [PubMed:12768186]
  7. Yang Y, Cui Y, Sang K, Dong Y, Ni Z, Ma S, Hu H: Ketamine blocks bursting in the lateral habenula to rapidly relieve depression. Nature. 2018 Feb 14;554(7692):317-322. doi: 10.1038/nature25509. [PubMed:29446381]
  8. Kirby T: Ketamine for depression: the highs and lows. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;2(9):783-4. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00392-2. [PubMed:26360893]
  9. Xu J, Lei H: Ketamine-an update on its clinical uses and abuses. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014 Dec;20(12):1015-20. doi: 10.1111/cns.12363. [PubMed:25417928]
  10. Clements JA, Nimmo WS, Grant IS: Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and analgesic activity of ketamine in humans. J Pharm Sci. 1982 May;71(5):539-42. [PubMed:7097501]
  11. Fanta S, Kinnunen M, Backman JT, Kalso E: Population pharmacokinetics of S-ketamine and norketamine in healthy volunteers after intravenous and oral dosing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Apr;71(4):441-7. doi: 10.1007/s00228-015-1826-y. Epub 2015 Mar 1. [PubMed:25724645]
  12. Kaka JS, Hayton WL: Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and two metabolites in the dog. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1980 Apr;8(2):193-202. [PubMed:7431222]
  13. Pypendop BH, Ilkiw JE: Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and its metabolite, norketamine, after intravenous administration of a bolus of ketamine to isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2005 Dec;66(12):2034-8. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.2034. [PubMed:16379643]
  14. Ketamine [Link]
  15. Ketamine monograph [Link]
  16. Time magazine [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
N01AX03 — Ketamine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00 — General Anesthetics
  • 28:04.92 — Miscellaneous General Anesthetics
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression1
0Active Not RecruitingPreventionAgitation, Emergence1
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHemorrhoids / Perianal Fistulas1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Malignancies1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
0CompletedBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
0CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Sedation, Conscious1
0CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
0CompletedTreatmentLumbar Spinal Instability / Lumbar Spine Degeneration / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
0Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
0Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentMigraine Headache With Intractable Migraine1
0Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticDirect Current Electroencephalogram / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Ketamine / Spreadind Depression1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost-Mastectomy Chronic Pain Syndrome / Postoperative pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Sedation, Conscious1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceCognitive Impairments1
0RecruitingOtherCoronary Artery Disease / Delirium1
0RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
0RecruitingTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts1
0TerminatedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure / Ketamine Adverse Reaction1
0TerminatedTreatmentKetamine / Malignancies / Tiredness1
0WithdrawnPreventionDepression / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCognitive Symptom / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePsychiatric Disorder NOS1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceChanges in Striatal [11C]ORM-13070 Binding1
1CompletedBasic ScienceConfusion and disorientation / Perceptual Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDepression1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceKetamine-Induced Brain Activity Changes / Psychotic-like Symptoms1
1CompletedBasic ScienceSchizophrenic Disorders2
1CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy1
1CompletedOtherDriving Performance1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedOtherHuman Abuse Potential1
1CompletedOtherMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Depression1
1CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentCortical Spreading Depolarization / Cortical Spreading Depression / Subarachoid Hemorrhage / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1CompletedTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Traumatic Limb Injury1
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentSubstance Abuse1
1Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Unipolar Depression1
1Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchDepression1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
1RecruitingBasic ScienceOpioid-use Disorder / Pain, Acute1
1RecruitingDiagnosticMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
1RecruitingOtherDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Episode / Unipolar Depression1
1RecruitingOtherProcedural Sedation1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pain Management / Amputation of Lower Extremity, All Causes / Analgesic, Nonopioid1
1RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Healthy Volunteers / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
1RecruitingTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
1TerminatedNot AvailableOpioid Tolerance / Sedation therapy1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedOtherDepression / Depressive Disorder, Recurrent / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Relapses1
1TerminatedTreatmentAcute Depression1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Substance Abuse1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableCognitive Dysfunctions1
1, 2CompletedOtherDepression / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depresssion / Moods Disorders1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPost Operative Pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Episode / Suicidal Thoughts1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Tiredness1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentOncological Children / Ontological Children1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRadical Mastectomy1
1, 2RecruitingBasic ScienceTobacco Use Disorders1
1, 2RecruitingSupportive CareMalignancies / Pain NOS1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts1
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionTonsillectomy1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentSepsis1
2Active Not RecruitingOtherDepression1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Alcohol Use Disorder1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2CompletedNot AvailableObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
2CompletedPreventionVentricular Septal Defects1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anxiety1
2CompletedSupportive CareHead and Neck Carcinoma / Mucositis1
2CompletedSupportive CarePain, Neuropathic1
2CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
2CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hysterectomy / Ketamine / Morphine1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Depression / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine Dependence Related Impairments in Motivation for Change, and in Cue-induced Arousal / Dependence, Cocaine1
2CompletedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Suicidal Thoughts / Suicide, Attempted1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) / Neurocostal neuralgia1
2CompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease)1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2CompletedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)2
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS4
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentProgressive Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation in ERCP1
2CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAdenoid Hypertrophy1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentKetamine / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery1
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSevere Depression1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHead Trauma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthesia Awareness1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression / Healthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2RecruitingOtherEffect of Anesthesia in Discharge Time From Postanesthesia Care Unit / Effect of Anesthesia in Discharge Time From the Hospital / Effect of Anesthesia in Extubation Time / Effect of Anesthesia in Postoperative Adverse Events / Effect of Anesthesia in Postoperative Pain1
2RecruitingPreventionBreastfeeding / Drug Effect / Obstetric Anesthesia Problems / Opioids Use / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Obstetric / Postpartum Depression1
2RecruitingPreventionSedation During Spinal Anesthesia1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdministration and Dosage of Ketamine / Endoscopic Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Ketamine1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Malignancies / Palliative Care1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorders / Major depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Refractory Cancer Pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Violent Aggressive Behavior1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
2RecruitingTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost Partum Depression1
2RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) / Posttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentRett's Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders / Vaso-Occlusive Crises1
2SuspendedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2TerminatedPreventionCholangitis / Pancreatitis1
2TerminatedSupportive CareAnxiety / Depression / Malignancies1
2TerminatedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
2TerminatedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
2WithdrawnBasic ScienceTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2WithdrawnSupportive CarePatients With "ASA 3" Designation / Patients With ASA 3 Designation1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
2WithdrawnTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts / Suicide1
2WithdrawnTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3CompletedPreventionObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Postoperative Complications / Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Lower Abdominal Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Pain, Widespread / Pain, Acute / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentClosed Multiple Fractures of Upper and Lower Limbs1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiseases of the Digestive System / Pain, Acute / Respiratory Tract Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFemale Genital Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Post Operative Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative Depression1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain7
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Pain, Acute1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionRefractory Epilepsy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Bronchospasm / Critical Illness1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Ketamine / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Major Depressive Episode / Psychiatric Disorders / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) / Unipolar Depression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Impulses / Suicidal Thoughts1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic / Rotator Cuff Tendinitis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentCritical Illness1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic2
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depressive Disorder1
3CompletedNot AvailableSedation therapy1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionHyperalgesia / Inflammatory Responses / Pain NOS1
3CompletedPreventionPost Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
3CompletedPreventionThroat Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Leukemias / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Neurologic toxicity / Pain NOS / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedSupportive CareNeurologic toxicity / Pain NOS / Peripheral neuropathy / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentAbscess Incision and Drainage / Electrical Cardioversion / Emergency Department Procedural Sedation / Fractures Reduction1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentFractures, Bone1
3CompletedTreatmentHallucinations / Hyperalgesia / Nausea / Pain Intensity / Vomiting / Wound Care1
3CompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Intranasal Ketamine1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentNeuropathic Pain Secondary to Radiation Therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS3
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Traumatic Limb Injury1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
3CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation and Analgesia1
3CompletedTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts1
3Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAcute Traumatic Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingOtherAcute Traumatic Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAbortion in First Trimester1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareICU Patients / Sedation therapy1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePain, Acute / Renal Colic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Shock, Septic1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone / Joint dislocations1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStatus Asthmaticus1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingPreventionReducing Psychological Side Effects of Ketamine1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Depression / Suicidal Thoughts1
3RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Sedation therapy / Ventilations, Mechanical1
3RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Suicidal Thoughts1
3RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Closed1
3RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Neurocostal neuralgia / Pain, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Burning1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Intractable1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic2
3RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentRefractory seizure disorders1
3SuspendedTreatmentAlcoholic Patient / Carcinological Surgery ORL1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Free Anaesthesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentCancer Related Pain (Breakthrough Pain) / Cancer: Extreme Pain on Movement1
3TerminatedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain, Acute / Trauma, Multiple1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignancies / Mucositis1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain NOS1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableInduction of Total Intravenous General Anesthesia1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareMalignancies1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Pain NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPrematurity of Fetus / Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)1
3WithdrawnDiagnosticSuicidal Thoughts / Suicide1
3WithdrawnPreventionPhantom Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentDepression / Suicide1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsies / Refractory seizure disorders1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Chronic / SC Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherCardiac Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnesthesia, Intratracheal / Hernia / Intravenous Anesthesia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Scoliosis / Post-Operative Pain / Scoliosis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
4CompletedNot AvailableFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedNot AvailableUpper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedBasic SciencePost-anesthesia Recovery1
4CompletedOtherBMI >30 kg/m2 / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedOtherDepression / Depression, Anxiety / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedOtherHeart Septal Defects, Atrial / Heart Valve Disease1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Agitation / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Delivery / Ketamine / Perinatal Depression / Postpartum Depression1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Pain, Postoperative1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4CompletedPreventionHemodynamics Instability / Renal Function Disorder1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionIdiopathic Scoliosis / Spondylolisthesis1
4CompletedPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Premedication1
4CompletedPreventionPersistent Pain / Postoperative Hyperalgesia1
4CompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Delirium1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain3
4CompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia; Reaction2
4CompletedSupportive CareArthroscopy1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntubating Conditions1
4CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Control / Anaesthesia therapy / Complications / Intubations1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Electroconvulsive Therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Phacoemulsification1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Conscious Sedation Failure During Procedure / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy / Sedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure2
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation / Delayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Unipolar Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentDepressive Symptoms1
4CompletedTreatmentEfficacy and Safety of Mivacurium Chloride for Pediatric Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentElectroconvulsive Therapy / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentEmergency Psychiatric / Psychiatric Disorders / Psychomotor Agitation / Tranquilizers1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Joint dislocations1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Controls1
4CompletedTreatmentHemorrhoids / Pain NOS1
4CompletedTreatmentIntubation; Difficult1
4CompletedTreatmentKetamine Induced Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentLaceration / Moderate Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
4CompletedTreatmentModerate, Deep Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentMouth and Tooth Diseases / Tooth, Impacted1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentNon Elective Cesarean Section and Ketamine Analgesia1
4CompletedTreatmentNose Deformities, Acquired1
4CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
4CompletedTreatmentOpiate Dependence1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS7
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Pain, Acute2
4CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Caudal epidural block therapy / Pain NOS / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Sickle Cell Crisis1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4CompletedTreatmentPediatric Rigid Bronchoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation2
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentPsychoses, Substance-Induced1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentRib Fractures / Wounds and Injuries1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation for Mechanical Ventilation1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy2
4CompletedTreatmentSuicidal Thoughts1
4CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentSurgery, Colorectal1
4Not Yet RecruitingNot AvailableInguinal Hernias1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherHematological Malignancy (Leukemia- Lymphoma)1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIntravenous Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionKetamine / Perinatal Depression / Postpartum Depression1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionTourniquet Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBronchoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Depression / Ketamine1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnemia; Sickle-Cell, With Crisis / Pain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChild, Only / Postoperative pain / Sleep Disorder; Breathing-Related1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOrthopaedic Related Pain (Musculoskeletal Pain)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4RecruitingNot AvailableGeneral Surgery1
4RecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceConsciousness / Loss of Consciousness1
4RecruitingDiagnosticAnesthesia Intubation Complications1
4RecruitingOtherOtolaryngeal Cancer1
4RecruitingPreventionAmnestic / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium / Dementias / Inflammatory Reaction1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic, severe Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Lungcancer / Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
4RecruitingPreventionGallbladder Inflammation1
4RecruitingPreventionPain NOS / Postpartum Depression1
4RecruitingPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBariatrics / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Bypass, Gastric / Endoscopy / Sleep Apnea Syndromes1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers / Hemorrhage1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Impaired Renal Function / Pharmacokinetics / Renal Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesic Drug Dependence1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtelectasis / Bronchospasm / Pneumonia, Aspiration / Pneumonitis / Respiratory Failure / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentBolus Versus Infusion Ketamine, Anesthesia Gas Consumption1
4RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardio Respiratory Arrest / Respiratory Arrest1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaries of Infancy / Dental Anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentChildren, Only / Deep Sedation / Fractures, Closed / Ketamine / Traumas1
4RecruitingTreatmentCritically-ill Patients / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Orthopedic Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntensive Care / Pain Management / Pain, Intractable / Pressure Ulcers1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntubation Complications1
4RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaceration of Skin1
4RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS2
4RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS / Postoperative Period1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute3
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
4RecruitingTreatmentSurfactant Deficiency Syndrome Neonatal1
4RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
4SuspendedBasic SciencePain NOS1
4SuspendedTreatmentAnxiety / Pediatric ALL / Procedural anxiety1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain, Acute / Posttraumatic Stress Disorders / Wound Care1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
4TerminatedTreatmentThoracic Surgery1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailablePost Operative Inflammatory Marker Levels1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHyperalgesia / Illness, Chronic / Pain NOS / Pain, Neuropathic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Abdomen / Back Pain, Acute / Extremity Pain, Acute / Flank Pain, Acute / Other Acute Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast / Pain NOS1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Symptoms / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Impaired Cognition1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaceration1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLacertaions1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSternotomy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Agitation1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)2
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Pain NOS1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnxiety / Pain NOS / Thermal Hyperalgesia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Thoughts / Suicide1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain NOS1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAmnesia / Anaesthesia therapy / Anesthetics / Pain NOS / Sedation, Conscious1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCognitive Disorders / Delirium / Depression / Seizures1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareIntra-operative Anesthesia2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareIntra-operative Anesthesia and Analgesia Effects1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraine / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnalgesia / Pain, Acute / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) / Trauma, Brain / Traumatic Amputations1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableColonoscopy / Fentanyl / Ketamine1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEmergence Delirium / Strabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntubating Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKetamine Adverse Reaction / Pain NOS / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Ketamine Infusion, Psychologic Sequelae1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableProcedural Sedation and Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAbnormal Vascular Flow / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceFunctional Neuroimaging1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceThe Pk of IV Ketamine in Children With Heart Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCongenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Sedated for Cardiac Catheterization1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchAlcohol Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchChronic Cough (CC)1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchHyperalgesia / Pain NOS / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchOpioid Free Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDepression in Old Age / Ketamine1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Respiratory Failure / Reduction in Opiate Use1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAlveolar Hypoventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBlood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionChronic Post-thoracotomy Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionQt Interval, Variation in1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAbscesses / Fracture Bone1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAdult Patients Undergoing ERCP1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChildren1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSialorrhea1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSpinal Anesthesia Suitability for Abdominoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Fracture Bone / Joint dislocations1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnal Condyloma / Fissure in Ano / Hemorrhoids / Rectal Fistulas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCataracts1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComplication of Labor and/or Delivery / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy / Ketamine Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Thoughts1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide Ideation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentForearm Fractures / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKetamine Adverse Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Severe Depression / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOrientation / Post-anesthesia Recovery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Thoracotomy Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Spontaneous Pneumothorax1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation and Analgesia During Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherConsciousness, Loss of / Electroencephalogram1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnalgesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareMajor Abdominal Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Shoulder Dislocation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Arrest1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSuicide1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAnxiety Disorders / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableOocyte Retrieval / Sedation, Conscious / Ventilatory Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableQuality of Recovery1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticNeurocostal neuralgia1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchSedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAirway Patency / Effects of Ketamine on Respiratory Stimulation and Transpulmonary Pressure / Respiratory Depression / Ventilations, Mechanical1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKetamine; Depression Symptom; Brain Tumor; Outcome / Ketamine; Depressive Symptom; Neurosurgery; Perioperative Period1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Crisis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceChanges in Brain Network Connectivity1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic SciencePain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherDepression1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain, Acute1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHysterectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain NOS / Sickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProcedural Sedation / Procedural Sedation and Analgesia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSedation therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentThoracotomy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChildren Requiring Sedation for MRI/CT1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Necrosis of Femoral Head1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Thyroid1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHyperalgesia / Post Operative Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentIntracranial Pressure Increase / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMalignancies / Pain NOS / Tolerance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS / Psychomotor Agitation / Respiratory Insufficiency1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableTotal Abdominal Hysterectomy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHypercarbia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareNasal Obstruction1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain NOS / Traumas1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentLaparoscopic Colorectal Resection Due to Cancer1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1


Not Available
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Hospira Inc.
  • JHP Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Monarch Pharmacy
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/1mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/1mL
PowderNot applicable1 g/1g
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ketamine hcl powder7.22USD g
Ketamine hcl-ns 50 mg/5 ml syr2.82USD ml
Ketamine 100 mg/ml vial2.36USD ml
Ketalar 100 mg/ml vial1.95USD ml
Ketamine hcl-ns 100 mg/10 ml1.95USD ml
Ketamine HCl 50 mg/ml Solution1.77USD ml
Ketalar 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketamine 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketalar 50 mg/ml vial0.75USD ml
Ketamine 50 mg/ml vial0.61USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Not Available


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)92.5ºCMedical toxicology of drug abuse. (2012)
water solubilitySoluble'MSDS'
logP3.120Medical toxicology of drug abuse. (2012)
pKa7.5Ketamine monograph
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0464 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity65.55 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9826
Caco-2 permeable+0.6326
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5753
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5948
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6737
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6363
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7323
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7985
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6912
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5347
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8253
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5426
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7223
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9937
Rat acute toxicity2.3939 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8859
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6047
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0930000000-8216e02922628a5070cf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-7704dbbfa717abc4bab2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-aff2b684d97275321043
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-1707dec51cc3e89964c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0940000000-59871faec16835eb1b3a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-ca62e82b4a1dfb81b3b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-6c243d7b1c2e8cf69efa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-441a423105753e2c8b9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-24585e7c2431b3b9319e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-c9d734b085ec94dabd9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0940000000-054d77385726d4e35e20
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-8c263bb521fb6ebe6cac
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-702873d66ce0d419711d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-e23ba411aa96df9b5d6f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-5f14196db213c95f3e71
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-85385cf96aa2ac05921a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05br-0390000000-9177663a5915fac51aa7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0910000000-d00d242dae695dc5aff9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-95c2a8805f1587266fea
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-1900000000-9e61adc80771178de9d3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0190000000-686c139c454aea662d84


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / Aryl chlorides / Cyclic ketones / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Chlorobenzene / Aralkylamine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Ketone / Cyclic ketone / Secondary aliphatic amine / Secondary amine / Amine / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
secondary amino compound, monochlorobenzenes, cyclohexanones (CHEBI:6121)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17502428]
  2. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237]
  3. Sinner B, Graf BM: Ketamine. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(182):313-33. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15. [PubMed:18175098]
  4. Radovanovic D, Pjevic M: [Ketamine: the past 30 years and its future]. Med Pregl. 2003 Sep-Oct;56(9-10):439-45. [PubMed:14740534]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Tachykinin receptor activity
Specific Function
This is a receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance P. It is probably associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of aff...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Substance-P receptor
Molecular Weight
46250.5 Da
  1. Okamoto T, Minami K, Uezono Y, Ogata J, Shiraishi M, Shigematsu A, Ueta Y: The inhibitory effects of ketamine and pentobarbital on substance p receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jul;97(1):104-10, table of contents. [PubMed:12818951]
Pharmacological action
Partial agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
  1. Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H: Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide, salvinorin A, and modafinil. Synapse. 2009 Aug;63(8):698-704. doi: 10.1002/syn.20647. [PubMed:19391150]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
  1. Salt PJ, Barnes PK, Beswick FJ: Inhibition of neuronal and extraneuronal uptake of noradrenaline by ketamine in the isolated perfused rat heart. Br J Anaesth. 1979 Sep;51(9):835-8. [PubMed:508488]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Protein group
Pharmacological action
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...

  1. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Protein group
Pharmacological action
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...

  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944]
Protein group
Pharmacological action
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...

  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
  1. Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Interaction of i.v. anaesthetic agents with 5-HT3 receptors. Br J Anaesth. 1996 Feb;76(2):271-3. [PubMed:8777109]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Alpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit
Molecular Weight
2987.635 Da
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, NO displays many properties of a neurotransmitter. P...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, brain
Molecular Weight
160969.095 Da
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]


Pharmacological action
Curator comments
One in vivo study in rats demonstrated the induction of CYP3A4 by ketamine. Several other studies indicate that ketamine is a CYP3A4 substrate.
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
  1. Lin F, He Y, Zhang L, Zhang M, Zhang Y, Wen C: Assessment of the effect of ketamine on cytochrome P450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Mar 15;8(3):4335-41. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26064350]
  2. Mossner LD, Schmitz A, Theurillat R, Thormann W, Mevissen M: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in ketamine metabolism by use of liver microsomes and specific cytochrome P450 enzymes from horses, dogs, and humans. Am J Vet Res. 2011 Nov;72(11):1505-13. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.72.11.1505. [PubMed:22023129]
  3. Yanagihara Y, Kariya S, Ohtani M, Uchino K, Aoyama T, Yamamura Y, Iga T: Involvement of CYP2B6 in n-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Jun;29(6):887-90. [PubMed:11353758]
  4. Hijazi Y, Boulieu R: Contribution of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 isoforms to N-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):853-8. [PubMed:12065445]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Lin F, He Y, Zhang L, Zhang M, Zhang Y, Wen C: Assessment of the effect of ketamine on cytochrome P450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Mar 15;8(3):4335-41. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26064350]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
  1. Hijazi Y, Boulieu R: Contribution of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 isoforms to N-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Jul;30(7):853-8. [PubMed:12065445]
  2. Yanagihara Y, Kariya S, Ohtani M, Uchino K, Aoyama T, Yamamura Y, Iga T: Involvement of CYP2B6 in n-demethylation of ketamine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Jun;29(6):887-90. [PubMed:11353758]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
  1. Desta Z, Moaddel R, Ogburn ET, Xu C, Ramamoorthy A, Venkata SL, Sanghvi M, Goldberg ME, Torjman MC, Wainer IW: Stereoselective and regiospecific hydroxylation of ketamine and norketamine. Xenobiotica. 2012 Nov;42(11):1076-87. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2012.685777. Epub 2012 May 21. [PubMed:22612619]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 18, 2019 21:36