Identification

Name
Ketamine
Accession Number
DB01221  (APRD00493)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a potent anesthetic effect.[6] It was developed in 1963 as a replacement for phencyclidine (PCP) by Calvin Stevens at Parke Davis Laboratories. It started being used for veterinary purposes in Belgium and in 1964 was proven that compared to PCP, it produced minor hallucinogenic effects and shorter psychotomimetic effects. It was FDA approved in 1970, and from there, it has been used as an anesthetic for children or patients undergoing minor surgeries but mainly for veterinary purposes.[14]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-Ketamine
  • (±)-ketamine
  • 2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone
  • 2-(methylamino)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)cyclohexanone
  • 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone
  • DL-ketamine
  • Ketamina
  • Kétamine
  • Ketaminum
  • NMDA
  • Special K
External IDs
100477-72-3 / NSC-70151
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ketamine hydrochlorideO18YUO0I831867-66-9VCMGMSHEPQENPE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
KetalarSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
KetalarInjection50 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection10 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2012-10-17Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection10 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarInjection100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2007-10-01Not applicableUs
KetalarSolution10 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousErfa Canada 2012 Inc1972-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection SdzSolution10 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection SdzSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2013-08-12Not applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection SdzSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection USPSolution50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated2003-02-04Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-03-12Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMylan Institutional2003-03-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousWest Ward Pharmaceutical1996-07-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate50 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2012-10-11Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection50 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012018-04-29Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.1996-06-27Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution50 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMylan Institutional2002-02-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection50 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousWest Ward Pharmaceutical1996-07-01Not applicableUs
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousRemedy Repack2015-06-182017-06-01Us
Ketamine HydrochlorideInjection10 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPar Pharmaceutical2012-06-012018-05-06Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Topical Nerve PainKetamine (.1 g/100mL) + Diazepam (.1 g/100mL) + Diclofenac sodium (.1 g/100mL) + Gabapentin (.1 g/100mL)CreamTopicalDr Marc's Manufacturing And Sales2016-02-232018-05-11Us
International/Other Brands
Ketaject (Bristol-Myers Squibb) / Ketanest (Parke Davis)
Categories
UNII
690G0D6V8H
CAS number
6740-88-1
Weight
Average: 237.725
Monoisotopic: 237.092041846
Chemical Formula
C13H16ClNO
InChI Key
YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexan-1-one
SMILES
CNC1(CCCCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

Ketamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.[15]

Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.[7] These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.[16, 8]

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Ketamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression. The anesthetic state produced by Ketamine has been termed as "dissociative anesthesia" in that it appears to selectively interrupt association pathways of the brain before producing somesthetic sensory blockade. It may selectively depress the thalamoneocortical system before significantly obtunding the more ancient cerebral centers and pathways (reticular-activating and limbic systems).[2]

Ketamine enhances descending inhibiting serotoninergic pathways and can exert antidepressive effects. These effects are seen in concentrations ten times lower than the needed concentration for anesthetic proposes. The effect of ketamine can be described as analgesic by the prevention of central sensitization in dorsal horn neurons as well as by the inhibition on the synthesis of nitric oxide. Ketamine can present cardiovascular changes and bronchodilatation.[9]

Mechanism of action

Ketamine interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.[5]

TargetActionsOrganism
AGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
antagonist
Human
USubstance-P receptor
antagonist
Human
UD(2) dopamine receptor
agonist
partial agonist
Human
UDelta-type opioid receptor
binder
Human
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
UKappa-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
UMu-type opioid receptor
binder
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor
binder
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2
antagonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1
antagonist
Human
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
potentiator
Human
AAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit
antagonist
Human
ACholinesterase
inhibitor
Human
ANitric oxide synthase, brain
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Ketamine absorption is very rapid and the bioavailability is around 93%. After the first pass metabolism, only 17% of the administered dose is absorbed.[10] It distributes very rapidly and presents a distribution half-life of 1.95 min.[12] The Cmax levels at peak reach 0.75 mcg/ml in plasma and 0.2 mcg/ml in cerebrospinal fluid.[15]

Volume of distribution

The apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and at steady-state are 371.3 ml/kg and 4060.3 ml/kg, respectively.[13]

Protein binding

The plasma protein binding of ketamine accounts for 53.5% of the administered dose.[12]

Metabolism

Ketamine presents a mainly hepatic metabolism and its major metabolite is norketamine. The biotransformation of ketamine corresponds to N-dealkylation, hydroxylation of the cyclohexone ring, conjugation to glucuronic acid and dehydration of the hydroxylated metabolites for the formation of cyclohexene derivatives.[10]

Route of elimination

Pharmacokinetic studies have resulted in the recovery of 85-95% of the administered dose in urine mainly in the form of metabolites. Some other routes of elimination of ketamine are bile and feces. When administered intravenously the resultant recovery is distributed by 91% of the administered dose in urine and 3% in feces.[15]

Half life

The reported half-life in preclinical studies for ketamine is 186 min.[10]

Clearance

The clearance rate of ketamine is high and of around 95 L/h/70kg.[11]

Toxicity

Preclinical studies related to the blocking of NMDA receptors have shown an increase in apoptosis in the developing brain which results in cognitive deficits when used for longer than 3 hours. Toxicity studies regarding carcinogenesis have not been performed. Regarding mutagenesis and fertility, ketamine showed to be clastogenic and to not have effects on fertility.[Label]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Adipiplon.Investigational
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmikacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Amikacin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
ApalutamideThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Apalutamide.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Asenapine.Approved
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Azaperone.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Benperidol.Approved, Investigational
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Benzphetamine.Approved, Illicit
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved, Investigational
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Bromazepam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Bromperidol.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Bupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Bupropion.Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Butamben.Approved, Withdrawn
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Canertinib.Investigational
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clemastine.Approved, Investigational
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClindamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clindamycin.Approved, Vet Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Ketamine.Approved
CobicistatThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CurcuminThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Curcumin.Approved, Investigational
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Ketamine.Approved
CyclopropaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Cyclopropane.Experimental
CyclosporineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Ketamine.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved, Investigational
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dantrolene.Approved, Investigational
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DarunavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Ketamine.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved, Investigational
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved, Investigational
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved, Investigational
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DotarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dotarizine.Investigational
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Doxepin.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with DPDPE.Experimental
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EperisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Eperisone.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
EthanolKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ethchlorvynol.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ethyl chloride.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Etifoxine.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Etomidate.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ezogabine.Approved, Investigational
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved, Investigational
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Flibanserin.Approved, Investigational
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved, Investigational
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Ketamine.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved, Investigational
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved, Investigational
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Ketamine.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydrocodoneKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved
IdelalisibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazole.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levocabastine.Approved, Investigational
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Ketamine.Approved
Lithium cationThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Lithium.Experimental
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofexidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketamine can be increased when used in combination with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Loratadine.Approved, Investigational
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Ketamine.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Lorpiprazole.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Ketamine.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Lurasidone.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium carbonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Magnesium carbonate.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium citrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Magnesium citrate.Approved
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Magnesium TrisilicateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Magnesium Trisilicate.Approved
ManidipineThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Maprotiline.Approved, Investigational
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Melperone.Approved, Investigational
MemantineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Memantine.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved, Investigational
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Ketamine.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Ketamine.Approved
MethotrimeprazineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved, Investigational
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methylecgonine.Experimental
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetyrosineKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MibefradilThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Mibefradil.Investigational, Withdrawn
MiconazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved, Investigational
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Milnacipran.Approved, Investigational
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Ketamine.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NeomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Neomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved, Investigational
NilotinibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NordazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Nordazepam.Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Norflurane.Approved, Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ondansetron.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Ketamine.Approved
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved, Investigational
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Paliperidone.Approved
ParaldehydeKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
ParomomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Paromomycin.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Perazine.Approved, Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Ketamine.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Ketamine.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Ketamine.Approved
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Pioglitazone.Approved, Investigational
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Pipamperone.Approved, Investigational
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved, Investigational
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Piritramide.Approved, Investigational
PitolisantThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
Polymyxin B SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Polymyxin B Sulfate.Approved, Vet Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketamine can be increased when used in combination with Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Prilocaine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Promethazine.Approved, Investigational
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with PSD502.Investigational
PseudoephedrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Pseudoephedrine.Approved
PyrantelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Pyrantel.Approved, Vet Approved
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Quinisocaine.Experimental
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Rabeprazole.Approved, Investigational
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Ketamine.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved, Investigational
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RizatriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Rizatriptan.Approved
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineKetamine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RucaparibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Ketamine.Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SarilumabThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketamine can be decreased when used in combination with Sarilumab.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Scopolamine.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Sepranolone.Investigational
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Sulpiride.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SumatriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Sumatriptan.Approved, Investigational
SuvorexantKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved, Investigational
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ketamine.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved, Investigational
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
TeriflunomideThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved, Investigational
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tetracycline.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved, Investigational
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tiagabine.Approved, Investigational
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tizanidine.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved, Investigational
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved, Investigational
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Trichloroethylene.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethadioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Trimethadione.Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VancomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Vancomycin.Approved
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Vecuronium.Approved
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Ketamine can be decreased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
VerapamilThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VincristineThe excretion of Vincristine can be decreased when combined with Ketamine.Approved, Investigational
VinpocetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Vinpocetine.Investigational
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved, Investigational
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Xenon.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Ketamine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolmitriptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zolmitriptan.Approved, Investigational
ZolpidemKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Ketamine.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zotepine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

John A. Flores, Kenton L. Crowley, "Process for the preparation of ketamine ointment." U.S. Patent US5817699, issued June, 1995.

US5817699
General References
  1. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237]
  2. Bergman SA: Ketamine: review of its pharmacology and its use in pediatric anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 1999 Winter;46(1):10-20. [PubMed:10551055]
  3. Bonanno FG: Ketamine in war/tropical surgery (a final tribute to the racemic mixture). Injury. 2002 May;33(4):323-7. [PubMed:12091028]
  4. Lankenau SE, Sanders B, Bloom JJ, Hathazi D, Alarcon E, Tortu S, Clatts MC: First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Mar 16;87(2-3):183-93. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [PubMed:16979848]
  5. Reboso Morales JA, Gonzalez Miranda F: [Ketamine]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1999 Mar;46(3):111-22. [PubMed:10228376]
  6. Ivani G, Vercellino C, Tonetti F: Ketamine: a new look to an old drug. Minerva Anestesiol. 2003 May;69(5):468-71. [PubMed:12768186]
  7. Yang Y, Cui Y, Sang K, Dong Y, Ni Z, Ma S, Hu H: Ketamine blocks bursting in the lateral habenula to rapidly relieve depression. Nature. 2018 Feb 14;554(7692):317-322. doi: 10.1038/nature25509. [PubMed:29446381]
  8. Kirby T: Ketamine for depression: the highs and lows. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Sep;2(9):783-4. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00392-2. [PubMed:26360893]
  9. Xu J, Lei H: Ketamine-an update on its clinical uses and abuses. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014 Dec;20(12):1015-20. doi: 10.1111/cns.12363. [PubMed:25417928]
  10. Clements JA, Nimmo WS, Grant IS: Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and analgesic activity of ketamine in humans. J Pharm Sci. 1982 May;71(5):539-42. [PubMed:7097501]
  11. Fanta S, Kinnunen M, Backman JT, Kalso E: Population pharmacokinetics of S-ketamine and norketamine in healthy volunteers after intravenous and oral dosing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Apr;71(4):441-7. doi: 10.1007/s00228-015-1826-y. Epub 2015 Mar 1. [PubMed:25724645]
  12. Kaka JS, Hayton WL: Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and two metabolites in the dog. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1980 Apr;8(2):193-202. [PubMed:7431222]
  13. Pypendop BH, Ilkiw JE: Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and its metabolite, norketamine, after intravenous administration of a bolus of ketamine to isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2005 Dec;66(12):2034-8. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.2034. [PubMed:16379643]
  14. Ketamine [Link]
  15. Ketamine monograph [Link]
  16. Time magazine [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015352
KEGG Drug
D08098
KEGG Compound
C07525
PubChem Compound
3821
PubChem Substance
46508295
ChemSpider
3689
BindingDB
50044140
ChEBI
6121
ChEMBL
CHEMBL742
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001148
PharmGKB
PA450144
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ketamine
ATC Codes
N01AX03 — Ketamine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00 — General Anesthetics
  • 28:04.92 — Miscellaneous General Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (228 KB)
MSDS
Download (67.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression1
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
0Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareHemorrhoids / Perianal Fistulas1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCancers / Depression / Head and Neck Carcinoma1
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSocial Anxiety Disorder (SAD)1
0CompletedPreventionDepression1
0CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Ideation1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost-Mastectomy Chronic Pain Syndrome / Postoperative pain1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Sedation, Conscious1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
0RecruitingTreatmentCancers / Ketamine / Tiredness1
0RecruitingTreatmentLumbar Spinal Instability / Lumbar Spine Degeneration / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
0WithdrawnPreventionDepression / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceCognitive Symptom / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePsychiatric Disorder NOS1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceChanges in Striatal [11C]ORM-13070 Binding1
1CompletedBasic ScienceConfusion and disorientation / Perceptual Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDepression1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceKetamine-Induced Brain Activity Changes / Psychotic-like Symptoms1
1CompletedBasic ScienceSchizophrenic Disorders2
1CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Depression1
1CompletedTreatmentCortical Spreading Depolarization / Cortical Spreading Depression / Subarachoid Hemorrhage / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
1CompletedTreatmentDepression1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentPain1
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
1CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
1Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Unipolar Depression1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingOtherDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Episode / Unipolar Depression1
1RecruitingOtherMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pain Management / Amputation of Lower Extremity, All Causes / Analgesic, Nonopioid1
1RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
1RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Healthy Volunteers / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant / Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic1
1RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentUnipolar Depression1
1TerminatedNot AvailableOpioid Tolerance / Sedation therapy1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedOtherDepression / Depressive Disorder, Recurrent / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Relapses1
1TerminatedTreatmentAcute Depression1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPain / Traumatic Limb Injury1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentPharmacokinetics1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceDrug Abuse / Healthy Volunteers1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Episode / Suicidal Ideation1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableCognitive Dysfunctions1
1, 2CompletedOtherDepression / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depresssion / Moods Disorders1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPost Operative Pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Tiredness1
1, 2RecruitingSupportive CareCancers / Pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Use Disorder (AUD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentSuicidal Ideas1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionTonsillectomy1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentSepsis1
2Active Not RecruitingOtherDepression1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2CompletedNot AvailableObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
2CompletedPreventionStrabismus1
2CompletedPreventionVentricular Septal Defects1
2CompletedSupportive CareDental Anxiety1
2CompletedSupportive CarePain, Neuropathic1
2CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hysterectomy / Ketamine / Morphine1
2CompletedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Depression / PTSD / Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / General Surgery1
2CompletedTreatmentCocaine Dependence Related Impairments in Motivation for Change, and in Cue-induced Arousal / Dependence, Cocaine1
2CompletedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression2
2CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide1
2CompletedTreatmentFusion of Spine (Disease)1
2CompletedTreatmentLaceration1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentMucositis1
2CompletedTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)2
2CompletedTreatmentPain3
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentProgressive Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis1
2CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
2Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSevere Depression1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancers / Depression / Palliative Care1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHead Trauma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Refractory Cancer Pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSuicidal Ideation / Suicide1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthesia Awareness1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceDepression / Healthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2RecruitingPreventionSedation During Spinal Anesthesia1
2RecruitingSupportive CareHead and Neck Carcinoma / Mucositis1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdministration and Dosage of Ketamine / Endoscopic Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Suicidal Ideas / Suicidal Ideation / Suicide, Attempted1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorders / Major depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Violent Aggressive Behavior1
2RecruitingTreatmentLaceration1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2RecruitingTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders / PTSD1
2RecruitingTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Alcohol Use Disorder1
2RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders / Vaso-Occlusive Crises1
2RecruitingTreatmentTraumas1
2TerminatedSupportive CareCancers / Depression / Feeling Anxious1
2TerminatedTreatmentAlcoholism / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
2TerminatedTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
2TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
2TerminatedTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2TerminatedTreatmentPruritus1
2TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
2WithdrawnSupportive CarePatients With "ASA 3" Designation / Patients With ASA 3 Designation1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
2WithdrawnTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Lower Abdominal Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiseases of the Digestive System / Pain, Acute / Respiratory Tract Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFemale Genital Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMajor depressive disorder, recurrent episode1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain / Post Operative Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Pain, Acute1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Postoperative Complications / Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionRefractory Epilepsy1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Bronchospasm / Critical Illness1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Ketamine / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Major Depressive Episode / Psychiatric Disorders / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) / Unipolar Depression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Ideation / Suicidal Impulses1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic / Rotator Cuff Tendinitis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain / Postoperative Depression1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPosttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentPTSD1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Ideation1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic2
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain / Traumatic Limb Injury1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionDelirium1
3CompletedPreventionHyperalgesia / Inflammatory Responses / Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Leukemias / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Neurotoxicity / Pain / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Post Thoracotomy Pain / Ketamine / Neurocostal neuralgia / Pain / Thoracotomy1
3CompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Intranasal Ketamine1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentPain3
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
3CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation and Analgesia1
3Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAcute Traumatic Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingOtherAcute Traumatic Pain1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Suicidal Ideation1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Suicide1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone / Joint dislocations1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic / SC Disease1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStatus Asthmaticus1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Abuse / Depression / Suicidal Ideation1
3RecruitingTreatmentCancer: Breakthrough Pain / Cancer: Extreme Pain on Movement1
3RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone1
3RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Closed1
3RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Neurocostal neuralgia / Pain, Chronic1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Burning1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Intractable1
3RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
3RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depressive Disorder1
3RecruitingTreatmentRefractory seizure disorders1
3SuspendedTreatmentAlcoholic Patient / Carcinological Surgery ORL1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Free Anaesthesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentCancers / Mucositis1
3TerminatedTreatmentCancers / Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain, Acute / Trauma, Multiple1
3TerminatedTreatmentHeadaches1
3Unknown StatusNot AvailableInduction of Total Intravenous General Anesthesia1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareCancers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
3WithdrawnDiagnosticSuicidal Ideation / Suicide1
3WithdrawnPreventionPhantom Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentEpilepsies / Refractory seizure disorders1
3WithdrawnTreatmentMucositis1
4Active Not RecruitingOtherCardiac Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnesthesia, Intratracheal / Hernia / Intravenous Anesthesia / Pain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionArterial hypoxia / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIdiopathic Scoliosis / Post-Operative Pain / Scoliosis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTrigeminal Neuralgia (TN)1
4CompletedNot AvailableFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedBasic SciencePost-anesthesia Recovery1
4CompletedOtherDepression / Depression, Anxiety / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedOtherHeart Septal Defects, Atrial / Heart Valve Disease1
4CompletedPreventionAdenotonsillectomy1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Delivery / Ketamine / Perinatal Depression / Postpartum Depression1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Pain, Postoperative1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionHemodynamics Instability / Renal Function Disorder1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionIdiopathic Scoliosis / Spondylolisthesis1
4CompletedPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Premedication1
4CompletedPreventionPersistent Pain / Postoperative Hyperalgesia1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
4CompletedPreventionProphylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia; Reaction1
4CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAirway Control / Anaesthesia therapy / Complications / Intubations1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesics / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Phacoemulsification1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Conscious Sedation Failure During Procedure / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentChild Behavior / Dental Decay1
4CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy / Sedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure2
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation / Delayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Unipolar Depression1
4CompletedTreatmentEfficacy and Safety of Mivacurium Chloride for Pediatric Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentElectroconvulsive Therapy / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentEmergency Psychiatric / Psychiatric Disorders / Psychomotor Agitation / Tranquilizers1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Controls1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentIntubation; Difficult1
4CompletedTreatmentKetamine Induced Agitation1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Ideation1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Episode1
4CompletedTreatmentModerate, Deep Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentOpiate Dependence1
4CompletedTreatmentPain5
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Sickle Cell Crisis1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Pain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPediatric Rigid Bronchoscopy1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentPsychoses, Substance-Induced1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation for Mechanical Ventilation1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentShivering1
4CompletedTreatmentSuicidal Ideation1
4CompletedTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionTourniquet Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBronchoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Electroconvulsive Therapy1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChild, Only / Postoperative pain / Sleep Disorder; Breathing-Related1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntensive Care / Pain Management / Pain, Intractable / Pressure Ulcers1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLaceration of Skin1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Posttraumatic Stress Disorders / Wound Care1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain / Pain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4RecruitingNot AvailableGeneral Surgery1
4RecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceConsciousness / Loss of Consciousness1
4RecruitingOtherOtolaryngeal Cancer1
4RecruitingPreventionAmnestic / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium / Dementias / Inflammatory Reaction1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic, severe Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Lungcancer / Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease1
4RecruitingPreventionGallbladder Inflammation1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Delirium1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain / Prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
4RecruitingSupportive CareBariatrics / BMI >30 kg/m2 / Bypass, Gastric / Endoscopy / Sleep Apnea Syndromes1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers / Hemorrhage1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardio-respiratory arrest / Respiratory Arrest1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaries of Infancy / Dental Anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepression2
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
4RecruitingTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Pediatric ALL / Procedural anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentIntubation Complications1
4RecruitingTreatmentKetamine / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaminectomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
4RecruitingTreatmentNon Elective Cesarean Section and Ketamine Analgesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain3
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Neuropathic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain / Postoperative Period1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fractures / Wounds and Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
4RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
4SuspendedBasic SciencePain1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
4TerminatedTreatmentThoracic Surgery1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailablePost Operative Inflammatory Marker Levels1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHyperalgesia / Illness, Chronic / Pain / Pain, Neuropathic1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Abdomen / Acute Low Back Pain / Extremity Pain, Acute / Flank Pain, Acute / Other Acute Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Breast / Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Surgery1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepressive Symptoms / Electroconvulsive Therapy / Impaired Cognition1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaceration1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLacertaions1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSternotomy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Agitation1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Ideation / Suicide1
4WithdrawnTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Pain / Thermal Hyperalgesia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Colorectal1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareIntra-operative Anesthesia2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareIntra-operative Anesthesia and Analgesia Effects1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcute Gouty Arthritis / Arthritis / Headaches / Migraines / Muscle Spasms / Radicular syndrome / Synovitis / Tendonitis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableColonoscopy / Fentanyl / Ketamine1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntubating Conditions1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAbnormal Vascular Flow / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceFunctional Neuroimaging1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceThe Pk of IV Ketamine in Children With Heart Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticAnaesthesia therapy / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchAlcoholism1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchChronic Cough (CC)1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchHyperalgesia / Pain / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Respiratory Failure / Reduction in Opiate Use1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAlveolar Hypoventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBlood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionChronic Post-thoracotomy Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProphylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionQt Interval, Variation in1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAbscesses / Fracture Bone1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAdult Patients Undergoing ERCP1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Fracture Bone / Joint dislocations1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnal Condyloma / Fissure in Ano / Hemorrhoids / Rectal Fistulas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Low Back Pain (CLBP)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComplication of Labor and/or Delivery / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy / Ketamine Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Ideation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide Ideation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)4
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOrientation / Post-anesthesia Recovery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Thoracotomy Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherDepression in Old Age / Ketamine1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrachial Plexus Block / Shoulder Dislocation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSuicide1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m2 / Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableStress Disorders, Post-Traumatic1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAmnesia / Anaesthesia therapy / Anesthetics / Pain / Sedation, Conscious1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCognitive Disorders / Delirium / Depression / Seizures1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticNeurocostal neuralgia1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchOpioid Free Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchSedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Cognitive Disorders / Delirium1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / General Surgery / Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain, Acute1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKetamine Adverse Reaction / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentKetamine; Depression Symptom; Brain Tumor; Outcome / Ketamine; Depressive Symptom; Neurosurgery; Perioperative Period1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Severe Depression / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPTSD1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceChanges in Brain Network Connectivity1
Not AvailableTerminatedOtherDepression1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionPain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHysterectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentNausea / Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain / Sickle Cell Disorders1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProcedural Sedation / Procedural Sedation and Analgesia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSedation therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentThoracotomy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChildren Requiring Sedation for MRI/CT1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Necrosis of Femoral Head1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic / Thyroid1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareVirtual Reality Therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentCancers / Pain / Tolerance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHyperalgesia / Post Operative Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain, Acute1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain / Psychomotor Agitation / Respiratory Insufficiency1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHypercarbia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain / Traumas1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentDepression1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Hospira Inc.
  • JHP Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Monarch Pharmacy
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg/mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous10 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg
CreamTopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ketamine hcl powder7.22USD g
Ketamine hcl-ns 50 mg/5 ml syr2.82USD ml
Ketamine 100 mg/ml vial2.36USD ml
Ketalar 100 mg/ml vial1.95USD ml
Ketamine hcl-ns 100 mg/10 ml1.95USD ml
Ketamine HCl 50 mg/ml Solution1.77USD ml
Ketalar 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketamine 10 mg/ml vial0.99USD ml
Ketalar 50 mg/ml vial0.75USD ml
Ketamine 50 mg/ml vial0.61USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)92.5ºCMedical toxicology of drug abuse. (2012)
water solubilitySoluble'MSDS'
logP3.120Medical toxicology of drug abuse. (2012)
pKa7.5Ketamine monograph
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0464 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.69ALOGPS
logP3.35ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity65.55 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9826
Caco-2 permeable+0.6326
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5753
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5948
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6737
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6363
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7323
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7985
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6912
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5347
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8253
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5426
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7223
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8878
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9937
Rat acute toxicity2.3939 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8859
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6047
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0930000000-8216e02922628a5070cf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-7704dbbfa717abc4bab2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-aff2b684d97275321043
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-1707dec51cc3e89964c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0940000000-59871faec16835eb1b3a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-ca62e82b4a1dfb81b3b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-6c243d7b1c2e8cf69efa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-441a423105753e2c8b9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-24585e7c2431b3b9319e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0290000000-c9d734b085ec94dabd9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0940000000-054d77385726d4e35e20
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-8c263bb521fb6ebe6cac
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-702873d66ce0d419711d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-e23ba411aa96df9b5d6f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0090000000-5f14196db213c95f3e71
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-85385cf96aa2ac05921a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05br-0390000000-9177663a5915fac51aa7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0910000000-d00d242dae695dc5aff9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-95c2a8805f1587266fea
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-1900000000-9e61adc80771178de9d3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0190000000-686c139c454aea662d84

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Chlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Aralkylamines / Aryl chlorides / Cyclic ketones / Dialkylamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Chlorobenzene / Aralkylamine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Ketone / Cyclic ketone / Secondary aliphatic amine / Secondary amine / Amine / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
secondary amino compound, monochlorobenzenes, cyclohexanones (CHEBI:6121)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May ...
Gene Name
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID
Q8TCU5
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A
Molecular Weight
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [PubMed:17502428]
  2. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [PubMed:2858237]
  3. Sinner B, Graf BM: Ketamine. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008;(182):313-33. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15. [PubMed:18175098]
  4. Radovanovic D, Pjevic M: [Ketamine: the past 30 years and its future]. Med Pregl. 2003 Sep-Oct;56(9-10):439-45. [PubMed:14740534]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Tachykinin receptor activity
Specific Function
This is a receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance P. It is probably associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of aff...
Gene Name
TACR1
Uniprot ID
P25103
Uniprot Name
Substance-P receptor
Molecular Weight
46250.5 Da
References
  1. Okamoto T, Minami K, Uezono Y, Ogata J, Shiraishi M, Shigematsu A, Ueta Y: The inhibitory effects of ketamine and pentobarbital on substance p receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jul;97(1):104-10, table of contents. [PubMed:12818951]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
Partial agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H: Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide, salvinorin A, and modafinil. Synapse. 2009 Aug;63(8):698-704. doi: 10.1002/syn.20647. [PubMed:19391150]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
OPRD1
Uniprot ID
P41143
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Salt PJ, Barnes PK, Beswick FJ: Inhibition of neuronal and extraneuronal uptake of noradrenaline by ketamine in the isolated perfused rat heart. Br J Anaesth. 1979 Sep;51(9):835-8. [PubMed:508488]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
OPRK1
Uniprot ID
P41145
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
OPRM1
Uniprot ID
P35372
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [PubMed:6246318]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...

Components:
References
  1. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [PubMed:8835358]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...

Components:
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...

Components:
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [PubMed:6460944]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Interaction of i.v. anaesthetic agents with 5-HT3 receptors. Br J Anaesth. 1996 Feb;76(2):271-3. [PubMed:8777109]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
Q693P7
Uniprot Name
Alpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunit
Molecular Weight
2987.635 Da
References
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Tetrahydrobiopterin binding
Specific Function
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, NO displays many properties of a neurotransmitter. P...
Gene Name
NOS1
Uniprot ID
P29475
Uniprot Name
Nitric oxide synthase, brain
Molecular Weight
160969.095 Da
References
  1. Kohrs R, Durieux ME: Ketamine: teaching an old drug new tricks. Anesth Analg. 1998 Nov;87(5):1186-93. [PubMed:9806706]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 14, 2018 04:32