Identification

Name
Thiopental
Accession Number
DB00599  (APRD00660)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration. It is also used for hypnosis and for the control of convulsive states. It has been used in neurosurgical patients to reduce increased intracranial pressure. It does not produce any excitation but has poor analgesic and muscle relaxant properties. Small doses have been shown to be anti-analgesic and lower the pain threshold. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p920)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-Thiopental
  • 2-Thio-5-ethyl-5-sec-pentylbarbituric acid
  • 5-Ethyl-5-(1-methyl-butyl)-2-thioxo-dihydro-pyrimidine-4,6-dione
  • Bitaryl
  • Omexolon
  • Penthiobarbital
  • Pentothiobarbital
  • Sodium Pentothal
  • Thiomebumalum
  • Thiopental
  • Thiopentobarbital
  • Thiopentobarbitone
  • Thiopentobarbituric acid
  • Thiopentone
  • Tiopentale
  • Trapanal
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Thiopental sodium49Y44QZL7071-73-8AWLILQARPMWUHA-UHFFFAOYSA-M
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Pentothal Inj 25mg/mlPowder, for solution25 mgIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
Pentothal Inj 500mg/syrPowder, for solution500 mgIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Pentothal Ready To Mix Syringe 250mgPowder, for solution250 mgIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Pentothal Sodium Inj 1gm SterilePowder, for solution1 gIntravenousHospira, Inc.1951-12-31Not applicableCanada
Pentothal Sodium Pws 5gmPowder, for solution5 gIntravenousHospira, Inc.1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Thiopental SodiumThiopental sodium (25 mg/1mL)Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2010-05-252011-01-21Us
Thiopental SodiumThiopental sodium (50 mg/1mL)Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2010-05-252011-01-21Us
International/Other Brands
Anestho (Incepta) / Bensulf (Fada ) / Bitol Sodium (Brookes) / Ekipental (Tüm Ekip) / Farmotal (Marvecs Pharma Services) / Intraval Sodium (Abbott) / Pental Sodyum (I.E. Ulagay) / Pentazol (Swiss Parenterals) / Penthal (Oboi) / Penthotal Sodium (Abbott) / Pentotan (Choong Wae) / Pentotex (Rotexmedica) / Pentothal (Hospira) / Ravonal (Ravonal) / Thiopen (ACI) / Tiopental (Richmond) / Trapanal (Nycomed)
Categories
UNII
JI8Z5M7NA3
CAS number
76-75-5
Weight
Average: 242.338
Monoisotopic: 242.10889852
Chemical Formula
C11H18N2O2S
InChI Key
IUJDSEJGGMCXSG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H18N2O2S/c1-4-6-7(3)11(5-2)8(14)12-10(16)13-9(11)15/h7H,4-6H2,1-3H3,(H2,12,13,14,15,16)
IUPAC Name
5-ethyl-5-(pentan-2-yl)-2-sulfanylidene-1,3-diazinane-4,6-dione
SMILES
CCCC(C)C1(CC)C(=O)NC(=S)NC1=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders.

Pharmacodynamics

Thiopental, a barbiturate, is used for the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli. Thiopental is an ultrashort-acting depressant of the central nervous system which induces hypnosis and anesthesia, but not analgesia. It produces hypnosis within 30 to 40 seconds of intravenous injection. Recovery after a small dose is rapid, with some somnolence and retrograde amnesia. Repeated intravenous doses lead to prolonged anesthesia because fatty tissues act as a reservoir; they accumulate Pentothal in concentrations 6 to 12 times greater than the plasma concentration, and then release the drug slowly to cause prolonged anesthesia

Mechanism of action

Thiopental binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABAA receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
antagonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor 2
antagonist
Human
UGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
antagonist
Human
UFatty-acid amide hydrolase 1
inhibitor
Human
UMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Approximately 80% of the drug in the blood is bound to plasma protein.

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic. Biotransformation products of thiopental are pharmacologically inactive and mostly excreted in the urine.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

3-8 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Overdosage may occur from too rapid or repeated injections. Too rapid injection may be followed by an alarming fall in blood pressure even to shock levels. Apnea, occasional laryngospasm, coughing and other respiratory difficulties with excessive or too rapid injections may occur. Lethal blood levels may be as low as 1 mg/100 mL for short-acting barbiturates; less if other depressant drugs or alcohol are also present.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Thiopental.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Thiopental.
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thiopental can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when it is combined with Thiopental.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Thiopental.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Thiopental.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Morgan DJ, Blackman GL, Paull JD, Wolf LJ: Pharmacokinetics and plasma binding of thiopental. II: Studies at cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1981 Jun;54(6):474-80. [PubMed:7235275]
  2. Perez-Barcena J, Barcelo B, Homar J, Abadal JM, Molina FJ, de la Pena A, Sahuquillo J, Ibanez J: [Comparison of the effectiveness of pentobarbital and thiopental in patients with refractory intracranial hypertension. Preliminary report of 20 patients]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2005 Feb;16(1):5-12; discussion 12-3. [PubMed:15756405]
  3. WINTERS WD, SPECTOR E, WALLACH DP, SHIDEMAN FE: Metabolism of thiopental-S35 and thiopental-2-C14 by a rat liver mince and identification of pentobarbital as a major metabolite. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1955 Jul;114(3):343-57. [PubMed:13243246]
  4. Bory C, Chantin C, Boulieu R, Cotte J, Berthier JC, Fraisse D, Bobenrieth MJ: [Use of thiopental in man. Determination of this drug and its metabolites in plasma and urine by liquid phase chromatography and mass spectrometry]. C R Acad Sci III. 1986;303(1):7-12. [PubMed:3093002]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014737
KEGG Compound
C07521
PubChem Compound
3000715
PubChem Substance
46504621
ChemSpider
2272258
BindingDB
50058058
ChEBI
102166
ChEMBL
CHEMBL441
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000661
PharmGKB
PA451664
IUPHAR
2579
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Thiopental
ATC Codes
N05CA19 — ThiopentalN01AF03 — ThiopentalN05CB01 — Combinations of barbiturates

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentAmnesia-Memory Loss / Memory Losses1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentComplications1
2CompletedPreventionStrabismus1
3RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
3TerminatedTreatmentTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
3TerminatedTreatmentRefractory seizure disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAgeing / Induction of Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Valvular Heart Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentSubfertility1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnxiety, Preoperative / Cesarean Section / Maternal Hypotension / Sedation therapy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchAlcohol Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdverse Effect of Other General Anesthetics1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnoxic Encephalopathy / Cardiac Arrest / Refractory seizure disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic SciencePhobic Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
Packagers
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionIntravenous25 mg
Powder, for solutionIntravenous500 mg
Powder, for solutionIntravenous250 mg
Powder, for solutionIntravenous1 g
Powder, for solutionIntravenous5 g
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous25 mg/1mL
Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous50 mg/1mL
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.85HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-3.36ADME Research, USCD
pKa7.55SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0398 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.05ALOGPS
logP2.78ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity65.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.5106
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9505
Caco-2 permeable-0.5463
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5623
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5373
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8381
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9031
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8052
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.858
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6688
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8297
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5588
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.914
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5927
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8813
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8482
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6907
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8992
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9917
Rat acute toxicity2.7671 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9827
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6314
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (9.6 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0596-9600000000-1b2c7562818b87a3dce1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-2256e1984e122af286e5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-c8a2b96397abdac51af0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-4090000000-3397f51adf5ac5e26757
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9010000000-2049e423160775847315
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e858eafc5134f3cf550e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-aed0d4351672086bb8bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-aed0d4351672086bb8bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-0da49458314b6213fc56
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-4090000000-5e98b0adc2fa68ac83f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-35496d92c575e3289c20
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-aed0d4351672086bb8bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e858eafc5134f3cf550e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e858eafc5134f3cf550e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-2f4595765496ded39eec

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as thiobarbituric acid derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a 2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione skeleton.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Diazines
Sub Class
Pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct Parent
Thiobarbituric acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Diazinanes / Thioureas / Carboxylic acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Thiobarbiturate / 1,3-diazinane / Thiourea / Azacycle / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
barbiturates (CHEBI:102166)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Whiting PJ: The GABAA receptor gene family: new opportunities for drug development. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2003 Sep;6(5):648-57. [PubMed:14579514]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  3. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  4. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
  5. Grasshoff C, Netzhammer N, Schweizer J, Antkowiak B, Hentschke H: Depression of spinal network activity by thiopental: shift from phasic to tonic GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Oct;55(5):793-802. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.06.026. Epub 2008 Jun 21. [PubMed:18619475]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [PubMed:10209232]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The cha...
Gene Name
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID
P36544
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7
Molecular Weight
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [PubMed:16248797]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA2
Uniprot ID
P42262
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 2
Molecular Weight
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIK2
Uniprot ID
Q13002
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2
Molecular Weight
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [PubMed:11264449]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [PubMed:10487207]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Fatty acid amide hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Degrades bioactive fatty acid amides like oleamide, the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide and myristic amide to their corresponding acids, thereby serving to terminate the signaling functions of t...
Gene Name
FAAH
Uniprot ID
O00519
Uniprot Name
Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1
Molecular Weight
63065.28 Da
References
  1. Patel S, Wohlfeil ER, Rademacher DJ, Carrier EJ, Perry LJ, Kundu A, Falck JR, Nithipatikom K, Campbell WB, Hillard CJ: The general anesthetic propofol increases brain N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content and inhibits fatty acid amide hydrolase. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;139(5):1005-13. [PubMed:12839875]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Hirota K, Hashimoto Y, Lambert DG: Interaction of intravenous anesthetics with recombinant human M1-M3 muscarinic receptors expressed in chinese hamster ovary cells. Anesth Analg. 2002 Dec;95(6):1607-10, table of contents. [PubMed:12456425]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Hoebel BG, Steyrer E, Graier WF: Origin and function of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in vascular endothelial cells: more than just endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor? Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998 Oct;25(10):826-30. [PubMed:9784924]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Lerman J. (2014). Neonatal Anesthesia. Springer.

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 20, 2018 16:07