Accession Number
DB00813  (APRD00347, DB05853, DB06055, DB06220, DB05564)
Small Molecule
Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet approved

Fentanyl, a potent opioid agonist, was developed in the 1950s to fill a need for strong and rapid analgesia.8 Because of these characteristics, fentanyl is commonly used to treat chronic cancer pain or in anesthesia.Label,15,16,17,18,19,20,21 Fentanyl is related to other opioids like morphine and oxycodone.

Fentanyl's high potency has also made it a common adulterant in illicit drugs, especially heroin.8 In 2017, 47600 overdose deaths in the United States involved some opioid (over 2/3 of all overdose deaths).22 Opioid overdoses kill an average of 11 Canadians daily.23

Fentanyl was FDA approved in 1968.Label,15,16,17,18,19,20,21

  • 1-Phenethyl-4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidine
  • 1-phenethyl-4-N-propionylanilinopiperidine
  • Fentanil
  • Fentanila
  • Fentanilo
  • Fentanyl
  • Fentanyl CII
  • Fentanylum
  • N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropionamide
  • N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl)propionanilide
  • N-(1-Phenethyl-piperidin-4-yl)-N-phenyl-propionamide
  • N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpropionamide
  • N-phenethyl-4-(N-propionylanilino)piperidine
  • N-phenyl-N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propanamide
  • Phentanyl
External IDs
AD 923 / AD-923 / IDS-NF-001 / McN-JR 4263-49 / R 4263 / R 5240
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Fentanyl hydrochloride59H156XY461443-54-5LHCBOXPPRUIAQT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AbstralTablet800 mcgSublingualPaladin Labs Inc2011-06-032018-06-29Canada
AbstralTablet600 mcgSublingualPaladin Labs Inc2011-06-142018-06-29Canada
AbstralTablet100 ug/1SublingualProstrakan Pharmaceuticals2011-01-07Not applicableUs
AbstralTablet400 mcgSublingualPaladin Labs Inc2011-04-182018-06-29Canada
AbstralTablet800 ug/1SublingualGalena Biopharma, Inc.2013-08-08Not applicableUs
AbstralTablet300 mcgSublingualPaladin Labs Inc2011-04-182018-06-29Canada
AbstralTablet600 ug/1SublingualGalena Biopharma, Inc.2013-08-08Not applicableUs
AbstralTablet400 ug/1SublingualGalena Biopharma, Inc.2013-08-08Not applicableUs
AbstralTablet200 mcgSublingualPaladin Labs Inc2011-04-182018-06-29Canada
AbstralTablet100 mcgSublingualPaladin Labs Inc2011-04-182018-06-29Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-fentanyl MatrixPatchTransdermalApotex Corporation2009-05-132018-07-12Canada
Apo-fentanyl MatrixPatchTransdermalApotex Corporation2009-05-132018-07-12Canada
Apo-fentanyl MatrixPatchTransdermalApotex Corporation2009-05-132018-07-12Canada
Apo-fentanyl MatrixPatchTransdermalApotex Corporation2009-05-132018-02-20Canada
Apo-fentanyl MatrixPatchTransdermalApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
FentanylPatch, extended release12 ug/1hTransdermalApotex Corp.2016-01-22Not applicableUs
FentanylPatch, extended release25 ug/1hTransdermalbryant ranch prepack2013-04-042018-10-11Us
FentanylPatch, extended release75 ug/1hTransdermalApotex Corp.2018-01-10Not applicableUs
FentanylPatch5.10 mg/1[USP'U]TransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-07-14Not applicableUs
FentanylPatch, extended release100 ug/1hTransdermalbryant ranch prepack2013-04-04Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Innovar InjFentanyl citrate (.05 mg) + Droperidol (2.5 mg)LiquidIntramuscular; IntravenousJanssen Pharmaceutica, Division Of Janssen Ortho Inc.1982-12-311996-09-10Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Fentanyl CitrateFentanyl citrate (20 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2014-08-13Not applicableUs
Fentanyl CitrateFentanyl citrate (5 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2013-11-22Not applicableUs
Fentanyl CitrateFentanyl citrate (50 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2011-10-20Not applicableUs
Fentanyl CitrateFentanyl citrate (10 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionEpidural; IntravenousCantrell Drug Company2013-04-232017-12-06Us
Fentanyl CitrateFentanyl citrate (25 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2014-08-212017-12-06Us
Fentanyl CitrateFentanyl citrate (50 ug/1mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousCantrell Drug Company2013-10-112017-12-06Us
Fentanyl Citrate, Bupivacaine HClFentanyl citrate (2 ug/1mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (1 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2013-09-092017-12-06Us
Fentanyl Citrate, Bupivacaine HClFentanyl citrate (1 ug/1mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (1.25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Fentanyl Citrate, Bupivacaine HClFentanyl citrate (2 ug/1mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (1.25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2013-03-25Not applicableUs
Fentanyl Citrate, Bupivacaine HClFentanyl citrate (3 ug/1mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (1.25 mg/1mL)Injection, solutionEpiduralCantrell Drug Company2013-12-18Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Durogesic (Janssen) / Fentanest (Pfizer) / Nasalfent (Archimedes) / Rapinyl (Gedeon Richter)
CAS number
Average: 336.4705
Monoisotopic: 336.220163528
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



Fentanyl intravenous or intramuscular injections are indicated for short term analgesia during induction, maintenance, and recovery from general or regional anesthesia.Label These injections are also used with a neuroleptic for premedication, induction, and as an adjunct to maintenance of anesthesia.Label Finally, fentanyl intravenous or intramuscular injections are used with oxygen for anesthesia in high risk patients.Label

Fentanyl sublingual tablets, transmucosal lozenges, buccal tablets, sublingual sprays, transdermal systems, and nasal sprays are indicated for the management of breakthrough pain in opioid tolerant cancer patients who require around the clock pain management.15,16,17,18,19,20

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Fentanyl produces strong analgesia through its activation of opioid receptors.Label,6 It has a duration of action of several hours and a wider therapeutic index as patients develop tolerance to opioids.Label Fentanyl is associated with a risk of addiction and abuse and should not be mixed with alcohol or benzodiazepines.Label,15,16,17,18,19,20,21

Mechanism of action

Fentanyl binds to opioid receptors, especially the mu opioid receptor, which are coupled to G-proteins.6 Activation of opioid receptors causes GTP to be exchanged for GDP on the G-proteins which in turn down regulates adenylate cyclase, reducing concentrations of cAMP.6 Reduced cAMP decreases cAMP dependant influx of calcium ions into the cell.6 The exchange of GTP for GDP results in hyperpolarization of the cell and inhibition of nerve activity.6

AMu-type opioid receptor
ADelta-type opioid receptor
UKappa-type opioid receptor
UP-glycoprotein 1Not AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Fentanyl sublingual tablets are 54% bioavailable15, transmucosal lozenges are 50% bioavailable16, buccal tablets are 65% bioavailable17, sublingual spray is 76% bioavailable18, and nasal spray is 20% more bioavailable than transmucosal20 (or approximately 64% bioavailable).

Fentanyl transmucosal lozenges reach a Cmax of 0.4±0.1ng/mL for a 200µg dose and 2.5±0.6ng/mL for a 1600µg dose with a Tmax of 20-40 minutes.11 The AUC was 172±96ng*min/mL for a 200µg dose and 1508±1360ng*min/mL for a 1600µg dose.11

Fentanyl sublingual spray reached a Cmax of 0.20±0.06ng/mL for a 100µg dose and 1.61±0.60ng/mL for an 800µg dose with a Tmax of 0.69-1.25 hours, decreasing as the dose increased.12 The AUC was 1.25±0.67ng*h/mL for a 100µg dose and 10.38±3.70ng*h/mL for a 800µg dose.12

Fentanyl transdermal systems reached a Cmax of 0.24±0.20ng/mL with a Tmax of 3.6±1.3h for a 25µg/h dose.13 The AUC was 0.42±0.35ng/mL*h.13

Fentanyl nasal spray reaches a Cmax of 815±301pg/mL with a Tmax of less than 1 hour for a 200µg/100µL dose.14 The AUC was 3772pg*h/mL.14

Volume of distribution

The intravenous volume of distribution is 4L/kg (3-8L/kg)Label,19. The oral volume of distribution is 25.4L/kg.17 In hepatically impaired patients, the intravenous volume of distribution ranges from 0.8-8L/kg.19

Fentanyl crosses the blood brain barrier9 and the placenta.10

Protein binding

Fentanyl is 80-85% bound to plasma proteins.15,16,17,18,20 In one study, a 0.1µg/L solution of fentanyl was 77.9±1.1% bound to human serum albumin and 12.0±5.4% bound to α-1 acid glycoprotein.7 A 0.1µg/L solution of norfentanyl, the primary metabolite of fentanyl, was 7.62±1.2% bound to human serum albumin and 7.24±1.9% bound to α-1 acid glycoprotein.7


Fentanyl is metabolized to a number of inactive metabolites.5 Fentanyl is 99% N-dealkylated to norfentanyl by cytochrome P450.5 It can also be amide hydrolyzed to despropionylfentanyl, or alkyl hydroxylated to hydroxyfentanyl which is N-dealkylated to hydroxynorfentanyl.5

Route of elimination

Within 72 hours, 75% of a dose of fentanyl is excreted in the urine with <7% unchanged, and 9% is excreted in the feces with <1% unchanged.Label,15,19

Half life

The half life of fentanyl is 7 hours.16 The half life of fentanyl sublingual spray is 5-12 hours.18


Total plasma clearance of fentanyl is 0.5L/hr/kg (0.3-0.7L/hr/kg)16 or 42L/hr.17,20 Following an intravenous dose, surgical patients displayed a clearance of 27-75L/h, hepatically impaired patients displayed a clearance of 3-80L/h, and renally impaired patients displayed a clearance of 30-78L/h.19


Fentanyl has an intravenous LD50 of 2.91mg/kg in rats1, an oral LD50 of 18mg/kg in rats and 368mg/kg in mice.MSDS The LD50 in humans is not known.

Symptoms of overdose include respiratory depression, somnolence, stupor, coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, pupillary constriction, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death.Label,15,16,17,18,19,20 In case of overdose, patients should receive naloxone or nalmefene to reverse the action of the opioids as well as supportive measures to maintain the airway or advanced life support in the case of cardiac arrest.Label,15,16,17,18,19,20

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Fentanyl Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 3A4CYP3A4*20Not Available1461_1462insAADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased adverse drug effects, risk of potentially fatal respiratory depression.Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4CYP3A4*26Not Available802C>TADR InferredPoor drug metabolizer, increased adverse drug effects, risk of potentially fatal respiratory depression.Details


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Fentanyl.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Fentanyl.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Fentanyl.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Fentanyl can be decreased when used in combination with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
6-Deoxyerythronolide BThe metabolism of Fentanyl can be decreased when combined with 6-Deoxyerythronolide B.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.


Synthesis Reference

Mark Rubino, "Process of making fentanyl intermediates." U.S. Patent US20060100438, issued May 11, 2006.

General References
  1. Van Bever WF, Niemegeers CJ, Janssen PA: Synthetic analgesics. Synthesis and pharmacology of the diastereoisomers of N-(3-methyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide and N-(3-methyl-1-(1-methyl-2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidyl)-N-phenylpropanamide. J Med Chem. 1974 Oct;17(10):1047-51. [PubMed:4420811]
  2. Taylor DR: Fentanyl buccal tablet: rapid relief from breakthrough pain. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;8(17):3043-51. [PubMed:18001263]
  3. Simpson DM, Messina J, Xie F, Hale M: Fentanyl buccal tablet for the relief of breakthrough pain in opioid-tolerant adult patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2007 Apr;29(4):588-601. [PubMed:17617282]
  4. Roy SD, Flynn GL: Solubility behavior of narcotic analgesics in aqueous media: solubilities and dissociation constants of morphine, fentanyl, and sufentanil. Pharm Res. 1989 Feb;6(2):147-51. [PubMed:2569731]
  5. DePriest AZ, Puet BL, Holt AC, Roberts A, Cone EJ: Metabolism and Disposition of Prescription Opioids: A Review. Forensic Sci Rev. 2015 Jul;27(2):115-45. [PubMed:26227254]
  6. Al-Hasani R, Bruchas MR: Molecular mechanisms of opioid receptor-dependent signaling and behavior. Anesthesiology. 2011 Dec;115(6):1363-81. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318238bba6. [PubMed:22020140]
  7. Bista SR, Haywood A, Hardy J, Lobb M, Tapuni A, Norris R: Protein binding of fentanyl and its metabolite nor-fentanyl in human plasma, albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. Xenobiotica. 2015 Mar;45(3):207-12. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2014.971093. Epub 2014 Oct 14. [PubMed:25314012]
  8. Raffa RB, Pergolizzi JV Jr, LeQuang JA, Taylor R Jr, Colucci S, Annabi MH: The fentanyl family: A distinguished medical history tainted by abuse. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2018 Feb;43(1):154-158. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12640. Epub 2017 Oct 4. [PubMed:28980330]
  9. Schaefer CP, Tome ME, Davis TP: The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse. Fluids Barriers CNS. 2017 Nov 29;14(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12987-017-0080-3. [PubMed:29183383]
  10. Cooper J, Jauniaux E, Gulbis B, Quick D, Bromley L: Placental transfer of fentanyl in early human pregnancy and its detection in fetal brain. Br J Anaesth. 1999 Jun;82(6):929-31. doi: 10.1093/bja/82.6.929. [PubMed:10562792]
  11. Streisand JB, Busch MA, Egan TD, Smith BG, Gay M, Pace NL: Dose proportionality and pharmacokinetics of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate. Anesthesiology. 1998 Feb;88(2):305-9. [PubMed:9477048]
  12. Parikh N, Goskonda V, Chavan A, Dillaha L: Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of fentanyl sublingual spray: a single-dose 5-way crossover study. Clin Drug Investig. 2013 Jun;33(6):391-400. doi: 10.1007/s40261-013-0079-8. [PubMed:23605506]
  13. Ashburn MA, Ogden LL, Zhang J, Love G, Basta SV: The pharmacokinetics of transdermal fentanyl delivered with and without controlled heat. J Pain. 2003 Aug;4(6):291-7. [PubMed:14622685]
  14. Nave R, Schmitt H, Popper L: Faster absorption and higher systemic bioavailability of intranasal fentanyl spray compared to oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate in healthy subjects. Drug Deliv. 2013 Jun-Jul;20(5):216-23. doi: 10.3109/10717544.2012.762435. Epub 2013 May 8. [PubMed:23650968]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Abstral Sublingual Tablet [Link]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: Actiq Transmucosal Lozenge [Link]
  17. FDA Approved Drug Products: Fentora Buccal Tablet [Link]
  18. FDA Approved Drug Products: Subsys Sublingual Spray [Link]
  19. FDA Approved Drug Products: Duragesic Transdermal System [Link]
  20. FDA Approved Drug Products: Lazanda Metered Nasal Spray [Link]
  21. FDA Approved Drug Products: Sublimaze Preservative Free Intramuscular and Intravenous Injection [Link]
  22. CDC Drug Overdose Deaths 2017 [Link]
  23. Government of Canada: Canada's opioid crisis [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
PDBe Ligand
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
N01AH01 — FentanylN02AB03 — FentanylN01AH51 — Fentanyl, combinations
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.08 — Opiate Agonists
PDB Entries
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0CompletedBasic ScienceHeart Failure1
0CompletedTreatmentEmergence Agitation / Pain1
0CompletedTreatmentLumbar Spinal Instability / Lumbar Spine Degeneration / Spinal Stenosis of Lumbar Region1
0SuspendedTreatmentOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome) / Tonsillitis1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Oral Mucositis1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacology1
1CompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionCesarean Section Complications1
1CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers / Opioids Use1
1CompletedSupportive CareOther Acute Pain / Pain Experienced During Cystoscopy1
1CompletedTreatmentBiological Availability1
1CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers5
1CompletedTreatmentOpiate Addiction1
1CompletedTreatmentPain, Labor1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingOtherPain, Labor1
1Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareNear Infrared Spectroscopy / Respiratory Distress Syndrome / Surfactant Deficiency Syndrome Neonatal1
1RecruitingTreatmentCritically-ill Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Mechanical Ventilation Complication1
1RecruitingTreatmentEpidural / Induction of Labor Affected Fetus / Newborn / Obstetric Anesthesia Problems / Opioids / Pain, Labor / Pain, Obstetric1
1TerminatedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceImmunologic Activity Alteration / Immunologic Activity Alteration [PE] / Pro-inflammatory Activity1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea of Adult1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPost Operative Pain2
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareAdvanced Cancers / Dyspnea1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain, Chronic1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Fracture, Sprain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRadical Mastectomy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTransversus Abdominis Block1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Cancer of the Breast / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
2CompletedPreventionAdverse Anesthesia Outcome1
2CompletedPreventionPainful Irreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedSupportive CareAdvanced Cancers1
2CompletedSupportive CareAdvanced Solid Cancers1
2CompletedSupportive CareChildren1
2CompletedSupportive CareErector Spinae Plane Block / Scoliosis Idiopathic / Scoliosis; Adolescence1
2CompletedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Malignant1
2CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentAtrioventricular Septal Defects / Atrioventricular Septal Defects (AVSD) / Tetralogy Of Fallot / Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) / Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)1
2CompletedTreatmentBloodpressure / Heart Rate1
2CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Malignancies1
2CompletedTreatmentCongestive Heart Failure / Dyspnea1
2CompletedTreatmentHeroin Dependence / Opioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentIntubated and Mechanically Ventilated Pediatric Subjects1
2CompletedTreatmentIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Neoplasms, Lung / Postoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain2
2CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain / Severe Burns / Sickle Cell Anemia1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Intractable1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Post Operative Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
2CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesics, Opioid / Respiratory Insufficiency / Ventilator Weaning1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
2RecruitingOtherEffect of Anesthesia in Discharge Time From Postanesthesia Care Unit / Effect of Anesthesia in Discharge Time From the Hospital / Effect of Anesthesia in Extubation Time / Effect of Anesthesia in Postoperative Adverse Events / Effect of Anesthesia in Postoperative Pain1
2RecruitingSupportive CareMonitored anesthesia care sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdministration and Dosage of Ketamine / Endoscopic Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentFractures, Bone1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntrathecal Dexmedetomidine / Pediatric Cancer Surgery1
2TerminatedSupportive CareBone Metastases1
2TerminatedSupportive CareReferred Pain1
2TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2Unknown StatusPreventionHypotension / Pregnancy1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareIntracranial Hemorrhages / Ischemia, Brain / Stroke / Vasospasm, Intracranial1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentBreakthrough Pain1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHb-SS Disease With Vasoocclusive Pain / Hemoglobin SS Disease With Crisis / Hemoglobin SS Disease With Vasoocclusive Crisis / Other Sickle Cell Disease With Vaso-Occlusive Pain / Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Cancers1
2, 3CompletedOtherLow Dose of Pethidine for Subarachnoid Anesthesia1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHypospadias1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Otitis Media1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation During Procedure / Endobronchial Ultrasound1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIntracranial Surgery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain Due to Certain Specified Procedures1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSedation1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pancreatitis (AP)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAsthma / Bronchospasm / Illness, Critical1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHypotension1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentObstetrical analgesia therapy / Obstetrical Anesthesia / Postpartum Depression1
2, 3TerminatedSupportive CareDecrease Labor Pain1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentHeadaches Associated With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)1
2, 3Unknown StatusSupportive CareStillborn Caesarean Section2
3Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Head and Neck Neoplasm / Mucositis / Radiation-Induced Disorder1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBreakthrough Pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInterstitial Lung Diseases (ILD)1
3CompletedNot AvailablePain1
3CompletedDiagnosticBreast Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
3CompletedPreventionPost-operative Pain for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancers, Pain2
3CompletedSupportive CareMalignancies / Pain1
3CompletedSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3CompletedSupportive CareMucositis / Pain / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain1
3CompletedSupportive CarePain, Cancer2
3CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Craniotomy / Neurosurgery1
3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Neonatal Infections / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAnesthetic, Sedative and Analgesic Complications in Labor or Delivery / Anesthetic, Sedative or Analgesic Complications in Labor or Delivery1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Diabetic Neuropathies / Migraine / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentBreak Through Pain / Malignancies1
3CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Malignancies1
3CompletedTreatmentCancer Related Pain (Breakthrough Pain)1
3CompletedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) / Postherpetic Neuralgia / Postoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentCongenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM)1
3CompletedTreatmentElective Caesarean Section Surgeries1
3CompletedTreatmentGeneral Anaesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Premature, Diseases / Pain / Respiration; Insufficient or Poor, Newborn1
3CompletedTreatmentInhalation of Nitrous Oxide / Opioid Analgesic Adverse Reaction / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain8
3CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain / Respiratory Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentNeuropathic Chronic Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentOpioids Use / Pain, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic6
3CompletedTreatmentPain, Intractable1
3CompletedTreatmentPain / Traumatic Limb Injury1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
3CompletedTreatmentStandard Opioid Analgesic Treatment of Cancer-related Chronic Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentVentilations, Mechanical1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAppendicitis Acute / Inguinal Hernias1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Labor1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Malignant1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingSupportive CareAbortion in First Trimester1
3RecruitingSupportive CareDiseases of Liver / Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Disorder1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentBone Metastasis1
3RecruitingTreatmentHip Fractures (ICD-10 72.01-72.2)1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
3TerminatedPreventionTransient Neurologic Syndrome1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Opioid Free Anaesthesia1
3TerminatedTreatmentBone Marrow Diseases / Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain / Pain, Chronic1
3TerminatedTreatmentBurn Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain2
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareMalignancies / Pain1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer Related Pain (Breakthrough Pain)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentIntubation Complications1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentObesity, Morbid1
3WithdrawnPreventionPredictable BTP at Swallowing in in Head/Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy Already Receiving Opioid Therapy for Background Pain1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Chronic1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Labor1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPain / Palliative Care1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPediatrics / Postoperative pain1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareAdvanced Cancers / Pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Illness, Critical / Sleep1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmunosuppression / Neoplasms, Lung / Pain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOocyte Retrieval / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedNot AvailableBack Pain Lower Back2
4CompletedNot AvailableDigestive System Diseases / Disorientation1
4CompletedNot AvailableFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedNot AvailableHemorrhoids / Peri Anal Fistula1
4CompletedNot AvailableOsteoarthritis of the Knee / Osteoarthritis, Hip / Pain1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain1
4CompletedNot AvailablePain, Chronic1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnalgesic Drugs / Antinociceptive Agents1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAmputation Stumps1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchColon Cancer, Rectal Cancer1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPeer Review, Research1
4CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy / Colonoscopy1
4CompletedOtherBronchoscopy / Fentanyl / Narcotrend / Remifentanil / Sedation, Conscious / Sufentanil1
4CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedOtherPeer Review, Research1
4CompletedPreventionAmbulatory Surgery / Coughing1
4CompletedPreventionCognitive Impairments1
4CompletedPreventionFentanyl / Pain, Chronic / Remifentanil / Sternotomy1
4CompletedPreventionHeart Diseases / Hyperglycemia1
4CompletedPreventionIllness, Critical / Pain1
4CompletedPreventionIntubation, Endotracheal1
4CompletedPreventionOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome) / Sleep Apnea Syndromes1
4CompletedPreventionPain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedPreventionSurgery, Laparoscopic1
4CompletedScreeningPatients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery / Postoperative Confusion1
4CompletedSupportive CareAdministration Site Reaction1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia; Reaction1
4CompletedSupportive CareBreakthrough Pain / Gastrostomy / Neoplasms, Upper Aerodigestive Tract1
4CompletedSupportive CareColonoscopy / Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCongenital Muscular Torticollis1
4CompletedSupportive CareHypothermia1
4CompletedSupportive CareHysterectomy (MeSH nr: E04.950.300.399)1
4CompletedSupportive CareInfertility1
4CompletedSupportive CareIrritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Polyps1
4CompletedSupportive CareLumbar Spine Disc Herniation1
4CompletedSupportive CareNalbuphine,Fentanyl and Local Anesthetic Mixture1
4CompletedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Thyroid1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain, Labor1
4CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Pain Due to Trauma2
4CompletedTreatmentAgitation / Respiratory Failure / Sepsis1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Pain / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
4CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Chronic / Pain, Intractable1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer of Head and Neck / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCancers, Pain / Pain, Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentColonoscopy / Sedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCondition: Abdominal Bone Flap Cranioplasty; Focus of Study: Perioperative Analgesia1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentCurettage / Pregnancy termination therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentDexmedetomidine in Subarachnoidal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography1
4CompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Forearm Injuries / Orthopedic Procedures / Traumas / Upper Extremity1
4CompletedTreatmentFractures, Closed / Hip Arthritis / Knee Arthropathy1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHemodynamic Response / Skull Pins Application1
4CompletedTreatmentHypovolaemia / Pain, Acute / Traumas1
4CompletedTreatmentInadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentIntubations / Newborns / Preterms1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement, Total1
4CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLung Function1
4CompletedTreatmentComputerized tomography / MRI of liver / Ultrasound1
4CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Pain, Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentMinor Procedural Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuralgia / Opioid-Related Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentOpioids Use / Ponv1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Orthopedic Procedures / Shoulder1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Knee2
4CompletedTreatmentOtitis Media (OM)1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Cancer / Pain; Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic2
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Labor3
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Neuropathic / Stenosis, Spinal1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Quality of Life1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Sickle Cell Anemia1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)1
4CompletedTreatmentPectus Excavatum1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain After Breast Reconstruction With Abdominal Flap1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain5
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Thoracic1
4CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)1
4CompletedTreatmentSepsis / Shock, Septic / Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)1
4CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
4CompletedTreatmentTerminal Cancer1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareSmooth muscle relaxation prior to radiological procedures1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplications / Delirium / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchPatients Satisfaction1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherHematological Malignancy (Leukemia- Lymphoma)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIntravenous Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareBronchoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAchalasia1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Depression / Ketamine1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesics, Opioid / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / Child/Adolescent Problems / Emergency Service, Hospital / Fentanyl / Ibuprofen / Pain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Epidural Analgesia / Fentanyl / Levobupivacaine / Painless Labor1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma / Pain / Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHeadache1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyoclonus1
4RecruitingDiagnosticLiver Diseases1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
4RecruitingOtherAdverse Reaction to Spinal Anesthetic / Maternal Care for Cervical Incompetence1
4RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Hip Fracture1
4RecruitingPreventionGynecologic Laparoscopic Surgery / Hysterectomy / Oophorectomy1
4RecruitingPreventionHyperalgesia / Opioids Use / Pain, Chronic / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4RecruitingPreventionPain, Labor1
4RecruitingPreventionPain, Labor / Pain, Obstetric1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAdverse Effect of Drugs and Medicaments in Therapeutic Use / Adverse Effects in the Therapeutic Use of Anaesthetics1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCoarctation of the Aorta / Erector Spinae Plane Block / Paediatric1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCritical Care / Intensive Care / Multiple Organ Failure1
4RecruitingSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pain Due to Trauma1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Delirium / Hip Fracture1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Pain / Pain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Leg Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Nausea, Postoperative / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain / Vomiting, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentBladder Tumors / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentComplications; Cesarean Section1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Pain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Valve Disease, Heart1
4RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Mechanically Ventilated Sedated Patients / Midazolam / Sedation / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4RecruitingTreatmentFlexible Bronchoscopy / Safety / Satisfaction / Sedation1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Surgery / Regional Anesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentLaceration of Skin1
4RecruitingTreatmentLumbar epidural anesthesia therapy / Opioids / Pain, Labor1
4RecruitingTreatmentOtitis Media (OM) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Labor2
4RecruitingTreatmentPercutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-operative Residual Curarization1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentSupracondylar Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentSurfactant Deficiency Syndrome Neonatal1
4SuspendedSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
4SuspendedTreatmentOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
4SuspendedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4TerminatedNot AvailableBreakthrough Pain / Pain, Cancer1
4TerminatedTreatmentAdvanced Cancers / Malignant Pleural Effusions1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentIllness, Critical / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4TerminatedTreatmentOrthopedic Procedures / Procedural Sedation / Regional Anesthesia Block1
4TerminatedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Postoperative pain1
4TerminatedTreatmentPain, Acute / Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) / Wound Care1
4TerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticSafety of Gastroscopy1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBradycardia / Hypoxemia1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDelirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionSedative Withdrawal Delirium1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hemodynamics / Oxidative Stress1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCesarean Section / Local Anaesthetics Causing Adverse Effects in Therapeutic Use / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDelirium1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEmergency1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEpidural Block / Labour / Pregnancy / Primigravida Labour1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFailed Conscious Sedation During Procedure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPain, Labor1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPain / Traumas1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPregnancy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSafety of Dexmedetomidine Sedation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentThe Efficacy and Safety of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
4WithdrawnPreventionC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac / Delirium1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAdverse Anesthesia Outcome / Nephrostomy; Complications / Regional Anesthesia Morbidity / Upper Urinary Tract Dilatation and Obstruction1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPain, Labor1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAortic Valve Stenosis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableRespiratory Depression1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementias1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Neurodevelopmental Disorders1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPain2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAAT Deficiency / AATD / Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency / Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Fibrosis, Liver1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdequate Anesthesia With Unimpaired Motor Strength1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Maternal Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnesthesia, Caudal / Fentanyl Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBreakthrough Pain / Malignancies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancer Related Pain (Breakthrough Pain) / Pain, Cancer / Pain, Neuropathic / Tumors1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancer Related Pain (Breakthrough Pain) / Quality of Life1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCervical Cancers / Endometrial Cancer / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Pain / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications / Sarcomas1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableColonoscopy / Fentanyl / Ketamine1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEmergence Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpidural Analgesia / Urinary Retention / Urodynamics1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFunctional Dyspepsia / Gastritis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHorner's Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMalignancies / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePharmacogenetic and Duration of Labor Fentanyl Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSevere, Chronic Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBioavailability1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticSacroiliac Joint Pain / Sympathetically Maintained Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticVentricular Tachycardia (VT)1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchElective Caesarean Section1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchOpioid Free Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBariatric Surgery Candidate / Impaired Glucose Tolerance / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherRenal Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAdrenal Insufficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAgitation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAmputation Stumps1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Urologic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnesthesia Emergence Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBreast Cancer / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCesarean Section1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCoughing Responses at Tracheal Extubation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDonor Hepatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEmergence Agitation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionFollicular Tonsillitis (Chronic)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Prostate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain, Labor / Postpartum Depression1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPatients Undergoing Laparoscopic Nephrectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSurgery, Colorectal1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic Lung Diseases / Nephrectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnesthesia Intubation Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain, Labor1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareRespiratory Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareUreteroneocystostomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Renal Colic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Immunotoxicity / Inert Gas Narcosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Post Operative Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / TURP(Transurethral Resection of Prostate)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreastfeeding / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer Related Pain (Breakthrough Pain)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Delivery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCholecystectomy / Elective Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentColonoscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComplex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) / Peripheral neuropathy / Peripheral Neuropathy, CRPS1 and Postamputation Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentComplication of Gastrostomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Skelectal Anomaly1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFentanyl Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Malignant Neoplasm of Abdomen1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGynecologic Diseases2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHip Fracture Surgery / Post Operative Pain Control1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInguinal Herniorrhaphy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Primary Knee Arthroplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLiving Donor Liver Transplantation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpioid Consumption / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis of the Knee / Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder / Osteoarthritis, Hip1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Uterus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Labor2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain Management1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProximal Femur Fractures1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRespiration Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRupture of Anterior Cruciate Ligament / Tear of Anterior Cruciate Ligament1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSepsis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionDelirium, Dexmedetomidine, Postoperative Patient Controlled Analgesia / Delirium, Dexmedetomidine, Postoperative PCA1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionPostoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Malignancies / Pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableElective Cesarean Section / Preeclampsia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingDiagnosticColonic Diseases, Functional1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherSKNA According to Different Anesthetics1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionHeart Rate / Mean Arterial Pressure1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionItching1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionKnee Replacement Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionMagnesium Infusion in Post-spinal Opioid Pruritis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareEndoscopic Sinus Surgery1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareFemale Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareOpioids Use1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareRuptured Cerebral Aneurysm1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety / Atherosclerosis / Coronary Artery Disease / Pain, Acute / Vasospasm;Peripheral / Virtual Reality1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAspiration / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentColonic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLabour Analgesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentObesity, Morbid2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPermanent Pacemaker Implantation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Recovery / Transurethral Resection of the Bladder / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSedation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentThoracic Epidural Analgesia, Fracture Ribs1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAsphyxia Neonatorum1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDrug Drug Interaction (DDI) / Pharmacodynamics1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDrug Effect1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome) / Respiratory Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableOpioids Use / Stress Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHeart Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceKnee Arthroscopic Surgery / Surgery of Knee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDistal Hypospadias1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAllodynia / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics, Opioid / Nociceptive Pain / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionErector Spinae Plane Block1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionIntubation; Difficult or Failed1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPregnancy1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareDexmedetomidine VS Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Epidural Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareRadical Cystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Narcotics / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Recovery Quality1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Opioids Use / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Spinal Anaesthesia / Spinal Ultrasound1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Pain, Postoperative / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDental Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentErector Spinea Block in Cardiac Surgery is an Ultrasound Guided Interfascial Regional Block / Erector Spinea Block in Open Heart Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHip Fracture1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMalignant Pleural Effusions / Pleural Diseases / Pleural Effusions1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentNausea / Pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost Laparotomy Pain Treatment1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentThe Comparison of the I-gel and Endotracheal Tube About in Different Ventilation Settings During Laparoscopic Surgery1
Not AvailableSuspendedScreeningHypoxemia During Surgery / Hypoxia1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Disorders, Lymphoproliferative / Leukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms / Pain / Precancerous Conditions / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableComplications; Cesarean Section / Effects of; Anesthesia, Spinal and Epidural, in Pregnancy / Hemodynamics Instability / Personal Satisfaction1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentColonoscopy / Hypnosis / Sedation1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentOpioid Use, Unspecified1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPostoperative pain / Shoulder Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentProcedural Sedation / Procedural Sedation and Analgesia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentRespiratory Failure1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentUndesired Pregnancy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAmbulatory Patients Referred for a First-time Colonoscopy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableBreastfeeding Outcomes / Neonatal Neurobehavior1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCancer Related Pain (Breakthrough Pain)2
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableNausea / Vomiting1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceMalignancies1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchHealth Check up Colonoscopy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareBishop Score / Cervical Dilatation / Duration of Delivery1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareDiverticulosis, Colonic / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Rectal Carcinoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAdverse Events / Pain Relief1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAnalgesia1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBronchoscopy / Bronchoscopy; / Central Airway Stenosis / Interventional; / Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation / Sedation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOpioid Dependence1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentThe Patients With Gastric Cancer Who Are Scheduled to Receive Laparoscopy Assisted Gastrectomy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionRespiratory Complications / Swallowing Disorders1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionVaginal Delivery1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CarePain / Traumas1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentFull Term Pregnant Patients / Undergoing Lower Segment Caesarian Section1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative Pain Control / Wrist Injury1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPrimigravida in Labour Pains1


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  • Cima Laboratories Inc.
  • Corium International Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Janssen-Ortho Inc.
  • LTS Lohmann Therapy Systems Corp.
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Meda AB
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Ortho Mcneil Janssen Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Pharmakon
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Quality Care
  • Sandoz
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Taylor Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
TabletSublingual100 mcg
TabletSublingual100 ug/1
TabletSublingual200 mcg
TabletSublingual200 ug/1
TabletSublingual300 mcg
TabletSublingual300 ug/1
TabletSublingual400 ug/1
TabletSublingual400 mcg
TabletSublingual600 mcg
TabletSublingual600 ug/1
TabletSublingual800 mcg
TabletSublingual800 ug/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual100 ug/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual200 ug/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual300 ug/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual400 ug/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual600 ug/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual800 ug/1
PatchTransdermal100 mcg
PatchTransdermal12 mcg
PatchTransdermal25 mcg
PatchTransdermal50 mcg
PatchTransdermal75 mcg
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal12.5 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal100 ug/1
PatchTransdermal12.5 ug/1
PatchTransdermal50 ug/1
PatchTransdermal75 ug/1
TabletBuccal100 micrograms
TabletBuccal200 micrograms
TabletBuccal400 micrograms
TabletBuccal600 micrograms
TabletBuccal800 micrograms
PatchTransdermal1.28 mg/1[USP'U]
PatchTransdermal10.20 mg/1[USP'U]
PatchTransdermal12 ug/1
PatchTransdermal12 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal12.5 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal2.55 mg/1[USP'U]
PatchTransdermal37.5 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal5.10 mg/1[USP'U]
PatchTransdermal62.5 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal7.65 mg/1[USP'U]
PatchTransdermal87.5 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal100 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal100 ug/72h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal12 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal2.5 mg/72h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal25 ug/72h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal25 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal37.5 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal5.0 mg/72h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal50 ug/72h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal50 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal62.5 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal7.5 mg/72h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal75 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal87.5 ug/1h
TabletBuccal; Sublingual100 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Sublingual200 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Sublingual400 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Sublingual600 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Sublingual800 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Oral; Transmucosal100 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Oral; Transmucosal200 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Oral; Transmucosal400 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Oral; Transmucosal600 ug/1
TabletBuccal; Oral; Transmucosal800 ug/1
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 ug/1mL
InjectionIntravenous50 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural; Intravenous10 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous0.05 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous20 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous25 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 ug/1mL
LozengeOral; Transmucosal1200 ug/1
LozengeOral; Transmucosal1600 ug/1
LozengeOral; Transmucosal200 ug/1
LozengeOral; Transmucosal800 ug/1
LozengeTransmucosal1200 ug/1
LozengeTransmucosal1600 ug/1
LozengeTransmucosal200 ug/1
LozengeTransmucosal400 ug/1
LozengeTransmucosal600 ug/1
LozengeTransmucosal800 ug/1
SolutionEpidural; Intramuscular; Intravenous
LiquidEpidural; Intramuscular; Intravenous
Injection, solutionEpidural
PatchTransdermal25 ug/1
PatchTransdermal100 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal25 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal50 ug/1h
PatchTransdermal75 ug/1h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal
TabletBuccal; Oral; Transmucosal300 ug/1
Tablet, effervescentBuccal; Sublingual100 mcg
Tablet, effervescentBuccal; Sublingual200 mcg
Tablet, effervescentBuccal; Sublingual400 mcg
Tablet, effervescentBuccal; Sublingual600 mcg
Tablet, effervescentBuccal; Sublingual800 mcg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
SolutionNasal100 mcg
SolutionNasal200 mcg
SolutionNasal50 mcg
SprayNasal2 mg/1mL
PatchTransdermal40 μg/dose
PatchTransdermal40 ug/1
Patch, extended release, electrically controlledTransdermal40 ug/10min
Aerosol, sprayNasal100 ug/81
Aerosol, sprayNasal300 ug/81
Aerosol, sprayNasal400 ug/81
SprayNasal100 ug/1
SprayNasal300 ug/1
SprayNasal400 ug/1
Film, solubleBuccal1200 mcg
Film, solubleBuccal1200 ug/1
Film, solubleBuccal200 mcg
Film, solubleBuccal200 ug/1
Film, solubleBuccal400 mcg
Film, solubleBuccal400 ug/1
Film, solubleBuccal600 mcg
Film, solubleBuccal600 ug/1
Film, solubleBuccal800 mcg
Film, solubleBuccal800 ug/1
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous50 ug/1mL
SpraySublingual0.1 mg/1
SpraySublingual0.2 mg/1
SpraySublingual0.4 mg/1
SpraySublingual0.6 mg/1
SpraySublingual0.8 mg/1
LozengeOral; Transmucosal1200 1/1
LozengeOral; Transmucosal400 ug/1
LozengeOral; Transmucosal600 ug/1
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Fentanyl base powder1498.18USD g
Fentanyl citrate powder1062.5USD g
Duragesic-100 5 100 mcg/hr Patches Box411.59USD box
Duragesic-75 5 75 mcg/hr Patches Box318.93USD box
Fentanyl 5 100 mcg/hr Patches Box210.0USD box
Duragesic-50 5 50 mcg/hr Patches Box205.78USD box
Actiq 1600 mcg lozenge150.29USD lozenge
Fentanyl 5 50 mcg/hr Patches Box129.99USD box
Actiq 1200 mcg lozenge121.82USD lozenge
Actiq 1600 mcg Lollipop119.42USD lollipop
Duragesic-25 5 25 mcg/hr Patches Box114.42USD box
Duragesic-12 5 12 mcg/hr Patches Box95.99USD box
Actiq 800 mcg lozenge93.76USD lozenge
Actiq 1200 mcg Lollipop85.7USD lollipop
Duragesic 100 mcg/hr patch81.36USD patch
Actiq 600 mcg lozenge79.16USD lozenge
Actiq 800 mcg Lollipop75.98USD lollipop
Fentanyl 5 12 (12.5)mcg/hr Patches Box67.99USD box
Fentanyl 5 25 mcg/hr Patches Box66.66USD box
Actiq 600 mcg Lollipop65.13USD lollipop
Actiq 400 mcg lozenge64.62USD lozenge
Fentanyl 100 mcg/hr patch61.69USD patch
Duragesic 75 mcg/hr patch61.3USD patch
Fentora 800 mcg buccal tablet54.77USD tablet
Actiq 400 mcg Lollipop53.75USD lollipop
Actiq 200 mcg lozenge51.05USD lozenge
Fentora 600 mcg buccal tablet47.37USD tablet
Fentanyl 75 mcg/hr patch46.48USD patch
Actiq 200 mcg Lollipop42.14USD lollipop
Duragesic 50 mcg/hr patch40.19USD patch
FentaNYL Citrate 1600 mcg Lollipop38.53USD lollipop
Fentora 400 mcg buccal tablet34.24USD tablet
Fentanyl 50 mcg/hr patch30.47USD patch
FentaNYL Citrate 1200 mcg Lollipop30.0USD lollipop
Fentora 300 mcg buccal tablet28.84USD tablet
Fentora 200 mcg buccal tablet23.57USD tablet
Duragesic 25 mcg/hr patch21.98USD patch
FentaNYL Citrate 400 mcg Lollipop20.0USD lollipop
Fentora 100 mcg buccal tablet18.64USD tablet
Duragesic 12 mcg/hr patch18.21USD patch
Fentanyl 25 mcg/hr patch16.67USD patch
Fentanyl 12 mcg/hr patch13.8USD patch
Fentanyl 0.05 mg/ml vial1.96USD ml
Fentanyl cit 1500 mcg/30 ml1.44USD ml
Fentanyl-ns 50 mcg/ml syringe1.0USD ml
Fentanyl-ns 300 mcg/30 ml syr0.99USD ml
Fentanyl-ns 20 mcg/ml syringe0.72USD ml
Fentanyl-ns 10 mcg/ml syringe0.64USD ml
Fentanyl cit 2750 mcg/55 ml0.35USD ml
Fentanyl-ns 500 mcg/50 ml syr0.31USD ml
Sublimaze 0.05 mg/ml ampul0.23USD ml
Fentanyl 0.05 mg/ml ampul0.21USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)83-84 US. Patent 3,141,823.
water solubility0.74mg/mL
logP4.05SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.024 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area23.55 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity103.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability40.03 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9766
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9901
Caco-2 permeable+0.6459
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6082
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7161
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8371
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5824
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7879
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5856
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7715
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.873
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6327
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5724
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8218
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7346
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8417
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8554
Rat acute toxicity3.9836 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.796
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6791
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0002-9850000000-7ce3a6f35f5dee98185f
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0009000000-62593b54c6285a566893
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0209000000-d550d803c25d31570227
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0901000000-09bd125eea134f8811a4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-2c34993eade063cb426f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-0900000000-beb72ea99dc9c125d29b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0009000000-bf70e4d857c26d30032f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0907000000-a9f5d0c422eff1474d38
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-0c03ba9ef576114a9503
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-d2a36b402c3a7424fab6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-e0cbdfad80c306baabc1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-2900000000-ea551550ac6cbe6d3960
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0pdi-8900000000-89b1a77e558ec74cf3ac
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0kdj-9400000000-358833c028a079789d0b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufs-9200000000-ff2c211a084a5f124781


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as fentanyls. These are compounds containing the fentanyl moiety or a derivative, which is based on a N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide skeleton.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Phenethylamines / Anilides / Aralkylamines / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Trialkylamines / Amino acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
show 1 more
Fentanyl / Phenethylamine / Anilide / Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Tertiary carboxylic acid amide / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxamide group / Tertiary amine
show 13 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, monocarboxylic acid amide, anilide (CHEBI:119915)


1. Mu-type opioid receptor
Pharmacological action
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
  1. You HJ, Colpaert FC, Arendt-Nielsen L: The novel analgesic and high-efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonist F 13640 inhibits nociceptive responses, wind-up, and after-discharges in spinal neurons and withdrawal reflexes. Exp Neurol. 2005 Jan;191(1):174-83. [PubMed:15589524]
  2. Scott LJ, Perry CM: Remifentanil: a review of its use during the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. Drugs. 2005;65(13):1793-823. [PubMed:16114980]
  3. Scott LJ, Perry CM: Spotlight on remifentanil for general anaesthesia. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(12):1069-74. [PubMed:16332149]
  4. Dosen-Micovic L, Ivanovic M, Micovic V: Steric interactions and the activity of fentanyl analogs at the mu-opioid receptor. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 May 1;14(9):2887-95. Epub 2006 Jan 11. [PubMed:16376082]
  5. Dardonville C, Fernandez-Fernandez C, Gibbons SL, Ryan GJ, Jagerovic N, Gabilondo AM, Meana JJ, Callado LF: Synthesis and pharmacological studies of new hybrid derivatives of fentanyl active at the mu-opioid receptor and I2-imidazoline binding sites. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Oct 1;14(19):6570-80. Epub 2006 Jun 23. [PubMed:16797997]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  7. Hajiha M, DuBord MA, Liu H, Horner RL: Opioid receptor mechanisms at the hypoglossal motor pool and effects on tongue muscle activity in vivo. J Physiol. 2009 Jun 1;587(Pt 11):2677-92. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.171678. Epub 2009 Apr 29. [PubMed:19403616]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
  1. Rodrigues AR, Castro MS, Francischi JN, Perez AC, Duarte ID: Participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the peripheral antinociceptive effect of fentanyl in rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005 Jan;38(1):91-7. Epub 2005 Jan 18. [PubMed:15665994]
  2. Poonawala T, Levay-Young BK, Hebbel RP, Gupta K: Opioids heal ischemic wounds in the rat. Wound Repair Regen. 2005 Mar-Apr;13(2):165-74. [PubMed:15828941]
  3. Sahin AS, Duman A, Atalik EK, Ogun CO, Sahin TK, Erol A, Ozergin U: The mechanisms of the direct vascular effects of fentanyl on isolated human saphenous veins in vitro. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2005 Apr;19(2):197-200. [PubMed:15868528]
  4. Darwish M, Tempero K, Kirby M, Thompson J: Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(12):1279-86. [PubMed:16372825]
  5. Darwish M, Kirby M, Robertson P Jr, Tracewell W, Jiang JG: Pharmacokinetic properties of fentanyl effervescent buccal tablets: a phase I, open-label, crossover study of single-dose 100, 200, 400, and 800 microg in healthy adult volunteers. Clin Ther. 2006 May;28(5):707-14. [PubMed:16861092]
  6. Hajiha M, DuBord MA, Liu H, Horner RL: Opioid receptor mechanisms at the hypoglossal motor pool and effects on tongue muscle activity in vivo. J Physiol. 2009 Jun 1;587(Pt 11):2677-92. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.171678. Epub 2009 Apr 29. [PubMed:19403616]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
  1. Pascoe JE, Williams KL, Mukhopadhyay P, Rice KC, Woods JH, Ko MC: Effects of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptor agonists on the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008 May;33(4):478-86. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.01.006. Epub 2008 Mar 5. [PubMed:18325678]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
  1. Wandel C, Kim R, Wood M, Wood A: Interaction of morphine, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and loperamide with the efflux drug transporter P-glycoprotein. Anesthesiology. 2002 Apr;96(4):913-20. [PubMed:11964599]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
  1. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933]
  2. Feierman DE, Lasker JM: Metabolism of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid analgesic, by human liver microsomes. Role of CYP3A4. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Sep;24(9):932-9. [PubMed:8886601]
  3. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
  1. Flockhart Table of Drug Interactions [Link]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
  1. Bista SR, Haywood A, Hardy J, Lobb M, Tapuni A, Norris R: Protein binding of fentanyl and its metabolite nor-fentanyl in human plasma, albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. Xenobiotica. 2015 Mar;45(3):207-12. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2014.971093. Epub 2014 Oct 14. [PubMed:25314012]
Protein group
Pharmacological action
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...

  1. Bista SR, Haywood A, Hardy J, Lobb M, Tapuni A, Norris R: Protein binding of fentanyl and its metabolite nor-fentanyl in human plasma, albumin and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. Xenobiotica. 2015 Mar;45(3):207-12. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2014.971093. Epub 2014 Oct 14. [PubMed:25314012]


1. P-glycoprotein 1
Pharmacological action
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
  1. Wandel C, Kim R, Wood M, Wood A: Interaction of morphine, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and loperamide with the efflux drug transporter P-glycoprotein. Anesthesiology. 2002 Apr;96(4):913-20. [PubMed:11964599]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 25, 2020 23:44

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