Identification

Name
Dexmedetomidine
Accession Number
DB00633  (APRD00578)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

An agonist of receptors, adrenergic alpha-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of dexmedetomidine. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-4-((S)-alpha,2,3-Trimethylbenzyl)imidazole
  • (+)-medetomidine
  • (S)-medetomidine
  • Dexmedetomidin
  • Dexmedetomidina
  • Dexmédétomidine
  • Dexmedetomidinum
External IDs
MPV 1440 / MPV 785 / MPV-1440
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride1018WH7F9I145108-58-3VPNGEIHDPSLNMU-MERQFXBCSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, lipid complex4 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection4 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
PrecedexInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2004-11-30Not applicableUs
PrecedexSolution100 mcgIntravenousPfizer2010-02-24Not applicableCanada
PrecedexInjection, solution4 ug/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2013-04-08Not applicableUs
PrecedexSolution4 mcgIntravenousPfizer2016-05-09Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DexmedetomidineInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousAkorn2014-11-24Not applicableUs
DexmedetomidineInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousAthenex Pharmaceutical Division, Llc.2018-03-01Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HClInjection100 ug/1mLIntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2017-04-26Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine hydrochlorideInjection, solution100 ug/1mLIntravenousAccord Healthcare Inc.2018-08-31Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousSandoz2014-10-032017-03-31Us
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 ug/1mLIntravenousSun Pharmaceuticals Industries, Inc.2015-04-08Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2018-06-14Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 ug/1mLIntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2015-04-08Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousMylan Institutional2014-08-18Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousJiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd.2017-09-19Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Dexdor (Orion) / Dexem (Themis Medicare)
Categories
UNII
67VB76HONO
CAS number
113775-47-6
Weight
Average: 200.2795
Monoisotopic: 200.131348522
Chemical Formula
C13H16N2
InChI Key
CUHVIMMYOGQXCV-NSHDSACASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H16N2/c1-9-5-4-6-12(10(9)2)11(3)13-7-14-8-15-13/h4-8,11H,1-3H3,(H,14,15)/t11-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
4-[(1S)-1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole
SMILES
C[C@H](C1=CNC=N1)C1=C(C)C(C)=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For sedation of initially intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting, also used in pain relief; anxiety reduction and analgesia

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Dexmedetomidine activates 2-adrenoceptors, and causes the decrease of sympathetic tone, with attenuation of the neuroendocrine and hemodynamic responses to anesthesia and surgery; it reduces anesthetic and opioid requirements; and causes sedation and analgesia.

Mechanism of action

Dexmedetomidine is a specific and selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist. By binding to the presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors, it inhibits the release if norepinephrine, therefore, terminate the propagation of pain signals. Activation of the postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors inhibits the sympathetic activity decreases blood pressure and heart rate.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
  • 118 L
Protein binding

94%

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

A mass balance study demonstrated that after nine days an average of 95% of the radioactivity, following intravenous administration of radiolabeled dexmedetomidine, was recovered in the urine and 4% in the feces. Fractionation of the radioactivity excreted in urine demonstrated that products of N-glucuronidation accounted for approximately 34% of the cumulative urinary excretion. The majority of metabolites are excreted in the urine.

Half life

2 hours

Clearance
  • 39 L/h [Healthy volunteers receiving IV infusion (0.2-0.7 mcg/kg/hr)]
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Dexmedetomidine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Dexmedetomidine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Dexmedetomidine.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Dexmedetomidine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Inese Reine, Armands Zandersons, "METHOD FOR PREPARING MEDETOMIDINE AND ITS SALTS.." U.S. Patent US20100048915, issued February 25, 2010.

US20100048915
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014771
KEGG Drug
D00514
KEGG Compound
C07450
PubChem Compound
5311068
PubChem Substance
46507406
ChemSpider
4470605
BindingDB
50085683
ChEBI
4466
ChEMBL
CHEMBL778
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000233
PharmGKB
PA449256
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Dexmedetomidine
ATC Codes
N05CM18 — Dexmedetomidine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.92 — Miscellaneous Anxiolytics Sedatives and Hypnotics
FDA label
Download (43.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceGlymphatic Flow1
0CompletedTreatmentHypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionEmergence Agitation1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHeart Injuries1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Sedation, Conscious1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceVascular Diseases1
0RecruitingTreatmentSkull Pin Insertion1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableGastric Emptying / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableScoliosis1
1CompletedNot AvailableSeizures Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHeart Diseases1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics / Sedation therapy1
1CompletedBasic ScienceSedation therapy1
1CompletedDiagnosticCaudal Block1
1CompletedPreventionCesarean Section, Affecting Fetus or Newborn1
1CompletedPreventionPregnant Women Undergoing Cesarean Delivery1
1CompletedTreatmentAmnesia-Memory Loss / Memory Losses1
1CompletedTreatmentHeart Ventricle / Hypoplastic Left Heart / Tetrology of Fallot1
1CompletedTreatmentHypoplastic Left Heart / Tetralogy Of Fallot / Tricuspid Atresia1
1CompletedTreatmentTetralogy Of Fallot / Transposition of the Great Arteries / Ventricular Septal Defects1
1RecruitingNot AvailableHeart Diseases1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHeart Diseases1
1RecruitingOtherCongenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Dexmedetomidine1
1RecruitingOtherMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1RecruitingTreatmentFentanyl-induced Cough1
1RecruitingTreatmentSedation therapy1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentCocaine Induced Sympathoexciation and Vasoconstriction1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune System Suppression1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceAneurysms / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure / Feeling Anxious1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBrain Injury / Intracranial Pressure1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain / Respiratory Depression1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSleep / Sleeplessness1
1, 2RecruitingNot AvailableLack of Drug Action1
1, 2RecruitingSupportive CareFeeling Anxious / Minor burns1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
2CompletedPreventionAnalgesia1
2CompletedPreventionAnesthesia Intubation Complications / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Intubation Complications / Tachycardia / Tracheal Intubation Morbidity1
2CompletedPreventionCleft Palates1
2CompletedPreventionDelirium1
2CompletedPreventionHeadaches1
2CompletedPreventionLaparoscopic Orcheopexy1
2CompletedPreventionPre-Eclampsia, Severe / Pregnancy1
2CompletedSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Undescended Testis1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Agitation / Delirium / Intensive Care / Respiration, Artificial / Ventilator Weaning1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients1
2CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentNerve Pain / Shoulder Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Sedation therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentMinor burns / Sedation therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentShivering Caused by Spinal Anesthesia1
2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenoid Hypertrophy1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2RecruitingPreventionCardiac Surgical Procedures1
2RecruitingPreventionDelirium / Sleep1
2RecruitingPreventionLiver Transplant; Complications1
2RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingPreventionWithdrawal syndrome1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentDelirium1
2RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntrathecal Dexmedetomidine / Pediatric Cancer Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
2TerminatedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareIntracranial Hemorrhages / Ischemia, Brain / Strokes / Vasospasm, Intracranial1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Agitation / Delirium / Sedation therapy1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Thoracic Pain1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentInjuries, Acute Brain1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareDelirium / Dyspnea / Nausea / Pain Intractable1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Focus of the Study is to Determine / For Infra- and Supra-clavicular Brachial Plexus Block / Patients Scheduled for Upper Extremity Surgeries (Vascular Occlusion Syndrome, Acute Compartment Syndrome, Capral Tunnell Syndrome Etc.) / The Optimal Dose of Dexmedetomidine Added to Lidocaine / Will Participate in the Study1
2WithdrawnTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailablePharmacokinetics1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative / Blood Pressures / Emergence Delirium / Extubation Time / Heart Rate1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCardiac Valve Replacement Complication / Coronary Artery Disease / Heart Valve Diseases1
2, 3CompletedPreventionStress Response1
2, 3CompletedPreventionTransversus Abdominis Plane Block / Transversus Abdominis Plane Block, Pediatric Laparoscopy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Lower Abdominal Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sleep Apnea Syndrome1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Otitis Media1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation During Procedure / Endobronchial Ultrasound1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDelirium1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentKnee Injuries1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentTraumas1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionAcute Agitation1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionHysterectomy / Myomectomy1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Postoperative Delirium / Sleep1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Feeling Anxious / Respiratory Failure1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSedation therapy2
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSpine; Arthrosis / Spondylolisthesis / Spondylolysis / Spondylolysis, Multiple Sites in Spine1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
2, 3SuspendedTreatmentSedation therapy1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAwake Fiberoptic Nasal Intubation1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentDystonias / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Tremor, Essential1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
3Active Not RecruitingNot AvailablePeribulbar Anesthesia1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
3CompletedNot AvailableChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hip Fractures1
3CompletedNot AvailablePain NOS / Sedation therapy1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionCranitomy Surgery1
3CompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
3CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
3CompletedPreventionPost-operative Pain for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedPreventionTonsillectomy1
3CompletedScreeningVitreoretinal Surgery Under Sub-Tenon's Anesthesia1
3CompletedSupportive CareBrachial Plexus Block1
3CompletedSupportive CareFusion of Spine (Disease)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Agitation / Anaesthesia therapy / Pediatrics1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Surgical Procedures, Elective1
3CompletedTreatmentAtrial Septal Defect (ASD) / Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis / Cardiac Transplant / Patent Ductus Arterious1
3CompletedTreatmentAwake Fiberoptic Intubation1
3CompletedTreatmentBioavailability / Dexmedetomidine1
3CompletedTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation, Conscious1
3CompletedTreatmentContinuous IV Sedation / ICP Monitoring / Intubation, Endotracheal1
3CompletedTreatmentContinuous Sedation in Initially Sedated Adults in ICU2
3CompletedTreatmentDrug Safety / Self Efficacy1
3CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentICU Sedation1
3CompletedTreatmentMechanically-ventilated Neonates With Single-organ Respiratory Failure1
3CompletedTreatmentOther Conditions of Brain1
3CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentPatient Between 1-8 Years Old Undergoing Elective Surgery at Queen Mary Hospital1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy3
3CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
3CompletedTreatmentThird Molar Extraction1
3CompletedTreatmentTremors1
3Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticAuditory Brainstem Response1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHysteromyoma1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnalgesia / Anxiolysis / Sedation therapy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSedation in Critically Ill Patients1
3RecruitingHealth Services ResearchBreast Cancer Patients1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionDelirium / Impaired Cognition / Sepsis1
3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Agitation / Delirium1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Child's Development / Neurologic toxicity1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Opioid-Related Disorders1
3RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section1
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section Complications1
3RecruitingTreatmentColonic Diseases1
3RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
3RecruitingTreatmentIntracranial Aneurysms / Neoplasms, Intracranial1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
3TerminatedPreventionDelirium1
3TerminatedPreventionHydrocephaly / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
3TerminatedTreatmentConfusion and disorientation / Delirium / Postoperative / Psychomotor1
3TerminatedTreatmentRespiratory Failure1
3TerminatedTreatmentSafety and Efficacy of Sedation Medications1
3TerminatedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
3TerminatedTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage, Aneurysmal1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareSedation therapy1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Delirium1
3WithdrawnPreventionDelirium1
3WithdrawnPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m21
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAlcohol Drinking / Dexmedetomidine / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy / Propofol / Sedation, Conscious / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareFeeling Anxious / Laceration1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Critical Illness / Sleep1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Brachial Plexus Block / Postoperative pain / Shoulder Joint Disorder1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDelirium1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4CompletedNot AvailableAbdominal Surgery Patients1
4CompletedNot AvailableAgeing / Dose-Response Relationship / Drugs1
4CompletedNot AvailableIntubation, Endotracheal1
4CompletedNot AvailablePrecedex Effect to Propofol Requirement1
4CompletedNot AvailableShoulder Pain1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Loss of Consciousness1
4CompletedBasic ScienceConsciousness, Level Altered1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Myocardial Repolarization1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Analgesia, Postoperative1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchColon Cancer, Rectal Cancer1
4CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedOtherHeart Septal Defects, Atrial / Heart Valve Disease1
4CompletedPreventionAbnormal Menstrual Cycle1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Agitation / Delirium1
4CompletedPreventionAdenotonsillectomy1
4CompletedPreventionAgeing / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Long-Term Survivors / Surgical Procedures, Operative / The Mortality Rate1
4CompletedPreventionAnesthesia Emergence / Anesthesia Recovery / Postoperative Recovery / Shivering1
4CompletedPreventionBradycardia1
4CompletedPreventionC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac / Delirium / Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Rhinosinusitis1
4CompletedPreventionCognition Disorders / Oxidative Stress1
4CompletedPreventionCoughing1
4CompletedPreventionDegenerative Arthritis1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium2
4CompletedPreventionDelirium on Emergence / Inhalational Anesthetics Adverse Reaction / Strabismus Following Ocular Surgery1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium on Emergence / Pediatric Disorders / Strabismus1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium / Sleep Deprivation1
4CompletedPreventionDexmedetomidine / Long-term Outcome / Quality of Life / Surgery, Cardiac / The Mortality Rate1
4CompletedPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionHemodynamics Instability / Renal Function Disorder1
4CompletedPreventionHemorrhage1
4CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedPreventionIschemia-Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionMyocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionNeoplasms Malignant1
4CompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Brain1
4CompletedPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Premedication1
4CompletedPreventionPain NOS1
4CompletedPreventionPain NOS / Restlessness1
4CompletedPreventionPerioperative Care1
4CompletedPreventionPerioperative/Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedPreventionPost-thoracotomy Pain Syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4CompletedPreventionPremedication2
4CompletedPreventionRadiographic Contrast Agent Nephropathy1
4CompletedPreventionThyroidectomy1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedSupportive CareCaudal Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Intra-articular Injection / Magnesium Sulfate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Adult1
4CompletedSupportive CareElective Penile Surgeries / Hypospadias / Penile curvature / Urethral Fistula or Stricture After Hypospadias Repair1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntubation; Difficult1
4CompletedSupportive CareParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedSupportive CareUndergoing ERCP for Diagnostic or Therapeutic Purposes1
4CompletedTreatmentAbnormal Respiratory Airway Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal State1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Reflex, Abnormal / Tinnitus, Spontaneous Oto-Acoustic Emission1
4CompletedTreatmentBrain Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Feeding / Obstetrical analgesia therapy / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer of Kidney and Renal Pelvis / Cancer of Liver1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer of Liver / Cancer of Pancreas1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts1
4CompletedTreatmentCentral Nervous System Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Calculous Cholecystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Dexmedetomidine / Sedation therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentCollapse of Lumbar Vertebrae / Collapse of Thoracic Vertebra1
4CompletedTreatmentComplications1
4CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness / Sleep1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Brain Stimulation Surgery / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDelirium / Postoperative Cognitive Deficit (POCD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDelirium / Postoperative Confusion1
4CompletedTreatmentDexmedetomidine in Subarachnoidal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder; Mental, Sedative / General Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Usage1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure / Minimally Conscious State1
4CompletedTreatmentForearm Injuries / Injuries, Hand / Radius Fractures / Ulna Fractures / Wrist Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Intraocular Pressure1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentHemodynamic Response / Skull Pins Application1
4CompletedTreatmentHypothermia1
4CompletedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentLesions of Lumbosacral Intervertebral Disc / Spinal Diseases / Spinal Fusion Acquired / Spinal Stenosis1
4CompletedTreatmentComputerized tomography / MRI of liver / Ultrasound1
4CompletedTreatmentMechanically Ventilated and Intubated Subjects1
4CompletedTreatmentMyringotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentOne Lung Ventilation in Thoracic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentNeurocostal neuralgia / Opioid-Related Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentOtitis1
4CompletedTreatmentOxidative Stress / Sedation therapy1
4CompletedTreatmentPD / POCD / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Delirium1
4CompletedTreatmentPain NOS5
4CompletedTreatmentPain Postoperative, Intraoperative Hemorrhage1
4CompletedTreatmentPancreatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinsons's Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentPsychoses, Substance-Induced1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation therapy2
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentSepsis1
4CompletedTreatmentSequelae of Fracture of Forearm and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentShivering1
4CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Apnea, Obstructive1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Quality of Patients Undergoing TURP1
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedTreatmentThoracic Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentTonsillitis1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareHemodynamics Instability1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplications / Delirium / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceDeglutition1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceMicrocirculation1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic SciencePediatric Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherACL Injury1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / Long-term Outcome / Orthopedic Procedures / Postoperative Delirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCardiopulmonary Bypass / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Surgery, Cardiac / Survival1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionChronic Pain, Postoperative1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium in Old Age1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / Knee Replacement Surgery / Long-term Outcome / Postoperative Delirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionInhalation Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Delirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionStress Related Disorder1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareColonoscopy1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareThe Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Quality of Recovery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Pain, Acute / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCleft Palates1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Coughing Response / Thyroid Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDelirium2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEmergency / Procedural anxiety1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLimb Deformities1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Spinal Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSafety and Efficacy of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthetic Sparing1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceConsciousness / Loss of Consciousness1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceKidney Diseases1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceSevere Sepsis1
4RecruitingDiagnosticHaemodynamic Effects of Dexmedetomidine1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled1
4RecruitingOtherAnaesthesia therapy1
4RecruitingOtherFusion of Spine (Disease)1
4RecruitingOtherSurgery Ambulatory1
4RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Liver Diseases1
4RecruitingPreventionAdenoiditis / Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy / Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) / Tonsillitis1
4RecruitingPreventionAdult Disease / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Intensive Care Unit Syndrome / Mechanical Ventilation Complication1
4RecruitingPreventionAgeing / Dexmedetomidine / Intensive Care Units / Mechanical Ventilation Complication / Postoperative Period / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
4RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / General Surgery / Postoperative Complications / Sleeping Quality1
4RecruitingPreventionAnalgesics / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Hypnotics and Sedatives / Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action / Neurocognitive Disorders / Pathologic Processes / Physiological Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Psychiatric Disorder NOS1
4RecruitingPreventionChronic Dissecting Aneurysm of Thoracic Aorta / Chronic Nontraumatic Dissection of Thoracic Aorta / Dissecting Aneurysm of the Thoracic Aorta1
4RecruitingPreventionCognitive Impairments / Delirium / Depression / Dexmedetomidine / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4RecruitingPreventionComplication of Anesthesia / Ischaemia-reperfusion Injury1
4RecruitingPreventionDexmedetomidine / Pediatrics / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
4RecruitingPreventionIntubations1
4RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4RecruitingPreventionPatient Outcome Assessment1
4RecruitingPreventionPatients for Transthoracic Echocardiography / Unknown Diagnosis1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Aortic Surgery1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Delirium After Living Donor Renal Transplantation1
4RecruitingPreventionRenal Function1
4RecruitingPreventionSublingual Microcirculation1
4RecruitingPreventionTransplantation, Liver1
4RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Modified Radical Mastectomy1
4RecruitingSupportive CareDeep Brain Stimulation (DBS) / Dexmedetomidine / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Agitation / Respiratory Failure / Sepsis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Pain NOS1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia Complication1
4RecruitingTreatmentArteriovenous Fistulas1
4RecruitingTreatmentArthroscopic Medial Meniscectomy1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Surgical Procedures1
4RecruitingTreatmentCaries of Infancy / Dental Anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness / Deep Sedation / Ventilators, Mechanical1
4RecruitingTreatmentDelayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Mechanically Ventilated Sedated Patients / Midazolam / Sedation therapy / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeadaches / Hydrocephaly / Neoplasms, Abdominal / Neurofibromatoses / Seizures Disorders / Spine Deformity / Tumors1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentJoint Inflammation / Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpioid Use, Unspecified1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPituitary Neoplasms2
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4RecruitingTreatmentRestrictive Lung Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentSeparation Anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentThoracic Paravertebral Blocks1
4TerminatedPreventionCarotid Artery Stenosis1
4TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Associated Autonomic Hyperactivity / Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium / Alcohol Withdrawal Hallucinosis / Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Delirium Tremens1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentCritical Illness / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4TerminatedTreatmentFailed Conscious Sedation During Procedure1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentLength of Stay / Respiration, Artificial / Sedation therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentPD / POCD / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Delirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAcute Agitation2
4Unknown StatusPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDelirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionEmergence Deliruim; Cerebral Palsy1
4Unknown StatusPreventionGynecological Patient1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareLung Cancers1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBrain Injury / Cognitive Ability, General1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDelirium2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Mechanically Ventilated Patients / Midazolam / Sedation therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEmergence Agitation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFailed Conscious Sedation During Procedure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGastric Resection1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaryngoscopy / Preanesthetic Medication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPain NOS1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPerioperative Blood Glucose and Insulin1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSafety of Dexmedetomidine Sedation1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableMicrocirculation1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareDelirium1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain NOS1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia / Sedation therapy1
4WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentOrthopedic/Podiatry Procedures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentSleep1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAortic Valve Stenosis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableDelirium / Respiratory Failure1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableMRI Sedation1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingOtherSleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionAgeing / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Long-Term Survivors / Operative / The Mortality Rate1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionAmbulatory Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionCoronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareAirway Remodelling1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic Lung Diseases / Nephrectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdenotonsillectomy / Tonsillectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAirway Reconstruction / Chest Wall Disorders / Esophageal Cancers / Lung Cancers / Lung,Esophageal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Effects of Dexmedetomidine / Elderly Patients / Emergence From Anesthesia / Recovery From Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArrythmias / Blood Electrolyte Balance / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Myocardial Injury / Unstable Angina (UA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlood Flow / Brain Oxygenation / Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) / Intracranial Neurosurgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlood Pressures / Feeling Anxious1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCOPD, One Lung Ventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiac Dysrhythmia / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Hypokalaemia / Remifentanil1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChildren1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine Induced Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Memory1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndarterectomy, Carotid1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntensive Care Units1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLung Cancers / Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOrthopedics1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRespiratory Morbidity1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTransurethral Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUnder General Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCritical Care / Deep Sedation / Sedation, Conscious1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHeart Failure, Unspecified1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSaccadic Eye Movements1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEndobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherObese1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Renal Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAirway Extubation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnesthesia Complication1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement / Lower Extremity Surgery With Tourniquet1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in the Beach-chair Position1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiac Diseases / Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionLoss of Consciousness1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Thyroid1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain Control1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPonv1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProstate Cancer / Robotic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / Bladder Tumors1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSteep Trendelenburg Position With Penumoperitoneum in Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Alcohol Withdrawal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdult Intracranial Tumor / Adult Solid Tumor1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAmbulation Difficulty1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Arterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBenign Neoplasm of Vocal Fold - Glottis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Flexible Bronchoscopy / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Skelectal Anomaly1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Dexmedetomidine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFractures, Compression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemodynamics Instability1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Sedation, Abdominal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpine Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThe Analgesic Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherIntestinal Microbiota / Ventilations, Mechanical1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherThe Sedation Characteristics of Propofol and Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Brain Biopsy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionPostoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationSupportive CareElective Bilateral Myringotomy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableCognitive Dysfunctions1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableDrug Effect1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailablePost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSedation therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingDiagnosticDexmedetomidine1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchEffect of Drugs1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherAdverse Effects1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionIntestinal Complications / Laparotomy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionOrgan Protection1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPatients Under Hip, Femur, Spine Operation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionTonsillitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Inflammatory Reaction / Postoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHypercatabolism / Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Use Disorders1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentNausea and Vomiting, Postoperative / Shivering1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentOxidative Stress / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableCerebral Ischemia-Hypoxia1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableGliomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableIntravenous Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailablePostoperative Sedation1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableSedative Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableSniffs Drugs1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAmnesia / Anaesthesia therapy / Anesthetics / Pain NOS / Sedation, Conscious1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceSleeplessness1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchOpioid Free Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchSedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnesthesia; Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherMitochondrial Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherSedation therapy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAneurysm Cerebral1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCognitive Decline / Delirium / Post-operative Quality of Recovery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCoughing1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDelirium / Dexmedetomidine / Lower Extremity Problem / Propofol1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionEvidence of Liver Transplantation / Myocardial Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionFracture of Proximal Femur1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Thyroid1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPeripheral Obliterative Arteriopathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionRenal Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionStress Response During Laryngoscopy Intubation1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionTransplantation, Kidney1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareDexmedetomidine VS Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Epidural Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInfective Endocarditis1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareKnee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareRadical Cystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareSpinal Anesthesia Duration1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy4
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBrain / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation therapy2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCardiac Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCerebrovascular Disorders / Neoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCervical Spondylosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Upper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Sedation,Gastrectomy, Enhanced Recovery After Surgery1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentIntubation; Difficult / Respiration Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAdult Patients / Patients Covered by French Health Care System / Requiring Sedation in ICU1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAneurism / Intestinal Fistula / Intestinal Obstruction / Liver Cirrhosis / Neoplasms, Abdominal1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChildren / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic SciencePhobic Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Stress1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionOtitis Media (OM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAcute Agitation / Sepsis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareEffect of Dexmedetomidine on Sufentanil Consumption / Quantitative Analysis of Cisatracurium Infusion Requirements, Sufentanil Consumption and Recovery Index in Different Age Groups / The Intraoperative Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Cisatracurium Infusion Consumption and Its Recovery Index1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Neoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentIntravenous Propofol Injection / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTachycardia, Supraventricular1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherSedation therapy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareIntracranial Pressure Increase1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Orion Corporation
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntravenous100 ug/1mL
InjectionIntravenous200 ug/50mL
InjectionIntravenous4 ug/1mL
InjectionIntravenous400 ug/100mL
Injection, lipid complexIntravenous4 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 ug/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous100 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 ug/1mL
SolutionIntravenous100 mcg
SolutionIntravenous4 mcg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Precedex 200 mcg/2 ml vial41.32USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5344840No1994-09-062011-09-06Us
CA2326339No2008-12-232019-03-31Canada
CA1337659No1995-11-282012-11-28Canada
US8455527Yes2013-06-042032-07-04Us
US6716867Yes2004-04-062019-10-01Us
US8242158Yes2012-08-142032-07-04Us
US8338470Yes2012-12-252032-07-04Us
US8648106Yes2014-02-112032-07-04Us
US9320712Yes2016-04-262032-07-04Us
US9616049Yes2017-04-112032-07-04Us
US9649296No2017-05-162036-04-20Us
US9717796No2017-08-012036-04-20Us
US10016396No2012-01-042032-01-04Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityFreely soluble in waterNot Available
logP2.8Not Available
pKa7.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.174 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.28ALOGPS
logP3.39ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area28.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity62.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9928
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9663
Caco-2 permeable+0.5471
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7118
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8925
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9845
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.824
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8067
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.5083
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8218
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8564
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5684
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6714
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6167
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9178
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.948
Rat acute toxicity2.4712 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9581
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9236
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-xylenes. These are aromatic compounds that contain a o-xylene moiety, which is a monocyclic benzene carrying exactly two methyl groups at the 1- and 2-positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Xylenes
Direct Parent
o-Xylenes
Alternative Parents
Imidazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
O-xylene / Heteroaromatic compound / Imidazole / Azole / Azacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
medetomidine (CHEBI:4466)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Fairbanks CA, Stone LS, Kitto KF, Nguyen HO, Posthumus IJ, Wilcox GL: alpha(2C)-Adrenergic receptors mediate spinal analgesia and adrenergic-opioid synergy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):282-90. [PubMed:11752127]
  2. Scheibner J, Trendelenburg AU, Hein L, Starke K, Blandizzi C: Alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the enteric nervous system: a study in alpha 2A-adrenoceptor-deficient mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Feb;135(3):697-704. [PubMed:11834617]
  3. Davies MF, Tsui J, Flannery JA, Li X, DeLorey TM, Hoffman BB: Activation of alpha2 adrenergic receptors suppresses fear conditioning: expression of c-Fos and phosphorylated CREB in mouse amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Feb;29(2):229-39. [PubMed:14583739]
  4. Dawson C, Ma D, Chow A, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine enhances analgesic action of nitrous oxide: mechanisms of action. Anesthesiology. 2004 Apr;100(4):894-904. [PubMed:15087625]
  5. Ozdogan UK, Lahdesmaki J, Hakala K, Scheinin M: The involvement of alpha 2A-adrenoceptors in morphine analgesia, tolerance and withdrawal in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 23;497(2):161-71. [PubMed:15306201]
  6. Menon DV, Wang Z, Fadel PJ, Arbique D, Leonard D, Li JL, Victor RG, Vongpatanasin W: Central sympatholysis as a novel countermeasure for cocaine-induced sympathetic activation and vasoconstriction in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Aug 14;50(7):626-33. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17692748]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Avsaroglu H, Bull S, Maas-Bakker RF, Scherpenisse P, Van Lith HA, Bergwerff AA, Hellebrekers LJ, Van Zutphen LF, Fink-Gremmels J: Differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 activity correlate with the strain-specific biotransformation of medetomidine in AX/JU and IIIVO/JU inbred rabbits. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;31(4):368-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2008.00969.x. [PubMed:18638298]
  2. Duhamel MC, Troncy E, Beaudry F: Metabolic stability and determination of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes' contribution to the metabolism of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010 Aug;24(8):868-77. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1379. [PubMed:20020418]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Konstandi M, Lang MA, Kostakis D, Johnson EO, Marselos M: Predominant role of peripheral catecholamines in the stress-induced modulation of CYP1A2 inducibility by benzo(alpha)pyrene. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Jan;102(1):35-44. Epub 2007 Oct 31. [PubMed:17973897]
  2. Konstandi M, Kostakis D, Harkitis P, Johnson EO, Marselos M, Adamidis K, Lang MA: Benzo(alpha)pyrene-induced up-regulation of CYP1A2 gene expression: role of adrenoceptor-linked signaling pathways. Life Sci. 2006 Jun 20;79(4):331-41. Epub 2006 Feb 28. [PubMed:16510159]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Konstandi M, Kostakis D, Harkitis P, Marselos M, Johnson EO, Adamidis K, Lang MA: Role of adrenoceptor-linked signaling pathways in the regulation of CYP1A1 gene expression. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;69(2):277-87. [PubMed:15627480]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Rodrigues AD, Roberts EM: The in vitro interaction of dexmedetomidine with human liver microsomal cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6). Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 May;25(5):651-5. [PubMed:9152607]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 20, 2018 00:44