Accession Number
DB00633  (APRD00578)
Small Molecule
Approved, Vet approved

An agonist of receptors, adrenergic alpha-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of dexmedetomidine.

  • (+)-4-((S)-alpha,2,3-Trimethylbenzyl)imidazole
  • (+)-4-((S)-α,2,3-trimethylbenzyl)imidazole
  • Dexmedetomidin
  • Dexmedetomidina
  • Dexmédétomidine
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Dexmedetomidinum
External IDs
MPV 1440 / MPV-1440 / TPU 006
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Dexmedetomidine hydrochloride1018WH7F9I145108-58-3VPNGEIHDPSLNMU-MERQFXBCSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection4 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection4 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2016-04-19Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride for InjectionSolutionIntravenousSandoz Canada IncorporatedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride for InjectionSolutionIntravenousAuro Pharma Inc2019-10-10Not applicableCanada
Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride for InjectionSolutionIntravenousAccord Healthcare Inc2019-03-29Not applicableCanada
Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride for InjectionSolutionIntravenousMda Inc.2019-01-15Not applicableCanada
Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousMda Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousMda Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DexmedetomidineInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousMylan Institutional LLC2014-08-18Not applicableUs
DexmedetomidineInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousAkorn, Inc.2014-11-24Not applicableUs
DexmedetomidineInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousAthenex Pharmaceutical Division, Llc.2018-03-01Not applicableUs
DexmedetomidineInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousJiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd.2017-09-19Not applicableUs
DexmedetomidineInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, LLC.2018-03-01Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HClInjection100 ug/1mLIntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2017-04-26Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection4 ug/1mLIntravenousGland Pharma Limited2020-06-03Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate100 ug/1mLIntravenousZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2018-06-14Not applicableUs
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 ug/1mLIntravenousSandoz Inc2016-11-142020-12-31Us
Dexmedetomidine HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 ug/1mLIntravenousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc2015-04-08Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

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International/Other Brands
Dexdor (Orion) / Dexem (Themis Medicare)
CAS number
Average: 200.2795
Monoisotopic: 200.131348522
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For sedation of initially intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting, also used in pain relief; anxiety reduction and analgesia

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies

Dexmedetomidine activates 2-adrenoceptors, and causes the decrease of sympathetic tone, with attenuation of the neuroendocrine and hemodynamic responses to anesthesia and surgery; it reduces anesthetic and opioid requirements; and causes sedation and analgesia.

Mechanism of action

Dexmedetomidine is a specific and selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist. By binding to the presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors, it inhibits the release if norepinephrine, therefore, terminate the propagation of pain signals. Activation of the postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors inhibits the sympathetic activity decreases blood pressure and heart rate.

AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

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Not Available
Volume of distribution
  • 118 L
Protein binding




Route of elimination

A mass balance study demonstrated that after nine days an average of 95% of the radioactivity, following intravenous administration of radiolabeled dexmedetomidine, was recovered in the urine and 4% in the feces. Fractionation of the radioactivity excreted in urine demonstrated that products of N-glucuronidation accounted for approximately 34% of the cumulative urinary excretion. The majority of metabolites are excreted in the urine.

Half life

2 hours

  • 39 L/h [Healthy volunteers receiving IV infusion (0.2-0.7 mcg/kg/hr)]
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Dexmedetomidine.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Dexmedetomidine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Dexmedetomidine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

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  • Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action

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Food Interactions
No interactions found.


Synthesis Reference

Inese Reine, Armands Zandersons, "METHOD FOR PREPARING MEDETOMIDINE AND ITS SALTS.." U.S. Patent US20100048915, issued February 25, 2010.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
PDBe Ligand
RxList Drug Page
ATC Codes
N05CM18 — Dexmedetomidine
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.92 — Miscellaneous Anxiolytics Sedatives and Hypnotics
PDB Entries
6k41 / 6k42
FDA label
Download (43.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceVascular Diseases1
0Active Not RecruitingOtherCoronary Artery Disease / Delirium1
0CompletedBasic ScienceGlymphatic Flow1
0CompletedPreventionAgitation, Emergence1
0CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
0CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Chest Pain1
0CompletedTreatmentHypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy1
0CompletedTreatmentRenal Failure1
0Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Healthy Volunteers / Vasoconstriction / Vasodilation1
0Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticCerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Increased1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionEmergence Agitation1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHeart Injuries1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDistal Radius Fractures / Sedation, Conscious1
0RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine, Liver Transplantation, Allograft Function, Survival1
0RecruitingTreatmentEmergence Agitation1
0RecruitingTreatmentSkull Pin Insertion1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherCongenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Dexmedetomidine1
1CompletedNot AvailableGastric Emptying / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableScoliosis1
1CompletedNot AvailableSeizures Disorders1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAmnesia / Anaesthesia therapy / Anesthetics Agent / Pain / Sedation, Conscious1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHeart Diseases1
1CompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics / Sedation1
1CompletedBasic ScienceSedation1
1CompletedDiagnosticCaudal Block1
1CompletedOtherHeart Diseases1
1CompletedOtherMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1CompletedPreventionCesarean Section, Affecting Fetus or Newborn1
1CompletedPreventionPregnant Women Undergoing Cesarean Delivery1
1CompletedTreatmentAgitation / Schizophrenia1
1CompletedTreatmentAmnesia-Memory Loss / Memory Losses1
1CompletedTreatmentHeart Ventricle / Hypoplastic Left Heart / Tetrology of Fallot1
1CompletedTreatmentHypoplastic Left Heart / Tetralogy Of Fallot / Tricuspid Atresia1
1CompletedTreatmentTetralogy Of Fallot / Transposition of the Great Arteries / Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)1
1Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Pain1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceHeart Diseases1
1RecruitingTreatmentCritically-ill Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Mechanical Ventilation Complication1
1RecruitingTreatmentFentanyl-induced Cough1
1RecruitingTreatmentPreoperative Sedation1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)1
1WithdrawnTreatmentCocaine Induced Sympathoexciation and Vasoconstriction1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingPreventionEmergence Delirium1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentImmune System Suppression1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute / Pain, Chronic1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceAneurysms / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure / Anxiety1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentElective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentInjuries, Brain / Intracranial Pressure1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentInsomnia / Sleep1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentOncological Children / Ontological Children1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain / Respiratory Depression1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentTransversus Abdominis Block1
1, 2RecruitingNot AvailableLack of Drug Action1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionAbdominal Cancer1
1, 2RecruitingScreeningCognitive Dysfunctions1
1, 2RecruitingSupportive CareAnxiety / Minor burns1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentDementias / Psychomotor Agitation1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLevobupivacaine / Post-tonsillectomy Analgesia1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
2Active Not RecruitingOtherSedation, Conscious2
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenia1
2CompletedOtherAnesthesia Awareness1
2CompletedOtherDental Anxiety1
2CompletedPreventionAnesthesia Intubation Complications / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Intubation Complications / Tachycardia / Tracheal Intubation Morbidity1
2CompletedPreventionLaparoscopic Orcheopexy1
2CompletedPreventionPalate, Cleft1
2CompletedPreventionPre-Eclampsia, Severe / Pregnancy1
2CompletedSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Undescended Testis1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Post-thoracotomy Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenoid Hypertrophy1
2CompletedTreatmentAgitation / Delirium / Intensive Care / Respiration, Artificial / Ventilator Weaning1
2CompletedTreatmentAtrioventricular Septal Defects / Atrioventricular Septal Defects (AVSD) / Tetralogy Of Fallot / Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) / Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD)1
2CompletedTreatmentBehavioural Disorders / Procedural Sedation1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients1
2CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentIntranasal Dexmedetomidine Breast Cancer Local Anaesthesia1
2CompletedTreatmentIntubated and Mechanically Ventilated Pediatric Subjects1
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Nerve / Shoulder Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPain / Sedation1
2CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
2CompletedTreatmentMinor burns / Sedation1
2CompletedTreatmentShivering Caused by Spinal Anesthesia1
2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Atropine / Scopolamine1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDelirium1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain1
2RecruitingDiagnosticCraniofacial Abnormality / Mandibular Hypoplasia1
2RecruitingOtherEffect of Anesthesia in Discharge Time From Postanesthesia Care Unit / Effect of Anesthesia in Discharge Time From the Hospital / Effect of Anesthesia in Extubation Time / Effect of Anesthesia in Postoperative Adverse Events / Effect of Anesthesia in Postoperative Pain1
2RecruitingPreventionCardiac Surgical Procedures1
2RecruitingPreventionDelirium / Sleep1
2RecruitingPreventionLiver Transplant; Complications1
2RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2RecruitingPreventionWithdrawal syndrome1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
2RecruitingSupportive CareIntensive Care Units / Postoperative Care1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentHallux Valgus and Bunion / Sedation1
2RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntrathecal Dexmedetomidine / Pediatric Cancer Surgery1
2RecruitingTreatmentLaceration Repair1
2RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
2TerminatedSupportive CareAirway Remodelling1
2TerminatedTreatmentPost Operative Pain1
2Unknown StatusSupportive CareIntracranial Hemorrhages / Ischemia, Brain / Stroke / Vasospasm, Intracranial1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAgitation / Delirium / Sedation1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentInjuries, Acute Brain1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareDelirium / Dyspnea / Nausea / Pain Intractable / Pain, Intractable1
2WithdrawnSupportive CareTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Focus of the Study is to Determine / For Infra- and Supra-clavicular Brachial Plexus Block / Patients Scheduled for Upper Extremity Surgeries (Vascular Occlusion Syndrome, Acute Compartment Syndrome, Capral Tunnell Syndrome Etc.) / The Optimal Dose of Dexmedetomidine Added to Lidocaine / Will Participate in the Study1
2WithdrawnTreatmentProcedural Sedation1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain Management / Therapies1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailablePharmacokinetics1
2, 3CompletedHealth Services ResearchMetastatic Cancers / Refractory Pains1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAnalgesia, Postoperative / Blood Pressures / Emergence Delirium / Extubation Time / Heart Rate1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCardiac Valve Replacement Complication / Coronary Artery Disease / Heart Valve Diseases1
2, 3CompletedPreventionPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedPreventionStress Response1
2, 3CompletedPreventionTransversus Abdominis Plane Block / Transversus Abdominis Plane Block, Pediatric Laparoscopy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Lower Abdominal Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Sleep Apnea1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Dexmedetomidine / Spinal Anaesthesia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Otitis Media1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation During Procedure / Endobronchial Ultrasound1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDelirium1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentKnee Injuries1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
2, 3CompletedTreatmentSedation3
2, 3CompletedTreatmentTraumas1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionInflammatory Reaction / Malignancies1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Intratracheal1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPreoperative Sedation1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentShoulder Pain1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionAgitation1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionHysterectomy / Myomectomy1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain / Vomiting, Postoperative1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Postoperative Delirium / Sleep1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnti-anxiety Agents / Moderate Sedation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAnxiety / Illness, Critical / Respiratory Failure1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentHeart Rate Control / Rapid Atrial Fibrillation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSedation1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSpine; Arthrosis / Spondylolisthesis / Spondylolysis / Spondylolysis, Multiple Sites in Spine1
2, 3SuspendedTreatmentSedation1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAwake Fiberoptic Nasal Intubation1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentDystonias / Parkinson's Disease (PD) / Tremor, Essential1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
3Active Not RecruitingNot AvailablePeribulbar Anesthesia1
3Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareAnxiety States / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPain1
3CompletedNot AvailableChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Hip Fracture1
3CompletedNot AvailablePain / Sedation1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchAbdominal Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionCranitomy Surgery1
3CompletedPreventionDelirium / Impaired Cognition / Sepsis1
3CompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
3CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedPreventionOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
3CompletedPreventionPost-operative Pain for Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedPreventionPostoperative pain1
3CompletedScreeningVitreoretinal Surgery Under Sub-Tenon's Anesthesia1
3CompletedSupportive CareBrachial Plexus Block1
3CompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section Complications1
3CompletedSupportive CareFusion of Spine (Disease)1
3CompletedTreatmentAgitation / Anaesthesia therapy / Pediatrics1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Surgical Procedures, Elective1
3CompletedTreatmentAtrial Septal Defect (ASD) / Bidirectional Cavopulmonary Anastomosis / Cardiac Transplant / Patent Ductus Arterious1
3CompletedTreatmentAwake Fiberoptic Intubation1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
3CompletedTreatmentBioavailability / Dexmedetomidine1
3CompletedTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation, Conscious1
3CompletedTreatmentContinuous IV Sedation / ICP Monitoring / Intubation, Endotracheal1
3CompletedTreatmentContinuous Sedation in Initially Sedated Adults in ICU2
3CompletedTreatmentDrug Safety / Self Efficacy1
3CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentICU Sedation1
3CompletedTreatmentMechanically-ventilated Neonates With Single-organ Respiratory Failure1
3CompletedTreatmentOther Conditions of Brain1
3CompletedTreatmentPatient Between 1-8 Years Old Undergoing Elective Surgery at Queen Mary Hospital1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Total Knee Arthroplasty1
3CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
3CompletedTreatmentThird Molar Extraction1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesia / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Opioid Free Anesthesia / Postoperative paralytic ileus / Surgery, Colorectal / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionColonoscopy1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHysteromyoma1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareMechanically Ventilated, Critically Ill Children1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCholecystectomy1
3RecruitingDiagnosticAuditory Brainstem Response1
3RecruitingHealth Services ResearchBreast Cancer Patients1
3RecruitingPreventionAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Anaesthesia therapy / Analgesics / Analgesics, Opioid / Dexmedetomidine / Gabapentin / Ketamine / Lidocaine / Narcotics / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Child / Oximetry, Pulse / Pathologic Processes / Physiologic Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Respiratory Depression / Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) / Tonsillectomy1
3RecruitingPreventionInflammatory Responses1
3RecruitingSupportive CareAnalgesia / Anxiolysis / Sedation1
3RecruitingSupportive CareICU Patients / Sedation1
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentAgitation Associated With Bipolar Disorder / Bipolar Disorder (BD) / Psychomotor Agitation1
3RecruitingTreatmentAgitation / Delirium1
3RecruitingTreatmentAgitation / Schizo Affective Disorder / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenia / Schizophreniform Disorders1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Child's Development / Neurologic toxicity1
3RecruitingTreatmentBilateral Inguinal Hernia / Neurodevelopmental Disorders1
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section1
3RecruitingTreatmentCesarean Section Complications1
3RecruitingTreatmentColonic Diseases1
3RecruitingTreatmentFemoral Fractures1
3RecruitingTreatmentHysterectomy, Vaginal / Suburethral Slings1
3RecruitingTreatmentIcu Delirium1
3RecruitingTreatmentIllness, Critical1
3RecruitingTreatmentIntracranial Aneurysms / Neoplasms, Intracranial1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
3RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic / Vasopressor Resistance1
3TerminatedPreventionHydrocephaly / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Opioid-Related Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentConfusion / Delirium / Postoperative / Psychomotor1
3TerminatedTreatmentRespiratory Failure1
3TerminatedTreatmentSafety and Efficacy of Sedation Medications1
3TerminatedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
3TerminatedTreatmentSubarachnoid Hemorrhage, Aneurysmal1
3Unknown StatusSupportive CareSedation1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Delirium1
3WithdrawnPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableBMI >30 kg/m21
4Active Not RecruitingHealth Services ResearchCerebral Palsy (CP) / Deep Sedation / Developmental Delays / Epilepsies / MRI Scans / Pediatrics1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / Long-term Outcome / Orthopedic Procedures / Postoperative Delirium1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionOverall Survival1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareAnxiety / Laceration1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lung Injury (ALI) / Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Illness, Critical / Sleep1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEffect of Sedation on Heart Rate Variability1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4CompletedNot AvailableAdministration Related Reaction / Chloral Hydrate Adverse Reaction / Failed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedNot AvailableAgeing / Dose-Response Relationship / Drugs1
4CompletedNot AvailableGastric Cancer Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Gastrectomy1
4CompletedNot AvailableIntubation, Endotracheal1
4CompletedNot AvailablePrecedex Effect to Propofol Requirement1
4CompletedNot AvailableShoulder Pain1
4CompletedNot AvailableUpper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnaesthesia therapy / Consciousness, Loss of1
4CompletedBasic ScienceConsciousness, Level Altered1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Myocardial Repolarization1
4CompletedBasic ScienceMicrocirculation1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled / Analgesia, Postoperative1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchColon Cancer, Rectal Cancer1
4CompletedOtherAnaesthesia therapy2
4CompletedOtherHeart Septal Defects, Atrial / Heart Valve Disease1
4CompletedPreventionAbnormal Menstrual Cycle1
4CompletedPreventionAgeing / Death / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Long-Term Survivors / Surgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedPreventionAgeing / Dexmedetomidine / Intensive Care Units / Mechanical Ventilation Complication / Postoperative Period / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
4CompletedPreventionAgitation / Delirium1
4CompletedPreventionAnesthesia Emergence / Anesthesia Recovery / Postoperative Recovery / Shivering1
4CompletedPreventionAnxiety / Emergence Delirium / Perioperative management therapy / Pharmacokinetics1
4CompletedPreventionC.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac / Delirium / Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Dissecting Aneurysm of Thoracic Aorta / Chronic Nontraumatic Dissection of Thoracic Aorta / Dissecting Aneurysm of the Thoracic Aorta1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Rhinosinusitis1
4CompletedPreventionCognition Disorders / Oxidative Stress1
4CompletedPreventionCognitive Dysfunctions1
4CompletedPreventionDeath / Dexmedetomidine / Long-term Outcome / Quality of Life / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedPreventionDegenerative Arthritis1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium on Emergence / Inhalational Anesthetics Adverse Reaction / Strabismus Following Ocular Surgery1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium on Emergence / Pediatric Disorders / Strabismus1
4CompletedPreventionDelirium / Sleep Deprivation1
4CompletedPreventionEmergence Delirium1
4CompletedPreventionEndometrial Adenocarcinomas1
4CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery / Pain1
4CompletedPreventionHemodynamics Instability / Renal Function Disorder1
4CompletedPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedPreventionIschemia-Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionMandibular Prognathism / Mandibular Retrognathism1
4CompletedPreventionMyocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedPreventionNeoplasms Malignant1
4CompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Brain1
4CompletedPreventionOculocardiac Reflex / Premedication1
4CompletedPreventionOpen Craniotomy1
4CompletedPreventionPain / Restlessness1
4CompletedPreventionPatient Outcome Assessment1
4CompletedPreventionPerioperative Care1
4CompletedPreventionPerioperative/Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedPreventionPost-thoracotomy Pain Syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4CompletedPreventionRadiographic Contrast Agent Nephropathy1
4CompletedPreventionTransplantation, Liver1
4CompletedSupportive CareAdverse Effect of Drugs and Medicaments in Therapeutic Use / Adverse Effects in the Therapeutic Use of Anaesthetics1
4CompletedSupportive CareAgitated; State, Acute Reaction to Stress1
4CompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy1
4CompletedSupportive CareArthroscopic Knee Surgery / Arthroscopic Knee Surgery and Pain / Dexmedetomidine / Dexmedetomidine and Femoral Nerve Block / Femoral Nerve Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareBMI >30 kg/m21
4CompletedSupportive CareCaudal Block1
4CompletedSupportive CareColonoscopy1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Intra-articular Injection / Magnesium Sulfate / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareDexmedetomidine / Obstructive Sleep Apnea of Adult1
4CompletedSupportive CareElective Penile Surgeries / Hypospadias / Peyronie's Disease / Urethral Fistula or Stricture After Hypospadias Repair1
4CompletedSupportive CareHemodynamic / Satisfaction, Personal / Sedation1
4CompletedSupportive CareIntubation Difficult / Intubation; Difficult1
4CompletedSupportive CareParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedSupportive CareUndergoing ERCP for Diagnostic or Therapeutic Purposes1
4CompletedSupportive CareUrologic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentAbnormal Respiratory Airway Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentAgitation / Respiratory Failure / Sepsis1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Delirium1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal State1
4CompletedTreatmentAmbulatory Surgical Procedures / Brachial Plexus Block / Postoperative pain / Shoulder Joint Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy3
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative / Postoperative Complications1
4CompletedTreatmentAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Reflex, Abnormal / Tinnitus, Spontaneous Oto-Acoustic Emission1
4CompletedTreatmentArthropathy of Knee / Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury / Spinal Anaesthesia / Tourniquets1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroscopic Medial Meniscectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair / Axillary nerve block therapy / Dexmedetomidine / Pain Related Cytokine / Postoperative pain / Suprascapular Nerve Block1
4CompletedTreatmentBrain Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer of Kidney and Renal Pelvis / Cancer of Liver1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer of Liver / Cancer of Pancreas1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiac Surgical Procedures1
4CompletedTreatmentCaries of Infancy / Dental Anxiety1
4CompletedTreatmentCarotid Artery Stenosis1
4CompletedTreatmentCentral Nervous System Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Pregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Calculous Cholecystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Dexmedetomidine / Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentCollapse of Lumbar Vertebrae / Collapse of Thoracic Vertebra1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Brain Stimulation Surgery / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Sedation / Illness, Critical / Ventilators, Mechanical1
4CompletedTreatmentDelayed Emergence From Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDelirium / Postoperative Cognitive Deficit (POCD)1
4CompletedTreatmentDelirium / Postoperative Confusion1
4CompletedTreatmentDexmedetomidine in Subarachnoidal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentDisorder; Mental, Sedative / General Surgery / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Usage1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentFailed Moderate Sedation During Procedure / Minimally Conscious State1
4CompletedTreatmentFeeding, Breast / Obstetrical analgesia therapy / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentForearm Injuries / Injuries, Hand / Radius Fractures / Ulna Fractures / Wrist Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentGeneral Anesthesia, Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma / Intraocular Pressure1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadache / Hydrocephaly / Neoplasms, Abdominal / Neurofibromatoses / Seizures Disorders / Spine Deformity / Tumors1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentHemodynamic Response / Skull Pins Application1
4CompletedTreatmentICU Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentIllness, Critical / Sleep1
4CompletedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentIntracranial Aneurysms1
4CompletedTreatmentIntravenous Drug Usage1
4CompletedTreatmentLesions of Lumbosacral Intervertebral Disc / Spinal Diseases / Spinal Fusion Acquired / Stenosis, Spinal1
4CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
4CompletedTreatmentComputerized tomography / MRI of liver / Ultrasound1
4CompletedTreatmentMechanically Ventilated and Intubated Subjects1
4CompletedTreatmentNeuralgia / Opioid-Related Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)2
4CompletedTreatmentOne Lung Ventilation in Thoracic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentOpioid Use, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentOxidative Stress / Sedation1
4CompletedTreatmentPD / POCD / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Delirium1
4CompletedTreatmentPain Postoperative, Intraoperative Hemorrhage1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentPharmacodynamic Interaction1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4CompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation2
4CompletedTreatmentPsychoses, Substance-Induced1
4CompletedTreatmentRetinal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentSequelae of Fracture of Forearm and Upper Arm1
4CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Quality of Patients Undergoing TURP1
4CompletedTreatmentSpinal Anaesthesia2
4CompletedTreatmentSurgical Procedures, Operative1
4CompletedTreatmentThoracic Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareHemodynamics Instability1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareThe Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Quality of Recovery1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplications / Delirium / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentInjury of Upper Limb1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceDeglutition1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
4Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchMRI Sedation1
4Not Yet RecruitingOtherSleep1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCentral Nervous System Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionChronic Pain, Postoperative1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium in Old Age1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionInhalation Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIntravenous Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Delirium1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionStress Related Disorder1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAutistic Disorder1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCardiac; Dysrhythmia, Postoperative / Congenital Heart Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCombined Spinal-epidural Anesthesia1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy / Coughing Response / Thyroid Surgery1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCovid-19 Infection / Novel Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID-19) / Palliative situation / Respiratory Failure1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Epidural Analgesia / Fentanyl / Levobupivacaine / Painless Labor1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDose-Response Relationship, Drug1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEmergency / Procedural anxiety1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLimb Deformities1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia / Spinal Diseases1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMicrocirculation / Transplant, Kidney1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyoclonus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSafety and Efficacy of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceAnesthetic Sparing1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Coronary Artery Disease / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperglycaemia (Diabetic) / Peripheral Vascular Disease Patient1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceKidney Diseases1
4RecruitingBasic SciencePediatric Anesthesia1
4RecruitingDiagnosticHaemodynamic Effects of Dexmedetomidine1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled1
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchEpidural Analgesics for Comparison1
4RecruitingOtherACL Injury1
4RecruitingOtherMRI Sedation1
4RecruitingOtherSedation, Conscious / Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement1
4RecruitingOtherSurgery Ambulatory1
4RecruitingPreventionAbdominal Surgeries / Blood Pressures / Dexmedetomidine / High-risk Patients / Postoperative Complications1
4RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Liver Diseases1
4RecruitingPreventionAdult Disease / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Intensive Care Unit Syndrome / Mechanical Ventilation Complication1
4RecruitingPreventionAlcohol Drinking / Dexmedetomidine / Lumbar epidural anesthesia therapy / Propofol / Sedation, Conscious / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / General Surgery / Postoperative Complications1
4RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / General Surgery / Long-term Outcome1
4RecruitingPreventionAnalgesia / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / General Surgery / Postoperative Complications / Sleeping Quality1
4RecruitingPreventionAnalgesics / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / Central Nervous System Depressants / Cognition Disorder / Cognitive Dysfunctions / Confusion / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Hypnotics and Sedatives / Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action / Nervous System Diseases / Neurobehavioral Manifestations / Neurocognitive Disorders / Neurologic Manifestations / Physiological Effects of Drugs / Psychiatric Disorder NOS / Signs and Symptoms1
4RecruitingPreventionAnalgesics / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Hypnotics and Sedatives / Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action / Neurocognitive Disorders / Pathologic Processes / Physiological Effects of Drugs / Postoperative Complications / Psychiatric Disorder NOS1
4RecruitingPreventionCardiopulmonary Bypass / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Surgery, Cardiac / Survival1
4RecruitingPreventionCognitive Impairments / Delirium / Depression / Dexmedetomidine / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4RecruitingPreventionComplication of Anesthesia / Ischaemia-reperfusion Injury1
4RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Dexmedetomidine / Elderly / Knee Replacement Surgery / Long-term Outcome / Postoperative Delirium1
4RecruitingPreventionDexmedetomidine / Pediatrics / Pharmacodynamics / Pharmacokinetics1
4RecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
4RecruitingPreventionPatients for Transthoracic Echocardiography / Unknown Diagnosis1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative Delirium After Living Donor Renal Transplantation1
4RecruitingPreventionRenal Function1
4RecruitingPreventionSublingual Microcirculation1
4RecruitingPreventionTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAnalgesia, Patient-Controlled1
4RecruitingSupportive CareDeep Brain Stimulation (DBS) / Dexmedetomidine / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareDrug Effect1
4RecruitingSupportive CareIntranasal Bupivacaine / Intranasal Dexmedetomidine / Septoplasty Surgeries1
4RecruitingSupportive CareOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
4RecruitingSupportive CareTotal Intravenous Anesthesia1
4RecruitingTreatmentAblation / Atrial Fibrillation (AF) / Dexmedetomidine / Propofol / Sedation1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Respiratory Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
4RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Postoperative pain / Spinal Diseases / Stenosis, Spinal1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnesthesia Complication1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF)1
4RecruitingTreatmentArteriovenous Fistulas1
4RecruitingTreatmentArteriovenous Malformations1
4RecruitingTreatmentAxillary Lymph Node Dissection / Breast Cancer / Mastectomy / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m21
4RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Nausea, Postoperative / Opioids Use / Postoperative pain / Vomiting, Postoperative1
4RecruitingTreatmentBlood Brain Barrier Defect / Endothelial Dysfunction / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4RecruitingTreatmentBrain / Sedation1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Pain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Valve Disease, Heart1
4RecruitingTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Mechanically Ventilated Sedated Patients / Midazolam / Sedation / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Responses / Metabolic Disturbances / Neoplasms, Brain / Oxygen Deficiency1
4RecruitingTreatmentJoint Inflammation / Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Injuries1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4RecruitingTreatmentPituitary Neoplasms2
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain3
4RecruitingTreatmentRestrictive Lung Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentSedation Complication1
4RecruitingTreatmentSeparation Anxiety1
4RecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic2
4RecruitingTreatmentThoracic Paravertebral Blocks1
4SuspendedBasic ScienceConsciousness / Consciousness, Loss of1
4SuspendedTreatmentAtelectasis / Bronchospasm / Pneumonia, Aspiration / Pneumonitis / Respiratory Failure / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
4TerminatedBasic ScienceSevere Sepsis1
4TerminatedOtherFusion of Spine (Disease)1
4TerminatedPreventionAdenoiditis / Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy / OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome) / Tonsillitis1
4TerminatedPreventionCarotid Artery Stenosis1
4TerminatedSupportive CareBreast Cancer / Modified Radical Mastectomy1
4TerminatedTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Associated Autonomic Hyperactivity / Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium / Alcohol Withdrawal Hallucinosis / Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Delirium Tremens1
4TerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4TerminatedTreatmentFailed Conscious Sedation During Procedure1
4TerminatedTreatmentHeart Diseases1
4TerminatedTreatmentIllness, Critical / Ventilations, Mechanical1
4TerminatedTreatmentLength of Stay / Respiration, Artificial / Sedation1
4TerminatedTreatmentPD / POCD / Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction / Postoperative Delirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAgitation2
4Unknown StatusPreventionDelirium1
4Unknown StatusPreventionEmergence Deliruim; Cerebral Palsy1
4Unknown StatusPreventionGynecological Patient1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPostoperative Confusion1
4Unknown StatusPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareLung Cancers1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareOnset and Duration of Sensory and Motor Block of Femoral Nerve / Time to First Request of Rescue Analgesics / Total Morphine Consumption in 24 Hours / Visual Analogue Pain Scores1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCognitive Ability, General / Injuries, Brain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDelirium2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDexmedetomidine / Mechanically Ventilated Patients / Midazolam / Sedation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentEmergence Agitation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentFailed Conscious Sedation During Procedure1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGastric Resection1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLaryngoscopy / Preanesthetic Medication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPerioperative Blood Glucose and Insulin1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentSafety of Dexmedetomidine Sedation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentThe Efficacy and Safety of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableAbdominal Surgery Patients1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableMicrocirculation1
4WithdrawnSupportive CareDelirium1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAlcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia / Pain, Acute / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4WithdrawnTreatmentAnalgesia / Sedation1
4WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentOrthopedic/Podiatry Procedures1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPalate, Cleft1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableAortic Valve Stenosis1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableDelirium / Respiratory Failure1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableMRI Sedation1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableSedation1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionAnesthesia; Adverse Effect / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Neurodevelopmental Disorders1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionCoronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Shivering1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAdenotonsillectomy / Tonsillectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAirway Reconstruction / Chest Wall Disorders / Esophageal Cancers / Lung Cancers / Lung,Esophageal Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia therapy / Effects of Dexmedetomidine / Elderly Patients / Emergence From Anesthesia / Recovery From Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnesthesia; Reaction1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnxiety / Blood Pressures1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArrhythmia / Blood Electrolyte Balance / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Myocardial Injury / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBlood Flow / Brain Oxygenation / Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) / Intracranial Neurosurgery1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCOPD, One Lung Ventilation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChildren1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCognitive Dysfunctions1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Dexmedetomidine / Dysrhythmia, Cardiac / Hypokalemia / Remifentanil1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Memory1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEmergence Delirium / Strabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEndarterectomy, Carotid1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableEpilepsies1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntensive Care Units1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLung Cancers / Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apneas Syndrome)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOrthopedics1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePostoperative Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRespiratory Morbidity1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTransurethral Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUnder General Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableProlonged sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCritical Care / Deep Sedation / Sedation, Conscious1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHeart Failure1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceInsomnia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSaccadic Eye Movements1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticDexmedetomidine1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticPostoperative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchOpioid Free Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherBariatric Surgery Candidate / Impaired Glucose Tolerance / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDexmedetomidine Induced Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherDexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherEndobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherObese1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherSleep Apnea1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherSleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherStenosis, Spinal1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Kidney Injury(Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Aortic Surgery) / Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Aortic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAcute Renal Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAgeing / Death / Delirium / Dexmedetomidine / Long-Term Survivors / Operative1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAirway Extubation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAmbulatory Orchipexy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAmbulatory Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnesthesia Complication1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionArthroplasty, Replacement / Lower Extremity Surgery With Tourniquet1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionArthroscopic Shoulder Surgery in the Beach-chair Position1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiac Diseases / Delirium1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionConsciousness, Loss of1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCoughing1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDelirium on Emergence1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Thyroid1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPain Control1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPeripheral Obliterative Arteriopathy1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPonv1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost Operative Sore Throat1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostoperative pain3
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProstate Cancer / Robotic Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRegional Cerebral Tissue Oxygen Saturation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRotator Cuff Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionStress Response During Laryngoscopy Intubation1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionTonsillitis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Chronic Lung Diseases / Nephrectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Local Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAnalgesia Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) / Bladder Tumors1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBrachial Plexus Anesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareGeneral Surgery / Neoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSteep Trendelenburg Position With Penumoperitoneum in Robot Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Alcohol Withdrawal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdult Intracranial Tumor / Adult Solid Tumor1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAmbulation Difficulty1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy / Nociceptive Pain / Opioids Use / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnalgesia, Postoperative1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArthroscopic Knee Surgery / Dexmedetomidine / Intra-articular / Lidocaine 5% Patch1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBenign Neoplasm of Vocal Fold - Glottis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Diseases / Neoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCholecystectomy / Elective Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Flexible Bronchoscopy / Sedation1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Skelectal Anomaly1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Dexmedetomidine1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDuchenne's Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDysrhythmia, Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEarly Gastric Cancer Patients Who Were Scheduled for Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFractures, Compression1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGastro-Intestinal Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHemodynamics Instability1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIllness, Critical1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Postoperative pain / Upper Extremity Injury1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPeripheral Solitary Pulmonary Nodule or Tuberculoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative Sedation, Abdominal Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Spontaneous Pneumothorax1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentProcedural Sedation and Analgesia During Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSpine Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentStrabismus1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThe Analgesic Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherIntestinal Microbiota / Ventilations, Mechanical1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherThe Sedation Characteristics of Propofol and Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Brain Biopsy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionDelirium, Dexmedetomidine, Postoperative Patient Controlled Analgesia / Delirium, Dexmedetomidine, Postoperative PCA1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionLaryngectomy; Status1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionPostoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationSupportive CareElective Bilateral Myringotomy1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentChest Wall Disorders1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Cytokine Storm / Delirium, Emergence / Dexmedetomidine / Inflammatory Reaction / Novel Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID-19)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailablePost Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceSedation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingDiagnosticSedation Complication / Sleep1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchEffect of Drugs1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherAdverse Effects1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherAnesthesia and Neurotoxicity1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAgitation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCatheter Related Complications1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionDexmedetomidine / Elderly / General Surgery / Intensive Care Units / Overall Survival1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionFunctional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionIntestinal Complications / Laparotomy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionOrgan Protection1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionPatients Under Hip, Femur, Spine Operation1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareAnaesthesia therapy / Inflammatory Reaction / Postoperative Delirium1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareGastrostomy / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareIntra-operative Bleeding1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingSupportive CareTracheal Reconstruction1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdjuvants,Anesthesia / Balanced Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBrain Glioma1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentCaudal Analgesia for Lumosacral Spine Surgeries1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentGlaucoma1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentHypercatabolism / Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Use Disorders1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentOxidative Stress / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPerioperative Period1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAdrenal Insufficiency / Arrhythmia / Asthma in Children / Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) / Edema / Fibrinolysis; Hemorrhage / Heart Failure / Hemophilia Prior to Tooth Extraction / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypermenorrhea / Hyperphosphataemia / Hypertension, Resistant to Conventional Therapy / Hypokalemia / Insomnia / Pain / Pneumonia / Primary Hyperaldosteronism / Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) / Skin-structure infections / Urinary Tract Infections in Children1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDexmedetomidine / Sedation1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDisorders, Blood Coagulation1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDrug Effect1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableGliomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableIntravenous Anesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableSedative Adverse Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableSniffs Drugs1
Not AvailableRecruitingHealth Services ResearchSedation1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAnesthesia; Reaction1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherAutonomic Nervous System / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDexmedetomidine Infusion / Hypospadias Repair Surgery / Pediatric1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherDexmedetomidine / Lidocaine / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherMitochondrial Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherSedation / Spinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherUterine Malignancies1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAneurysm Cerebral1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCognitive Decline / Delirium / Post-operative Quality of Recovery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDelirium / Dexmedetomidine / Lower Extremity Problem / Propofol1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionEvidence of Liver Transplantation / Myocardial Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionFracture of Proximal Femur1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionLower Limb Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Thyroid1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionOpioids Use / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPost Spinal Anesthesia Shivering1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionRenal Failure1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSepsis-Associated Encephalopathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionTransplantation, Kidney1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionThe Effects of Dexmedetomidine on Blood Glucose and Relevant Hormone1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareDexmedetomidine VS Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Epidural Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareGynecologic Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInfective Endocarditis1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareKnee Arthroscopy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareRadical Cystectomy1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareSpinal Anesthesia Duration1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy3
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Narcotics / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Recovery Quality1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBariatric Surgery Candidate / Opioids Use / Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBenign Tumor of Thyroid / Hyperparathyroidism1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCardiac Surgical Procedures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDelirium / Dexmedetomidine / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDental Surgeries1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPharmacological Action (PA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost-Dural Puncture Headache1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPostoperative Sedation,Gastrectomy, Enhanced Recovery After Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSpondylosis, Cervical1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceTachyarrhythmia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBronchoscopy / Sedation2
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentIntubation Difficult / Intubation; Difficult / Respiration Disorders1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAdult Patients / Patients Covered by French Health Care System / Requiring Sedation in ICU1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableAneurism / Intestinal Fistula / Intestinal Obstruction / Liver Cirrhosis / Neoplasms, Abdominal1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChildren / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Diabetes / Stress1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionOtitis Media (OM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAgitation / Sepsis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareEffect of Dexmedetomidine on Sufentanil Consumption / Quantitative Analysis of Cisatracurium Infusion Requirements, Sufentanil Consumption and Recovery Index in Different Age Groups / The Intraoperative Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Cisatracurium Infusion Consumption and Its Recovery Index1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGeneral Surgery / Neoplasms, Brain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentIntravenous Propofol Injection / Pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMask Acceptance / Post Operative Delerium / Pre Operative Sedation1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTachycardia, Supraventricular1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherCerebral Ischemia-Hypoxia1
Not AvailableWithdrawnOtherSedation1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareIntracranial Pressure Increase1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentSedation; Aged; Hemodynamics1


  • Hospira inc
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Orion Corporation
Dosage forms
InjectionIntravenous100 ug/1mL
InjectionIntravenous200 ug/50mL
InjectionIntravenous4 ug/1mL
InjectionIntravenous400 ug/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous4 ug/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous100 ug/1mL
SolutionIntravenous100 mcg
SolutionIntravenous4 mcg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Precedex 200 mcg/2 ml vial41.32USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more


Experimental Properties
water solubilityFreely soluble in waterNot Available
logP2.8Not Available
pKa7.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.174 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area28.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity62.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9928
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9663
Caco-2 permeable+0.5471
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7118
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8925
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9845
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.824
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8067
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7558
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.5083
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8218
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8564
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5684
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6714
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6167
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.948
Rat acute toxicity2.4712 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9581
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9236
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-xylenes. These are aromatic compounds that contain a o-xylene moiety, which is a monocyclic benzene carrying exactly two methyl groups at the 1- and 2-positions.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Imidazoles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
O-xylene / Heteroaromatic compound / Imidazole / Azole / Azacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
medetomidine (CHEBI:4466)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
  1. Fairbanks CA, Stone LS, Kitto KF, Nguyen HO, Posthumus IJ, Wilcox GL: alpha(2C)-Adrenergic receptors mediate spinal analgesia and adrenergic-opioid synergy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):282-90. [PubMed:11752127]
  2. Scheibner J, Trendelenburg AU, Hein L, Starke K, Blandizzi C: Alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the enteric nervous system: a study in alpha 2A-adrenoceptor-deficient mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Feb;135(3):697-704. [PubMed:11834617]
  3. Davies MF, Tsui J, Flannery JA, Li X, DeLorey TM, Hoffman BB: Activation of alpha2 adrenergic receptors suppresses fear conditioning: expression of c-Fos and phosphorylated CREB in mouse amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Feb;29(2):229-39. [PubMed:14583739]
  4. Dawson C, Ma D, Chow A, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine enhances analgesic action of nitrous oxide: mechanisms of action. Anesthesiology. 2004 Apr;100(4):894-904. [PubMed:15087625]
  5. Ozdogan UK, Lahdesmaki J, Hakala K, Scheinin M: The involvement of alpha 2A-adrenoceptors in morphine analgesia, tolerance and withdrawal in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 23;497(2):161-71. [PubMed:15306201]
  6. Menon DV, Wang Z, Fadel PJ, Arbique D, Leonard D, Li JL, Victor RG, Vongpatanasin W: Central sympatholysis as a novel countermeasure for cocaine-induced sympathetic activation and vasoconstriction in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Aug 14;50(7):626-33. Epub 2007 Jul 30. [PubMed:17692748]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
  1. Avsaroglu H, Bull S, Maas-Bakker RF, Scherpenisse P, Van Lith HA, Bergwerff AA, Hellebrekers LJ, Van Zutphen LF, Fink-Gremmels J: Differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 activity correlate with the strain-specific biotransformation of medetomidine in AX/JU and IIIVO/JU inbred rabbits. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;31(4):368-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2008.00969.x. [PubMed:18638298]
  2. Duhamel MC, Troncy E, Beaudry F: Metabolic stability and determination of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes' contribution to the metabolism of medetomidine in dog liver microsomes. Biomed Chromatogr. 2010 Aug;24(8):868-77. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1379. [PubMed:20020418]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
  1. Konstandi M, Lang MA, Kostakis D, Johnson EO, Marselos M: Predominant role of peripheral catecholamines in the stress-induced modulation of CYP1A2 inducibility by benzo(alpha)pyrene. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Jan;102(1):35-44. Epub 2007 Oct 31. [PubMed:17973897]
  2. Konstandi M, Kostakis D, Harkitis P, Johnson EO, Marselos M, Adamidis K, Lang MA: Benzo(alpha)pyrene-induced up-regulation of CYP1A2 gene expression: role of adrenoceptor-linked signaling pathways. Life Sci. 2006 Jun 20;79(4):331-41. Epub 2006 Feb 28. [PubMed:16510159]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
  1. Konstandi M, Kostakis D, Harkitis P, Marselos M, Johnson EO, Adamidis K, Lang MA: Role of adrenoceptor-linked signaling pathways in the regulation of CYP1A1 gene expression. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 15;69(2):277-87. [PubMed:15627480]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
  1. Rodrigues AD, Roberts EM: The in vitro interaction of dexmedetomidine with human liver microsomal cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6). Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 May;25(5):651-5. [PubMed:9152607]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 05, 2020 23:32

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