Identification

Name
Enflurane
Accession Number
DB00228  (APRD00234)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Description

An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether
  • Alyrane
  • Efrane
  • Enflurane
  • Enflurano
  • Enfluranum
  • Methylflurether
External IDs
Anesthetic 347
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EnfluraneLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Abbvie1993-12-312012-11-02Canada
Ethrane Liq InhLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Ohmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1996-09-181997-08-25Canada
Ethrane Liquid InhLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1997-02-202004-08-05Canada
International/Other Brands
Alyrane (Baxter) / Compound 347 (Dexa Medica) / Endurane (Singapore Pharmawealth Lifesciences) / Enfluran (Cristália) / Ethrane (Abbott)
Categories
UNII
91I69L5AY5
CAS number
13838-16-9
Weight
Average: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Chemical Formula
C3H2ClF5O
InChI Key
JPGQOUSTVILISH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(5)3(8,9)10-2(6)7/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-1-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,2-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(F)(F)C(F)Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia during surgery and cesarean section and also used for analgesia during vaginal delivery.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Enflurane is an extremely stable halogenated ether inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. Enflurane induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. Induction of and recovery from anesthesia with enflurane are rapid. Enflurane may provide a mild stimulus to salivation or tracheobronchial secretions. Pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are readily obtunded. In the cardiovascular system, enflurane is a mild negative inotrope, causing a marked decrease in systemic vascular resistance, thus leading to a decrease in mean arterial pressure. This results in a reflex tachycardia. Enflurane also decreases coronary vascular resistance and sensitizes the myocardium to circulating catecholamines. Enflurane is a strong respiratory depressant. It decreases tidal volume but may increase respiratory rate. It also causes bronchodilatationa and inhibits pulmonary macrophage activity and mucociliary activity. Enflurane principle action in the CNS is general anaesthesia with little analgesic effect. It causes increased cerebral blood flow in concentrations and may induce tonic/clonic muscle activity and epileptiform EEG traces. It also causes a marked decrease in skeletal muscle tone. Actions in the genitourinary system include a decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the tone of pregnant uterus is decreased.

Mechanism of action

Enflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Enflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Enflurane also binds to and angonizes the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glycine receptor, and antagonizes the glutamate receptor receptor. These yield a decreased depolarization and therefore, tissue excitability which results in anesthesia.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
AGlycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)
agonist
Human
UIntermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4
inhibitor
Human
APotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
inducer
Human
ACalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
inhibitor
Human
AGlutamate receptor 1
antagonist
Human
UATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
other/unknown
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed into the circulation via the lungs.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

97%

Metabolism

2.4% of the dose is slowly metabolized hepatically via oxidation and dehalogenation (primarily through the actions of cytochrome P450 2E1). Leads to low levels of serum fluoride (15 µmol/L).

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50=5.4 ml/kg (oral, rat). Symptoms of acute overdose include nausea, vomiting, irritation to the eyes, skin and nose/throat, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness. Symptoms of chronic overdose include hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory depression, and liver/kidney dysfunction.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alprazolam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Asenapine.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Azaperone.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bromazepam.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bromperidol.Investigational
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butabarbital.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butorphanol.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Canertinib.Investigational
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Citalopram.Approved
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clorazepate.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clozapine.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Codeine.Approved, Illicit
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Enflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diazepam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
DopamineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with DPDPE.Experimental
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EphedraEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Ephedra.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Enflurane.Approved
EpinephrineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Estazolam.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Eszopiclone.Approved
EthanolEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethyl chloride.Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etifoxine.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etomidate.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved, Investigational
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Formoterol.Approved, Investigational
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gabapentin.Approved, Investigational
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydrocodoneEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hydromorphone.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsoprenalineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoprenaline.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levorphanol.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lithium.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Enflurane.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Loxapine.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Melperone.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved, Investigational
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methohexital.Approved
MethotrimeprazineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methylecgonine.Experimental
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase the hypertensive activities of Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetyrosineEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Midazolam.Approved, Illicit
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nalbuphine.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NicotineThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NorepinephrineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Norepinephrine.Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Norflurane.Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ondansetron.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxazepam.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxethazaine.Approved, Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Paliperidone.Approved
ParaldehydeEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pentazocine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perphenazine.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pimozide.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pipamperone.Approved, Investigational
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PramipexoleEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe therapeutic efficacy of Enflurane can be increased when used in combination with Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prilocaine.Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prochlorperazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Quinisocaine.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Enflurane.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sepranolone.Investigational
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sulpiride.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SuvorexantEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Temazepam.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triazolam.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trichloroethylene.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Xenon.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zaleplon.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zopiclone.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zotepine.Approved, Investigational
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Terrell, R.C.; U.S. Patents 3,469,011; September 23,1969 and 3,527,813; September 8, 1970; both assigned to Air Reduction Company, Incorporated.

General References
  1. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14373
KEGG Drug
D00543
KEGG Compound
C07516
PubChem Compound
3226
PubChem Substance
46505314
ChemSpider
3113
ChEBI
4792
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1257
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000799
PharmGKB
PA449461
Wikipedia
Enflurane
ATC Codes
N01AB04 — Enflurane
MSDS
Download (64.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Piramal critical care inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ethrane inhalation0.55USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)56.5Terrell, R.C.; U.S. Patents 3,469,011; September 23,1969 and 3,527,813; September 8, 1970; both assigned to Air Reduction Company, Incorporated.
water solubility5620 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.10HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.24ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.994
Caco-2 permeable+0.6125
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8919
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9297
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7179
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5701
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9408
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5794
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8702
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7574
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9642
Rat acute toxicity1.3804 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9032
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.54 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0gb9-9300000000-03817aefdcc06ee54c49
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organofluorides. These are compounds containing a chemical bond between a carbon atom and a fluorine atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organohalogen compounds
Class
Organofluorides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Organofluorides
Alternative Parents
Organooxygen compounds / Organochlorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Alkyl fluorides / Alkyl chlorides
Substituents
Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Organofluoride / Organochloride / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Alkyl chloride / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound, organochlorine compound, ether (CHEBI:4792)

Targets

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Positive allosteric modulator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...

Components:
References
  1. Franks NP: Molecular targets underlying general anaesthesia. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S72-81. [PubMed:16402123]
  2. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644]
  3. Greenblatt EP, Meng X: Divergence of volatile anesthetic effects in inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jun;94(6):1026-33. [PubMed:11465594]
  4. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).

Components:
References
  1. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644]
  2. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein phosphatase binding
Specific Function
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium (PubMed:26148990). Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. Requi...
Gene Name
KCNN4
Uniprot ID
O15554
Uniprot Name
Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4
Molecular Weight
47695.12 Da
References
  1. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [PubMed:10794813]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:1990381...
Gene Name
KCNA1
Uniprot ID
Q09470
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
Molecular Weight
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Kosk-Kosicka D: Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase as a target for volatile anesthetics. Adv Pharmacol. 1994;31:313-22. [PubMed:7873420]
  2. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIA1
Uniprot ID
P42261
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport comp...
Gene Name
ATP5D
Uniprot ID
P30049
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110]
  2. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 07, 2017 01:34