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Identification
NameEnflurane
Accession NumberDB00228  (APRD00234)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
DescriptionAn extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether
Alyrane
Efrane
Enflurane
Enflurano
Enfluranum
Ethrane
Methylflurether
External Identifiers
  • Anesthetic 347
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EnfluraneLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Abbvie Corporation1993-12-312012-11-02Canada
Ethrane Liq InhLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Ohmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1996-09-181997-08-25Canada
Ethrane Liquid InhLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Baxter Corporation1997-02-202004-08-05Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlyraneBaxter
Compound 347Dexa Medica
EnduraneSingapore Pharmawealth Lifesciences
EnfluranCristália
EthraneAbbott
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII91I69L5AY5
CAS number13838-16-9
WeightAverage: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Chemical FormulaC3H2ClF5O
InChI KeyJPGQOUSTVILISH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(5)3(8,9)10-2(6)7/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-1-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,2-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(F)(F)C(F)Cl
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia during surgery and cesarean section and also used for analgesia during vaginal delivery.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsEnflurane is an extremely stable halogenated ether inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. Enflurane induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. Induction of and recovery from anesthesia with enflurane are rapid. Enflurane may provide a mild stimulus to salivation or tracheobronchial secretions. Pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are readily obtunded. In the cardiovascular system, enflurane is a mild negative inotrope, causing a marked decrease in systemic vascular resistance, thus leading to a decrease in mean arterial pressure. This results in a reflex tachycardia. Enflurane also decreases coronary vascular resistance and sensitizes the myocardium to circulating catecholamines. Enflurane is a strong respiratory depressant. It decreases tidal volume but may increase respiratory rate. It also causes bronchodilatationa and inhibits pulmonary macrophage activity and mucociliary activity. Enflurane principle action in the CNS is general anaesthesia with little analgesic effect. It causes increased cerebral blood flow in concentrations and may induce tonic/clonic muscle activity and epileptiform EEG traces. It also causes a marked decrease in skeletal muscle tone. Actions in the genitourinary system include a decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the tone of pregnant uterus is decreased.
Mechanism of actionEnflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Enflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Enflurane also binds to and angonizes the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glycine receptor, and antagonizes the glutamate receptor receptor. These yield a decreased depolarization and therefore, tissue excitability which results in anesthesia.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
GABA-A receptor (anion channel)Protein groupyes
positive allosteric modulator
Humannot applicabledetails
Glycine receptor (alpha-1/beta)Protein groupyes
agonist
Humannot applicabledetails
Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanO15554 details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1Proteinyes
inducer
HumanQ09470 details
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP98194 details
Glutamate receptor 1Proteinyes
antagonist
HumanP42261 details
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialProteinunknown
other/unknown
HumanP30049 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed into the circulation via the lungs.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding97%
Metabolism

2.4% of the dose is slowly metabolized hepatically via oxidation and dehalogenation (primarily through the actions of cytochrome P450 2E1). Leads to low levels of serum fluoride (15 µmol/L).

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=5.4 ml/kg (oral, rat). Symptoms of acute overdose include nausea, vomiting, irritation to the eyes, skin and nose/throat, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness. Symptoms of chronic overdose include hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory depression, and liver/kidney dysfunction.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,1,1,2 TetrafluoroethaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with 1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane.Investigational
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alprazolam.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Asenapine.Approved
Atracurium besylateEnflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Azaperone.Vet Approved
AzelastineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Azelastine.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brimonidine.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bromazepam.Approved, Illicit
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Withdrawn
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Buspirone.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butabarbital.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butorphanol.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clorazepate.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clozapine.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Codeine.Approved, Illicit
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Enflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dezocine.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diazepam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.Approved
DopamineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Illicit
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.Experimental
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EphedraEphedra may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Enflurane.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Enflurane.Approved
EpinephrineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Estazolam.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Eszopiclone.Approved
EthanolEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etifoxine.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etomidate.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluphenazine.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flurazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Formoterol.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gabapentin.Approved, Investigational
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydrocodoneEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hydromorphone.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsoprenalineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoprenaline.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levodopa.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levorphanol.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lithium.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Enflurane.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Loxapine.Approved
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lu AA21004.Investigational
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Melperone.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Meprobamate.Approved, Illicit
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methohexital.Approved
MethotrimeprazineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase the hypertensive activities of Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetyrosineEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Midazolam.Approved, Illicit
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
MirtazapineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MivacuriumEnflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nalbuphine.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NicotineThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NorepinephrineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Norepinephrine.Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ondansetron.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxazepam.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxetacaine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Paliperidone.Approved
ParaldehydeEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pentazocine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perphenazine.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pimozide.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pregnanolone.Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prilocaine.Approved
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prochlorperazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Promethazine.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RapacuroniumEnflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Enflurane.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Enflurane.Approved
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.Experimental
Sage 547The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sage 547.Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sulpiride.Approved
SuvorexantEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Temazepam.Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thioridazine.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tiapride.Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triazolam.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
Uc1010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Uc1010.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zaleplon.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zopiclone.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Terrell, R.C.; U.S. Patents 3,469,011; September 23,1969 and 3,527,813; September 8,
1970; both assigned to Air Reduction Company, Incorporated.

General References
  1. Link [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesN01AB04
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (64.9 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.994
Caco-2 permeable+0.6125
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8919
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9297
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7179
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5701
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9408
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5794
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8702
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7574
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9642
Rat acute toxicity1.3804 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9032
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Piramal critical care inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ethrane inhalation0.55USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point56.5Terrell, R.C.; U.S. Patents 3,469,011; September 23,1969 and 3,527,813; September 8, 1970; both assigned to Air Reduction Company, Incorporated.
water solubility5620 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.10HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.24ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.54 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0gb9-9300000000-03817aefdcc06ee54c49View in MoNA
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as halomethanes. These are organic compounds in which at least one of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassAlkyl halides
Sub ClassHalomethanes
Direct ParentHalomethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Halomethane
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. Franks NP: Molecular targets underlying general anaesthesia. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S72-81. [PubMed:16402123 ]
  2. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644 ]
  3. Greenblatt EP, Meng X: Divergence of volatile anesthetic effects in inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jun;94(6):1026-33. [PubMed:11465594 ]
  4. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1P23415 Details
Glycine receptor subunit betaP48167 Details
References
  1. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644 ]
  2. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein phosphatase binding
Specific Function:
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium (PubMed:26148990). Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. Required for maximal calcium influx and proliferation during the reactivation of naive T-cells. The channel is blocked by clotrimazole and charybdotoxin but is insensitive to apamin (PubMed:17157250, PubMe...
Gene Name:
KCNN4
Uniprot ID:
O15554
Molecular Weight:
47695.12 Da
References
  1. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [PubMed:10794813 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:19903818). Contributes to the regulation of the membrane potential and nerve signaling, and prevents neuronal hyperexcitability (PubMed:17156368). Forms tetrameric potassium-selective channels through which ...
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular Weight:
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Kosk-Kosicka D: Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase as a target for volatile anesthetics. Adv Pharmacol. 1994;31:313-22. [PubMed:7873420 ]
  2. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked toget...
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular Weight:
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110 ]
  2. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23