Identification

Name
Clonidine
Accession Number
DB00575  (APRD00174, DB07566)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Clonidine, an imidazoline-derivative hypotensive agent is a centrally-acting α2-adrenergic agonist. It crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts in the hypothalamus to induce a decrease in blood pressure. It may also be administered as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone. Clonidine may be used for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients. Other uses for clonidine include prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clonidine also exhibits some peripheral activity.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-[(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)imino]imidazoline
  • 2,6-Dichloro-N-2-imidazolidinylidenebenzenamine
  • Chlofazoline
  • Clonidin
  • Clonidina
  • Clonidinum
External IDs
ST 155 / ST 155-BS
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Clonidine HydrochlorideW76I6XXF064205-91-8ZNIFSRGNXRYGHF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CatapresTablet0.100 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1974-09-032011-06-30Us
CatapresPatch, extended release0.1 mg/24hTransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-12-092012-06-30Us
CatapresTablet0.200 mg/1OralBoehringer Ingelheim1999-05-01Not applicableUs
CatapresTablet0.200 mg/1OralBoehringer Ingelheim Promeco s.a. De c.v.1999-05-012013-03-25Us
CatapresPatch, extended release0.3 mg/24hTransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2004-07-082012-06-30Us
CatapresTablet0.100 mg/1OralBoehringer Ingelheim1999-05-01Not applicableUs
CatapresTablet0.100 mg/1OralBoehringer Ingelheim Promeco s.a. De c.v.1999-05-012013-03-25Us
CatapresTablet0.200 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1974-09-032011-06-30Us
CatapresTablet0.1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-10-07Not applicableUs
CatapresPatch, extended release0.1 mg/24hTransdermalRebel Distributors1985-10-01Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-clonidineTablet0.025 mgOralApotex Corporation2004-07-13Not applicableCanada
Apo-clonidine Tab 0.1mgTablet.1 mgOralApotex Corporation1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-clonidine Tab 0.2mgTablet.2 mgOralApotex Corporation1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
ClonidinePatch0.1 mg/1dTransdermalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-09-24Not applicableUs
ClonidineTablet0.1 mg/1OralStat Rx USA1986-12-16Not applicableUs00228 2127 10 nlmimage10 5321a9ed
ClonidinePatch, extended release0.1 mg/24hTransdermalTeva2010-08-252018-04-30Us
ClonidinePatch0.2 mg/1dTransdermalPar Pharmaceutical2009-08-202012-06-30Us
ClonidinePatch0.2 mg/1dTransdermalMylan Pharmaceuticals2013-02-08Not applicableUs
ClonidinePatch, extended release0.2 mg/24hTransdermalLake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Produts Llc2010-08-252016-06-01Us
ClonidinePatch, extended release0.1 mg/24hTransdermalCorium International, Inc.2016-08-03Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.1 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Pharmaceuticals1998-03-132018-02-28Us
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.1 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Bertek Pharmaceuticals2015-11-012015-11-19Us
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.2 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-04-152011-06-30Us
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.3 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Pharmaceuticals1998-03-132018-02-28Us
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.3 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Bertek Pharmaceuticals2015-11-012015-11-19Us
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.1 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-01-262011-06-30Us
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.2 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Pharmaceuticals1998-03-132018-02-28Us
ClorpresClonidine Hydrochloride (0.2 mg/1) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg/1)TabletOralMylan Bertek Pharmaceuticals2015-11-012015-11-19Us
Combipres 0.1/15 TabClonidine Hydrochloride (.1 mg) + Chlorthalidone (15 mg)TabletOralBoehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd Ltee1974-12-311997-08-14Canada
KapvayClonidine Hydrochloride (0.1 mg/1) + Clonidine Hydrochloride (0.2 mg/1)KitOralShionogi2010-12-092014-08-31Us
International/Other Brands
Catapres-TTS (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Catapresan (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Catapressan (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Dixarit (Boehringer Ingelheim) / Isoglaucon (Agepha) / Run Rui (Bausch & Lomb) / Velaril (Roemmers) / Winpress (Winston)
Categories
UNII
MN3L5RMN02
CAS number
4205-90-7
Weight
Average: 230.094
Monoisotopic: 229.017352717
Chemical Formula
C9H9Cl2N3
InChI Key
GJSURZIOUXUGAL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H9Cl2N3/c10-6-2-1-3-7(11)8(6)14-9-12-4-5-13-9/h1-3H,4-5H2,(H2,12,13,14)
IUPAC Name
N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amine
SMILES
ClC1=CC=CC(Cl)=C1NC1=NCCN1

Pharmacology

Indication

May be used as an adjunct in the treatment of hypertension, as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone, for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients, prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Clonidine is an α-adrenergic agent that acts specifically on α2-receptors. α2-receptors regulate a number of signaling pathways mediated by multiple Gi proteins, Gαi1, Gαi2, and G&alphai3. Stimulation of α2-receptors mediates effects such as inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, stimulation fo phospholipase D, stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, stimulation of K+ currents and inhibition of Ca2+ currents. Three G-protein coupled α2-receptor subtypes have been identified: α2A, α2B, and α2C. Each subtype has a unique pattern of tissue distribution in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The α2A-receptor is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system; it is found in the locus coeruleus, brain stem nuclei, cerebral cortex, septum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. α2A-receptors are also expressed in the kidneys, spleen, thymus, lung and salivary glands. The α2C-receptor is primarily expressed in the central nervous system, including the striatum, olfactory tubercle, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Low levels of the α2C-subtype are also found in the kidneys. The α2B-receptor is located primarily in the periphery (kidney, liver, lung and heart) with low levels of expression in the thalamic nuclei of the central nervous system. The α2A- and α2C-receptors are located presynaptically and inhibit the released of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves. Stimulation of these receptors decreases sympathetic tone, resulting in decreases in blood pressure and heart rate. Sedation and analgesia is mediated by centrally located α2A-receptors, while peripheral α2B-receptors mediate constriction of vascular smooth muscle. α2A-Receptors also mediate essential components of the analgesic effect of nitrous oxide in the spinal cord. Clonidine stimulates all three α2-receptor subtypes with similar potency. Its actions in the nervous system decreases blood pressure in patients with hypertension and decreases sympathetic overactivity in patients undergoing opioid withdrawal. Clonidine is also a potent sedative and analgesic and can prevent post-operative shivering in intensive and post-operative care. Its use in differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma owes to the fact that hypertension in patients with pheochromocytoma is refractory to antihypertensive treatment with clonidine.

Mechanism of action

See Pharmacology section above.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-2B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-2C adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
UAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
UAlpha-1B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
UAlpha-1D adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Well absorbed following oral administration. Bioavailability following chronic administration is approximately 65%.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

20-40%, primarily to albumin

Metabolism

Hepatic. Metabolized via minor pathways. The major metabolite, p-hydroxyclonidine, is present in concentrations less than 10% of those of unchanged clonidine in urine. Four metabolites have been detected, but only p-hydroxyclonidine has been identified.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

6-20 hours; 40-60% is excreted in urine unchanged, 20% is excreted in feces. Less than 10% is excreted by p-hydroxyclonidine.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral LD50 is 150 mg/kg in rat and 30 mg/kg in dog. Symptoms of overdose include constriction of pupils of the eye, drowsiness, high blood pressure followed by a drop in pressure, irritability, low body temperature, slowed breathing, slowed heartbeat, slowed reflexes, and weakness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Clonidine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Clonidine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of Clonidine can be decreased when combined with 5-androstenedione.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

David R. Pierce, William D. Dean, Michael E. Deason, "Process for preparation of clonidine derivatives." U.S. Patent US5684156, issued October, 1968.

US5684156
General References
  1. Schapiro NA: "Dude, you don't have Tourette's:" Tourette's syndrome, beyond the tics. Pediatr Nurs. 2002 May-Jun;28(3):243-6, 249-53. [PubMed:12087644]
  2. Hossmann V, Maling TJ, Hamilton CA, Reid JL, Dollery CT: Sedative and cardiovascular effects of clonidine and nitrazepam. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980 Aug;28(2):167-76. [PubMed:7398184]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014714
KEGG Drug
D00281
PubChem Compound
2803
PubChem Substance
46508119
ChemSpider
2701
BindingDB
14062
ChEBI
46632
ChEMBL
CHEMBL134
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000231
PharmGKB
PA449051
IUPHAR
516
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
CLU
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Clonidine
ATC Codes
S01EA04 — ClonidineN02CX02 — ClonidineC02LC01 — Clonidine and diureticsC02AC01 — ClonidineC02LC51 — Clonidine and diuretics, combinations with other drugs
AHFS Codes
  • 24:08.16 — Central Alpha-agonists
PDB Entries
2pnc
MSDS
Download (73.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBlood Pressures / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAmphetamine-Related Disorders / Moods Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentCocaine Abuse / Heroin Abuse1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders1
1RecruitingTreatmentCutaneous Nerves CNS Itch1
1RecruitingTreatmentHypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Orthostatic Intolerance / Tachycardia1
1, 2CompletedPreventionPost Operative Pain1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentOpioid Addiction / Opioid Dependence / Opioid Related Disorders1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute / Respiration stimulated / Sedation therapy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMechanical Ventilation Complication1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pregnancy Toxemias / Proteinuria1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentTreatment-Related Cancer1
2CompletedSupportive CareCholesteatoma / Cochlear Implants / Mastoidectomy / Tympanomastoid Surgery1
2CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
2CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy2
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Painful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Neuropathy / Painful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN)2
2CompletedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
2CompletedTreatmentHydrocele / Inguinal Hernias1
2CompletedTreatmentIncontinence, Fecal1
2CompletedTreatmentMyalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)1
2CompletedTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentPain NOS3
2CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2CompletedTreatmentPainful Diabetic Neuropathy (PDN)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMpulse Control Disorders / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Menopausal Hot Flushes1
2RecruitingTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Prehypertension1
2RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
2TerminatedTreatmentDelirium1
2TerminatedTreatmentVasospasm1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentArrythmias / Pain NOS1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentFeeling Anxious1
2WithdrawnTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders1
2WithdrawnTreatmentOther Reconstructive Surgery1
2, 3CompletedPreventionTransversus Abdominis Plane Block / Transversus Abdominis Plane Block, Pediatric Laparoscopy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentSubstance, Addiction1
2, 3TerminatedDiagnosticShock, Septic1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentCannabis Dependence / Marijuana Dependence1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedPreventionIs an Only Child1
3CompletedPreventionNegative Behaviour Change1
3CompletedPreventionNormal Pregnancies1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
3CompletedTreatmentBiceps Tendonitis1
3CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
3CompletedTreatmentUpper Extremity Fractures1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChild Preschool1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDelirium1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSedation in Critically Ill Patients1
3RecruitingSupportive CareIntraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring / Pain Management1
3RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs1
3RecruitingTreatmentBile Acid Malabsorption / Incontinence, Fecal1
3RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
3RecruitingTreatmentLocoregional Analgesia / Neoplasms, Breast1
3RecruitingTreatmentPain NOS1
3RecruitingTreatmentScoliosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentSedation in Intensive Care1
3RecruitingTreatmentLumbar epidural anesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedTreatmentPain NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetic Neuropathies / Pain NOS1
3WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative Hyperalgesia1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnterior Cruciate Ligament Injury1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4CompletedPreventionPsychomotor Agitation1
4CompletedPreventionShivering1
4CompletedTreatmentAnalgesia / Pain NOS / Systemic Inflammatory Stress Response1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness / Deep Sedation / Respiration, Artificial / Sedation, Conscious1
4CompletedTreatmentDelirium1
4CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome / Tic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentGlycemia During Coronary Artery Bypass Graft / Sedation During Pre-anesthetic Medication1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)2
4CompletedTreatmentLabour1
4CompletedTreatmentLabour Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentLocal Anesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentOpiate withdrawal symptoms / Opioid-use Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentPhysiology, Ocular / Regional Blood Flow1
4CompletedTreatmentPost-Operative Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentPreeclampsia1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceFeeling Anxious / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingPreventionPostoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcetabular Labrum Tear / Femoroacetabular Impingement / Hip Dysplasia1
4RecruitingTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
4RecruitingTreatmentLabour Pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpiate withdrawal symptoms1
4RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain2
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder, Mania1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticAtaxia Telangiectasia (AT) / Growth Failure1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHeart Diseases1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentNeonates / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPatients to Benefit a Planned Femoropopliteal Bypass Through PAOD (Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease) Stage II or III1
4WithdrawnPreventionKnee Arthroscopy / Shoulder Arthroscopy1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableLabour Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMyalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRhytidoplasty1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceIntrusive Memories1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSecondary Hyperalgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareComplex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareFeeling Anxious / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareOsteoarthritis (OA) / Post-traumatic; Arthrosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAscitic Cirrhosis / Hyperactivation of Sympathetic Nervous System1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCVA (Cerebrovascular Accident) / Intracerebral Hemorrhage / Intracranial Hemorrhages1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpiate Addiction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cardiovascular Risk Factors / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Mental status changes / Sleep Apnea Syndrome / Sleep Bruxism / Sleep disorders and disturbances / Temporomandibular Disorders / Thyroid Dysfunction1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAsphyxia Neonatorum1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentRenal Dialysis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSubstance Withdrawal Syndrome1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBack Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDrug withdrawal syndrome neonatal1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentFeeling Anxious / Pain NOS1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLumbar and Other Intervertebral Disc Disorders With Radiculopathy1
Not AvailableWithdrawnBasic ScienceExperimental Pain Perception1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentFull Term Pregnant Patients / Undergoing Lower Segment Caesarian Section1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentVentricular Tachycardia (VT)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Boehringer ingelheim
  • Aveva drug delivery systems inc
  • Mylan technologies inc
  • Tris pharma inc
  • Pharmaforce inc
  • Bioniche pharma usa llc
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • American therapeutics inc
  • Dava pharmaceuticals inc
  • Duramed pharmaceuticals inc sub barr laboratories inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Interpharm inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Unichem laboratories ltd
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Shionogi pharma inc
Packagers
  • AAIPharma Inc.
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Alza Corp.
  • American Regent
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Blenheim Pharmacal
  • Boehringer Ingelheim Ltd.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Central Texas Community Health Centers
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • DAVA Pharmaceuticals
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Global Pharmaceuticals
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mutual Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Mylan
  • Neighborcare Repackaging Inc.
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmaforce Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Remedy Repack
  • Richmond Pharmacy
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Unichem Laboratories Ltd.
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
  • Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal0.1 mg/24h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal0.2 mg/24h
Patch, extended releaseTransdermal0.3 mg/24h
TabletOral.300 mg/1
PatchTransdermal0.1 mg/1d
PatchTransdermal0.2 mg/1d
PatchTransdermal0.3 mg/1d
TabletOral.2 mg
Injection, solutionEpidural0.1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural0.5 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural100 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionEpidural500 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous100 ug/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous500 ug/1mL
TabletOral.1 mg/1
TabletOral.2 mg/1
TabletOral.3 mg/1
TabletOral0.1 mg/1
TabletOral0.100 mg/1
TabletOral0.2 mg/1
TabletOral0.200 mg/1
TabletOral0.3 mg/1
TabletOral0.300 mg/1
TabletOral
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.1 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.5 mg/1mL
KitOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral0.1 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral0.2 mg/1
For suspension, extended releaseOral0.09 mg/1mL
Suspension, extended releaseOral0.09 mg/1mL
Tablet, extended releaseOral0.17 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral0.26 mg/1
TabletOral.1 mg
TabletOral0.025 mg
TabletOral0.1 mg
TabletOral0.2 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Catapres-TTS-3 4 0.3 mg/24hr Patches Box328.42USD box
CloNIDine HCl 4 0.3 mg/24hr Patches Box279.9USD box
Catapres-TTS-2 4 0.2 mg/24hr Patches Box236.75USD box
CloNIDine HCl 4 0.2 mg/24hr Patches Box201.75USD box
Catapres-TTS-1 4 0.1 mg/24hr Patches Box141.08USD box
CloNIDine HCl 4 0.1 mg/24hr Patches Box119.84USD box
Catapres-tts 3 patch78.95USD patch
Clonidine 0.3 mg/day patch67.28USD patch
Clonidine hcl powder53.09USD g
Clonidine 0.2 mg/day patch48.5USD patch
Duraclon 500 mcg/ml vial47.4USD ml
Catapres-tts 2 patch39.23USD patch
Clonidine 0.1 mg/day patch28.81USD patch
Catapres-tts 1 patch21.18USD patch
Clonidine 5000 mcg/10 ml vial21.0USD ml
Duraclon 0.1 mg/ml vial14.4USD ml
Clonidine 1000 mcg/10 ml vial5.04USD ml
Catapres 0.3 mg tablet2.98USD tablet
Catapres 0.2 mg tablet2.35USD tablet
Catapres 0.1 mg tablet1.57USD tablet
Clonidine hcl 0.3 mg tablet0.5USD tablet
Clonidine hcl 0.2 mg tablet0.35USD tablet
Catapres 0.2 mg Tablet0.35USD tablet
Apo-Clonidine 0.2 mg Tablet0.33USD tablet
Novo-Clonidine 0.2 mg Tablet0.33USD tablet
Nu-Clonidine 0.2 mg Tablet0.33USD tablet
Dixarit 0.025 mg Tablet0.28USD tablet
Clonidine hcl 0.1 mg tablet0.24USD tablet
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Novo-Clonidine 0.1 mg Tablet0.18USD tablet
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5869100No1993-10-132013-10-13Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)3053,202,660
water solubilityAppreciableNot Available
logP1.59HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Caco2 permeability-4.59ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.05 (at 25 °C)KONTTURI,K & MURTOMAKI,L (1992)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.48 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.55ALOGPS
logP2.49ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area36.42 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity59.09 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9632
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9402
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6305
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9061
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8383
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.745
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8219
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6984
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6353
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8998
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7681
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8732
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8332
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.803
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9303
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9949
Rat acute toxicity3.5030 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7232
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8905
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-003r-5970000000-33c27878b8b7ad9d5d75
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-2c051509a637beaafe73
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-f1477af875c25c537ccb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-ccdeb1dfce0424b12c0c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01po-6950000000-dd68628a46215027ef29
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-6900000000-ce531320f1fda74d127e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03fr-2980000000-24b18e2a89a65b2b178f
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0190000000-7cbbf9fb244993abe922

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dichlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing a benzene with exactly two chlorine atoms attached to it.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Dichlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Aniline and substituted anilines / Aryl chlorides / Imidazolines / Guanidines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1,3-dichlorobenzene / Aniline or substituted anilines / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / 2-imidazoline / Guanidine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidamide / Azacycle
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
clonidine (CHEBI:3757)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Fairbanks CA, Stone LS, Kitto KF, Nguyen HO, Posthumus IJ, Wilcox GL: alpha(2C)-Adrenergic receptors mediate spinal analgesia and adrenergic-opioid synergy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):282-90. [PubMed:11752127]
  2. Lavand'homme PM, Ma W, De Kock M, Eisenach JC: Perineural alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor activation inhibits spinal cord neuroplasticity and tactile allodynia after nerve injury. Anesthesiology. 2002 Oct;97(4):972-80. [PubMed:12357167]
  3. Ozdogan UK, Lahdesmaki J, Hakala K, Scheinin M: The involvement of alpha 2A-adrenoceptors in morphine analgesia, tolerance and withdrawal in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Aug 23;497(2):161-71. [PubMed:15306201]
  4. Ozdogan UK, Lahdesmaki J, Mansikka H, Scheinin M: Loss of amitriptyline analgesia in alpha 2A-adrenoceptor deficient mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Feb 6;485(1-3):193-6. [PubMed:14757140]
  5. Wang XM, Zhang ZJ, Bains R, Mokha SS: Effect of antisense knock-down of alpha(2a)- and alpha(2c)-adrenoceptors on the antinociceptive action of clonidine on trigeminal nociception in the rat. Pain. 2002 Jul;98(1-2):27-35. [PubMed:12098614]
  6. Hein, L. (2004). alpha-Adrenergic system. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 27-30). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine...
Gene Name
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID
P18089
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Hein, L. (2004). alpha-Adrenergic system. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 27-30). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID
P18825
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Hein, L. (2004). alpha-Adrenergic system. In Encyclopedic reference of molecular pharmacology (pp. 27-30). Berlin: Springer. [ISBN:9783540298328]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. PDSP Ki Database [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID
P35368
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
56835.375 Da
References
  1. PDSP Ki Database [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID
P25100
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
60462.205 Da
References
  1. PDSP Ki Database [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Claessens AJ, Risler LJ, Eyal S, Shen DD, Easterling TR, Hebert MF: CYP2D6 mediates 4-hydroxylation of clonidine in vitro: implication for pregnancy-induced changes in clonidine clearance. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Sep;38(9):1393-6. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.033878. Epub 2010 Jun 22. [PubMed:20570945]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Data is limited to an in vitro study.
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Claessens AJ, Risler LJ, Eyal S, Shen DD, Easterling TR, Hebert MF: CYP2D6 mediates 4-hydroxylation of clonidine in vitro: implication for pregnancy-induced changes in clonidine clearance. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Sep;38(9):1393-6. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.033878. Epub 2010 Jun 22. [PubMed:20570945]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Claessens AJ, Risler LJ, Eyal S, Shen DD, Easterling TR, Hebert MF: CYP2D6 mediates 4-hydroxylation of clonidine in vitro: implication for pregnancy-induced changes in clonidine clearance. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Sep;38(9):1393-6. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.033878. Epub 2010 Jun 22. [PubMed:20570945]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID
P04798
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A1
Molecular Weight
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Claessens AJ, Risler LJ, Eyal S, Shen DD, Easterling TR, Hebert MF: CYP2D6 mediates 4-hydroxylation of clonidine in vitro: implication for pregnancy-induced changes in clonidine clearance. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Sep;38(9):1393-6. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.033878. Epub 2010 Jun 22. [PubMed:20570945]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Claessens AJ, Risler LJ, Eyal S, Shen DD, Easterling TR, Hebert MF: CYP2D6 mediates 4-hydroxylation of clonidine in vitro: implication for pregnancy-induced changes in clonidine clearance. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Sep;38(9):1393-6. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.033878. Epub 2010 Jun 22. [PubMed:20570945]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755]
  2. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Gray AT, Yost SC, Terashita S, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional expression of a human liver organic cation transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;51(6):913-21. [PubMed:9187257]
  3. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880]
  4. Martel F, Vetter T, Russ H, Grundemann D, Azevedo I, Koepsell H, Schomig E: Transport of small organic cations in the rat liver. The role of the organic cation transporter OCT1. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1996 Aug-Sep;354(3):320-6. [PubMed:8878062]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Huang W, Ganapathy ME, Wang H, Kekuda R, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structure, function, and regional distribution of the organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000 Sep;279(3):F449-58. [PubMed:10966924]
  2. Martel F, Grundemann D, Calhau C, Schomig E: Apical uptake of organic cations by human intestinal Caco-2 cells: putative involvement of ASF transporters. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2001 Jan;363(1):40-9. [PubMed:11191835]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without...
Gene Name
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID
Q9H015
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 4
Molecular Weight
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:43