Identification

Name
Isoflurane
Accession Number
DB00753  (APRD00212)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether
  • Isoflurane
  • Isoflurano
  • Isofluranum
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ForaneLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
ForaneInhalant1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1979-12-18Not applicableUs
Forane Liq InhLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Ohmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1994-12-311996-09-26Canada
Isoflurane USPLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Technilab Pharma Inc.1999-01-212008-08-05Canada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)Abbvie1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Fresenius Kabi1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Halocarbon Laboratories, A Division Of Halocarbon Products Corp.2004-11-03Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Halocarbon Products Corp.1999-10-20Not applicableUs
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2013-11-13Not applicableUs
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Hospira, Inc.2005-08-012012-03-01Us
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2011-10-07Not applicableUs
TerrellLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2012-03-21Not applicableUs
TerrellLiquid1 mL/1mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2010-01-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Aerrane (Baxter) / Forene (Abbott) / Isocane (Lunan) / Isorane (Abbott)
Categories
UNII
CYS9AKD70P
CAS number
26675-46-7
Weight
Average: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Chemical Formula
C3H2ClF5O
InChI Key
PIWKPBJCKXDKJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(Cl)C(F)(F)F

Pharmacology

Indication

For induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Isoflurane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.

Mechanism of action

Isoflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Isoflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. Also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Isoflurane also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor and the glycine receptor.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
ACalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
inhibitor
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlutamate receptor 1
antagonist
Human
APotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
inducer
Human
UATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
unknown
Human
UCalmodulin
other/unknown
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
antagonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2
antagonist
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Minimal

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LC50=15300 ppm/3 hrs (inhalation by rat)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S---Not Availablec.3257G>A / c.520C>TADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details
Ryanodine receptor 1---Not Availablec.103T>C / c.487C>T  … show all ADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Isoflurane can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.
AbexinostatThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Abexinostat.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Acebutolol.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Leonid A. Rozov, Fernando Quiroz, Gerald G. Vernice, "Preparation of isoflurane." U.S. Patent US5416244, issued March, 1973.

US5416244
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014891
KEGG Drug
D00545
KEGG Compound
C07518
PubChem Compound
3763
PubChem Substance
46505880
ChemSpider
3631
ChEBI
6015
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1256
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001033
PharmGKB
PA450106
HET
ICF
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Isoflurane
ATC Codes
N01AB06 — Isoflurane
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.16 — Inhalation Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (99.6 KB)
MSDS
Download (37 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedDiagnosticAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
1RecruitingScreeningHeart Diseases1
2CompletedDiagnosticKidney Transplant; Complications1
2CompletedTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders2
3CompletedTreatmentRenal Function After Partial Nephrectomy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3TerminatedPreventionHydrocephaly / Therapeutic Agent Toxicity1
3WithdrawnTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
4CompletedDiagnosticPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
4CompletedSupportive CareDNA Damage / Patients in Good Health / Types of General Anesthesia1
4CompletedSupportive CarePatients in Good Health1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Surgery, Cardiac1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentStrokes / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium1
4RecruitingDiagnosticPostoperative Delirium1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAcute Subdural Hematoma1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Chronic Rhinosinusitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Triple Vessel1
4TerminatedDiagnosticVentricular Dysfunction / Young Healthy Adults1
4TerminatedPreventionDelirium on Emergence1
4TerminatedTreatmentArterial Hypotension1
4TerminatedTreatmentDisorder; Heart, Functional, Postoperative, Cardiac Surgery / Heart; Dysfunction Postoperative, Cardiac Surgery1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPerioperative Blood Glucose and Insulin1
4WithdrawnTreatmentSleep1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentIntubated Requiring Sedation for Greater Than 48 Hours1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeurotoxic Effect of Sevoflurane‑Based Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOff Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics of Inhaled Anesthetics1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchDelayed Recovery From Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentColonic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSepsis1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) / Open Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair / Thoracoabdominal Aneursym Repair With Cardiopulmonary Bypass / Thoracoabdominal Aneursym Stent / Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair With Cardiopulmonary Bypass / Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Stent1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchDuration of Hospitalization1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Halocarbon products corp
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Piramal critical care inc
  • Rhodia ltd
Packagers
  • Apothecon
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Halocarbon Laboratories
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Minrad Inc.
  • Nicholas Pirmal India Ltd. Uk
  • Rhodia Organique Fine Ltd.
  • Rx Elite
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/1mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/1mL
LiquidOral; Respiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Forane liquid0.24USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)48-48.5U.S. Patent 3,535,388.
boiling point (°C)48.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility4470 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.06HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.56 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.3ALOGPS
logP2.84ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.994
Caco-2 permeable+0.6125
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8919
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9297
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7179
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5701
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9408
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5794
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8702
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7574
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9642
Rat acute toxicity1.3804 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9032
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.33 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0udi-9300000000-c134e176400bbe7073c2
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organofluorides. These are compounds containing a chemical bond between a carbon atom and a fluorine atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organohalogen compounds
Class
Organofluorides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Organofluorides
Alternative Parents
Organooxygen compounds / Organochlorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Alkyl fluorides / Alkyl chlorides
Substituents
Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Organofluoride / Organochloride / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Alkyl chloride / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound (CHEBI:6015)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. McCracken ML, Borghese CM, Trudell JR, Harris RA: A transmembrane amino acid in the GABAA receptor beta2 subunit critical for the actions of alcohols and anesthetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Dec;335(3):600-6. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.170472. Epub 2010 Sep 8. [PubMed:20826568]
  4. Seo K, Seino H, Yoshikawa H, Petrenko AB, Baba H, Fujiwara N, Someya G, Kawano Y, Maeda T, Matsuda M, Kanematsu T, Hirata M: Genetic reduction of GABA(A) receptor gamma2 subunit expression potentiates the immobilizing action of isoflurane. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 12;472(1):1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.01.031. Epub 2010 Jan 25. [PubMed:20097266]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIA1
Uniprot ID
P42261
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Guo L, Wang Y: Glutamate stimulates glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate surface expression of GluR2. Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 2;145(1):100-9. Epub 2007 Jan 3. [PubMed:17207582]
  2. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:1990381...
Gene Name
KCNA1
Uniprot ID
Q09470
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
Molecular Weight
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport comp...
Gene Name
ATP5D
Uniprot ID
P30049
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Titin binding
Specific Function
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number...
Gene Name
CALM1
Uniprot ID
P0DP23
Uniprot Name
Calmodulin
Molecular Weight
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Fan RS, Jacamo RO, Jiang X, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E: G protein-coupled receptor activation rapidly stimulates focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation at Ser-843. Mediation by Ca2+, calmodulin, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 24;280(25):24212-20. Epub 2005 Apr 21. [PubMed:15845548]
  2. Bickler PE, Zhan X, Fahlman CS: Isoflurane preconditions hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation: role of intracellular Ca2+ and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):532-9. [PubMed:16129978]
  3. Sazonova OV, Blishchenko EY, Tolmazova AG, Khachin DP, Leontiev KV, Karelin AA, Ivanov VT: Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by neokyotorphin requires Ca influx and activation of PKA, CaMK II and MAPK/ERK. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(2):474-84. [PubMed:17229152]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Brannigan G, LeBard DN, Henin J, Eckenhoff RG, Klein ML: Multiple binding sites for the general anesthetic isoflurane identified in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 10;107(32):14122-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1008534107. Epub 2010 Jul 26. [PubMed:20660787]
  2. Flood P, Sonner JM, Gong D, Coates KM: Isoflurane hyperalgesia is modulated by nicotinic inhibition. Anesthesiology. 2002 Jul;97(1):192-8. [PubMed:12131122]
  3. Yamashita M, Mori T, Nagata K, Yeh JZ, Narahashi T: Isoflurane modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Anesthesiology. 2005 Jan;102(1):76-84. [PubMed:15618790]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID
P17787
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Brannigan G, LeBard DN, Henin J, Eckenhoff RG, Klein ML: Multiple binding sites for the general anesthetic isoflurane identified in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 10;107(32):14122-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1008534107. Epub 2010 Jul 26. [PubMed:20660787]
  2. Flood P, Sonner JM, Gong D, Coates KM: Isoflurane hyperalgesia is modulated by nicotinic inhibition. Anesthesiology. 2002 Jul;97(1):192-8. [PubMed:12131122]
  3. Yamashita M, Mori T, Nagata K, Yeh JZ, Narahashi T: Isoflurane modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Anesthesiology. 2005 Jan;102(1):76-84. [PubMed:15618790]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
  3. Baker MT, Olson MJ, Wang Y, Ronnenberg WC Jr, Johnson JT, Brady AN: Isoflurane-chlorodifluoroethene interaction in human liver microsomes. Role of cytochrome P4502B6 in potentiation of haloethene metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 1995 Jan;23(1):60-4. [PubMed:7720526]
  4. Potential CYP2B6 Substrates, Inhibitors, Inudcers (https://ctep.cancer.gov/protocoldevelopment/docs/cyp2b6.doc) [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID
P03886
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
Molecular Weight
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. [PubMed:12411515]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110]
  2. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 14, 2018 12:45