Identification

Name
Isoflurane
Accession Number
DB00753  (APRD00212)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet Approved
Description

A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether
  • Isoflurane
  • Isoflurano
  • Isofluranum
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ForaneInhalant1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1979-12-18Not applicableUs
ForaneLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Baxter Laboratories1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Forane Liq InhLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Ohmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1994-12-311996-09-26Canada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)Abbvie1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Technilab Pharma Inc.1999-01-212008-08-05Canada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Halocarbon Laboratories, A Division Of Halocarbon Products Corp.2004-11-03Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Fresenius Kabi1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2013-11-13Not applicableUs
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2011-10-07Not applicableUs
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Halocarbon Products Corp.1999-10-20Not applicableUs
TerrellLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2010-01-01Not applicableUs
TerrellLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2012-03-21Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Aerrane (Baxter) / Forene (Abbott) / Isocane (Lunan) / Isorane (Abbott)
Categories
UNII
CYS9AKD70P
CAS number
26675-46-7
Weight
Average: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Chemical Formula
C3H2ClF5O
InChI Key
PIWKPBJCKXDKJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(Cl)C(F)(F)F

Pharmacology

Indication

For induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Isoflurane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.

Mechanism of action

Isoflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Isoflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. Also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Isoflurane also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor and the glycine receptor.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
ACalcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
inhibitor
Human
AGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
agonist
Human
AGlutamate receptor 1
antagonist
Human
APotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
inducer
Human
UATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
unknown
Human
UCalmodulin
other/unknown
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Minimal

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LC50=15300 ppm/3 hrs (inhalation by rat)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S---Not Availablec.3257G>A / c.520C>TADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details
Ryanodine receptor 1---Not Availablec.103T>C / c.487C>T  … show all ADR InferredMalignant hyperthermia.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Acebutolol.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Aldesleukin.Approved
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amiloride.Approved
AmiodaroneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amlodipine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
AnagrelideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.Approved
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.Approved
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Atenolol.Approved
Atracurium besylateIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Azaperone.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
AzithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Azithromycin.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoflurane.Experimental
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
BedaquilineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Betaxolol.Approved
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bisoprolol.Approved
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bretylium.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bromazepam.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bromperidol.Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bumetanide.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Candesartan cilexetil.Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Canertinib.Investigational
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ceritinib.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChloroquineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorthalidone.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cinchocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
CiprofloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Cisapride.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clevidipine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clozapine.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dapiprazole.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dexmedetomidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diazepam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DisopyramideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
DofetilideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.Approved
DolasetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dolasetron.Approved
DomperidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Domperidone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DopamineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doxazosin.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineIsoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dyclonine.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efonidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Eliglustat.Approved
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Enflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EphedraEphedra may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoflurane.Approved
EpinephrineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Eprosartan.Approved
ErythromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Esmolol.Approved
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Estazolam.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etacrynic acid.Approved
EthanolIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethchlorvynol.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethyl chloride.Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etifoxine.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etomidate.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoldopam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
FlecainideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flecainide.Approved, Withdrawn
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Formoterol.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gabapentin.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gabapentin Enacarbil.Approved
Gadobenic acidIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GemifloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GoserelinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.Approved
GranisetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Granisetron.Approved, Investigational
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
IbutilideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.Approved
IloperidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Iloperidone.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Isoflurane.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Indapamide.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
IndoraminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Isoflurane.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsoprenalineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoprenaline.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Isosorbide Dinitrate.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Isradipine.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Labetalol.Approved
LacidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lacidipine.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LenvatinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.Approved
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LeuprolideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaIsoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevofloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levorphanol.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levosimendan.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lithium.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Losartan.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mannitol.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mecamylamine.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Melperone.Approved, Investigational
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved, Investigational
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methazolamide.Approved
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MethotrimeprazineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methyldopa.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methylecgonine.Experimental
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase the hypertensive activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Minoxidil.Approved
MirtazapineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MivacuriumIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MoxifloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Moxonidine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nadolol.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nalbuphine.Approved
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
NicotineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilotinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nilvadipine.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nimodipine.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nisoldipine.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitroglycerin.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitroprusside.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NorepinephrineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Norepinephrine.Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Norflurane.Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OfloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Olmesartan.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ondansetron.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxazepam.Approved
OxethazaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxethazaine.Approved, Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.Approved
PanobinostatIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Papaverine.Approved
ParaldehydeIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pazopanib.Approved
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PentamidineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pentamidine.Approved
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerflutrenIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perphenazine.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phentolamine.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pimozide.Approved
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pindolol.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pipamperone.Approved, Investigational
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved, Investigational
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Prazosin.Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Prilocaine.Approved
PrimaquineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcainamideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.Approved
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.Approved
QuinineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Quinisocaine.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RapacuroniumIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Remoxipride.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneIsoflurane may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ropivacaine.Approved
RotigotineIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
SaquinavirIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sepranolone.Investigational
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sodium Nitrite.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SotalolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Streptokinase.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
SulfisoxazoleIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sulpiride.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SuvorexantIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TelavancinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.Approved
TelithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Terazosin.Approved
TetrabenazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Timolol.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Torasemide.Approved
ToremifeneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Toremifene.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trazodone.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triamterene.Approved
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triazolam.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trichloroethylene.Experimental
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.Approved
VemurafenibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Verapamil.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Xenon.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zaleplon.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zopiclone.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zotepine.Approved, Investigational
ZuclopenthixolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Leonid A. Rozov, Fernando Quiroz, Gerald G. Vernice, "Preparation of isoflurane." U.S. Patent US5416244, issued March, 1973.

US5416244
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14891
KEGG Drug
D00545
KEGG Compound
C07518
PubChem Compound
3763
PubChem Substance
46505880
ChemSpider
3631
ChEBI
6015
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1256
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001033
PharmGKB
PA450106
HET
ICF
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Wikipedia
Isoflurane
ATC Codes
N01AB06 — Isoflurane
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.16 — Inhalation Anesthetics
FDA label
Download (99.6 KB)
MSDS
Download (37 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedDiagnosticAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
2CompletedTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders / Substance-Related Disorders2
3CompletedTreatmentRenal Function After Partial Nephrectomy1
3Enrolling by InvitationPreventionHydrocephaly / Toxicity1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentInguinal Hernias1
4CompletedDiagnosticPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
4CompletedSupportive CareDNA Damage / Patients in Good Health / Types of General Anesthesia1
4CompletedSupportive CarePatients in Good Health1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Reperfusion Injury1
4CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4CompletedTreatmentStrokes / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAnesthesia Complication / Hemodynamics Instability / Ileus paralytic / Nausea / Postoperative pain / Vomiting1
4RecruitingDiagnosticPostoperative Delirium1
4RecruitingSupportive CareAcute Subdural Hematoma1
4RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Chronic Rhinosinusitis1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Triple Vessel1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft / Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery / Surgery, Cardiac1
4TerminatedDiagnosticVentricular Dysfunction / Young Healthy Adults1
4TerminatedPreventionDelirium on Emergence1
4TerminatedTreatmentArterial Hypotension1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDisorder; Heart, Functional, Postoperative, Cardiac Surgery / Heart; Dysfunction Postoperative, Cardiac Surgery1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPerioperative Blood Glucose and Insulin1
4WithdrawnTreatmentSleep1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableOff Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePharmacokinetics of Inhaled Anesthetics1
Not AvailableCompletedHealth Services ResearchDelayed Recovery From Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentColonic Neoplasms1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionProphylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIntubated Requiring Sedation for Greater Than 48 Hours1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSepsis1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) / Open Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair / Thoracoabdominal Aneursym Repair With Cardiopulmonary Bypass / Thoracoabdominal Aneursym Stent / Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair With Cardiopulmonary Bypass / Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Stent1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticParkinson's Disease (PD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusHealth Services ResearchDuration of Hospitalization1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Halocarbon products corp
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Piramal critical care inc
  • Rhodia ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
LiquidOral; Respiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Forane liquid0.24USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)48-48.5U.S. Patent 3,535,388.
boiling point (°C)48.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility4470 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.06HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.56 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.3ALOGPS
logP2.84ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.994
Caco-2 permeable+0.6125
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8919
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9297
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7179
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5701
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9408
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5794
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8702
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7574
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9642
Rat acute toxicity1.3804 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9032
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.33 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0udi-9300000000-c134e176400bbe7073c2
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organofluorides. These are compounds containing a chemical bond between a carbon atom and a fluorine atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organohalogen compounds
Class
Organofluorides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Organofluorides
Alternative Parents
Organooxygen compounds / Organochlorides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Alkyl fluorides / Alkyl chlorides
Substituents
Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Organofluoride / Organochloride / Alkyl halide / Alkyl fluoride / Alkyl chloride / Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound (CHEBI:6015)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. McCracken ML, Borghese CM, Trudell JR, Harris RA: A transmembrane amino acid in the GABAA receptor beta2 subunit critical for the actions of alcohols and anesthetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Dec;335(3):600-6. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.170472. Epub 2010 Sep 8. [PubMed:20826568]
  4. Seo K, Seino H, Yoshikawa H, Petrenko AB, Baba H, Fujiwara N, Someya G, Kawano Y, Maeda T, Matsuda M, Kanematsu T, Hirata M: Genetic reduction of GABA(A) receptor gamma2 subunit expression potentiates the immobilizing action of isoflurane. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 12;472(1):1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.01.031. Epub 2010 Jan 25. [PubMed:20097266]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID
P98194
Uniprot Name
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1
Molecular Weight
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a co...
Gene Name
GRIA1
Uniprot ID
P42261
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 1
Molecular Weight
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Guo L, Wang Y: Glutamate stimulates glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate surface expression of GluR2. Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 2;145(1):100-9. Epub 2007 Jan 3. [PubMed:17207582]
  2. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:1990381...
Gene Name
KCNA1
Uniprot ID
Q09470
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1
Molecular Weight
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport comp...
Gene Name
ATP5D
Uniprot ID
P30049
Uniprot Name
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Titin binding
Specific Function
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number...
Gene Name
CALM1
Uniprot ID
P0DP23
Uniprot Name
Calmodulin
Molecular Weight
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Fan RS, Jacamo RO, Jiang X, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E: G protein-coupled receptor activation rapidly stimulates focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation at Ser-843. Mediation by Ca2+, calmodulin, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 24;280(25):24212-20. Epub 2005 Apr 21. [PubMed:15845548]
  2. Bickler PE, Zhan X, Fahlman CS: Isoflurane preconditions hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation: role of intracellular Ca2+ and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):532-9. [PubMed:16129978]
  3. Sazonova OV, Blishchenko EY, Tolmazova AG, Khachin DP, Leontiev KV, Karelin AA, Ivanov VT: Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by neokyotorphin requires Ca influx and activation of PKA, CaMK II and MAPK/ERK. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(2):474-84. [PubMed:17229152]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
Inducer
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the tra...
Gene Name
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID
P03886
Uniprot Name
NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
Molecular Weight
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. [PubMed:12411515]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110]
  2. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34