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Identification
NameIsoflurane
Accession NumberDB00753  (APRD00212)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
DescriptionA stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-chloro-2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether
Aerrane
Ethane
Forane
Forene
Isoflurane
Isoflurano
Isofluranum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ForaneInhalant1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Baxter Healthcare Corporation2011-08-08Not applicableUs
ForaneLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Baxter Corporation1996-12-31Not applicableCanada
Forane Liq InhLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Ohmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1994-12-311996-09-26Canada
Isoflurane USPLiquid100 %Respiratory (inhalation)Technilab Pharma Inc.1999-01-212008-08-05Canada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Oral; Respiratory (inhalation)Abbvie Corporation1993-12-31Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Halocarbon Laboratories, A Division Of Halocarbon Products Corp.2004-11-03Not applicableCanada
Isoflurane USPLiquid99.9 %Respiratory (inhalation)Fresenius Kabi Canada Ltd1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2011-10-07Not applicableUs
IsofluraneLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2013-11-13Not applicableUs
TerrellLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2010-01-01Not applicableUs
TerrellLiquid1 mL/mLRespiratory (inhalation)Piramal Critical Care Inc2012-03-21Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AerraneBaxter
ForeneAbbott
IsocaneLunan
IsoraneAbbott
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIICYS9AKD70P
CAS number26675-46-7
WeightAverage: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Chemical FormulaC3H2ClF5O
InChI KeyPIWKPBJCKXDKJR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(Cl)C(F)(F)F
Pharmacology
IndicationFor induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsIsoflurane is a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. It induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. It does so by decreasing the extent of gap junction mediated cell-cell coupling and altering the activity of the channels that underlie the action potential.
Mechanism of actionIsoflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Isoflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. Also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Isoflurane also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor and the glycine receptor.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1Proteinyes
agonist
HumanP14867 details
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP98194 details
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1Proteinyes
agonist
HumanP23415 details
Glutamate receptor 1Proteinyes
antagonist
HumanP42261 details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1Proteinyes
inducer
HumanQ09470 details
ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrialProteinunknown
unknown
HumanP30049 details
CalmodulinProteinunknown
other/unknown
HumanP62158 details
GABA-A receptor (anion channel)Protein groupyes
positive allosteric modulator
Humannot applicabledetails
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Minimal

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLC50=15300 ppm/3 hrs (inhalation by rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,1,1,2 TetrafluoroethaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane.Investigational
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.Experimental
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Acepromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Aceprometazine.Approved
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Acetazolamide.Approved, Vet Approved
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with adipiplon.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Agomelatine.Approved, Investigational
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aliskiren is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
AmiodaroneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amisulpride.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Amperozide.Experimental
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amyl Nitrite is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
AnagrelideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Anagrelide.Approved
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Arsenic trioxideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Artemether.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Asenapine.Approved
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Atracurium besylateIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Azaperone.Vet Approved
AzelastineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Azelastine.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
AzithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Azithromycin.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Baclofen.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoflurane.Experimental
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Barbital.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
BedaquilineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Bedaquiline.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benzocaine.Approved
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Benzyl alcohol.Approved
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bretylium is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brimonidine.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Bromazepam.Approved, Illicit
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Brotizolam.Approved, Withdrawn
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butamben.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canagliflozin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carbinoxamine.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Carisoprodol.Approved
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ceritinib.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cetirizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chloral hydrate.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlormezanone.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChloroquineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorphenamine.Approved
ChlorpromazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Chlorzoxazone.Approved
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
CiprofloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisaprideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Cisapride.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clevidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with clomethiazole.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clonazepam.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Clonidine.Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Clozapine.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyclizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dantrolene.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapagliflozin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with deramciclane.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desflurane.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dezocine.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diazepam.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Difenoxin.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diltiazem is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Dimenhydrinate.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dinutuximab is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipyridamole is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
DisopyramideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.Approved
DofetilideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.Approved
DolasetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dolasetron.Approved
DomperidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Domperidone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DopamineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.Approved
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Doxepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with DPDPE.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Drotebanol.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineIsoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ecgonine.Experimental, Illicit
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.Experimental
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efonidipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EliglustatIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Eliglustat.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Empagliflozin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Entacapone.Approved, Investigational
EphedraEphedra may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoflurane.Approved
EpinephrineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
ErythromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Estazolam.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EthanolIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethosuximide.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethotoin.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethyl carbamate.Withdrawn
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etidocaine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etifoxine.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etizolam.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Felbamate.Approved
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felodipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fencamfamine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoldopam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fexofenadine.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
FlecainideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flecainide.Approved, Withdrawn
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fludiazepam.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flunitrazepam.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Flupentixol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluspirilene.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
FormoterolIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Formoterol.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Fospropofol.Approved, Illicit
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gabapentin.Approved, Investigational
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.Approved
Gadobenic acidIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gadobenic acid.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.Approved, Illicit
GemifloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Glutethimide.Approved, Illicit
GoserelinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.Approved
GranisetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Granisetron.Approved, Investigational
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Halazepam.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Haloperidol.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Halothane.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydralazine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
IbutilideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ibutilide.Approved
IloperidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Iloperidone.Approved
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Isoflurane.Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
IndoraminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Isoflurane.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsoprenalineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoprenaline.Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Mononitrate is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxsuprine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isradipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketamine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketazolam.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
LacidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lacidipine.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LenvatinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lenvatinib.Approved
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lercanidipine.Approved, Investigational
LeuprolideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaIsoflurane may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevofloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levorphanol.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levosimendan.Approved, Investigational
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lithium.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Loratadine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lu AA21004.Investigational
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Lurasidone.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Maprotiline.Approved
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Meclizine.Approved
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Melatonin.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Melperone.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mepivacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Mesoridazine.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Metaxalone.Approved
MethadoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methapyrilene.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methaqualone.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methocarbamol.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MethotrimeprazineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methoxyflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyldopa is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase the hypertensive activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metipranolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MirtazapineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MivacuriumIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Molindone.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
MoxifloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Moxonidine.Approved
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nalbuphine.Approved
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nebivolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nesiritide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicardipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Isoflurane.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nifedipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
NilotinibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nilvadipine.Approved
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimodipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrazepam.Approved
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrendipine.Approved
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitric Oxide.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nitrous oxide.Approved, Vet Approved
NorepinephrineIsoflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Norepinephrine.Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Obinutuzumab.Approved
OfloxacinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OndansetronIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ondansetron.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Osanetant.Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxazepam.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxetacaine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxprenolol.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxybuprocaine.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Paclitaxel.Approved, Vet Approved
PaliperidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Paliperidone.Approved
PanobinostatIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Papaverine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
ParaldehydeIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pazopanib.Approved
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Penbutolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
PentamidineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pentamidine.Approved
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerflutrenIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Perflutren.Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perospirone.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Perphenazine.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenoxybenzamine.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Phentolamine.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Pimozide.Approved
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pipamperone.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pipotiazine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PramipexoleIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pramocaine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Prazepam.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Pregnanolone.Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
PrimaquineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Primaquine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcainamideIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Promethazine.Approved
PropafenoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Proparacaine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propofol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Propoxycaine.Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Protriptyline.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with PSD502.Investigational
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Isoflurane can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
QuinidineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.Approved
QuinineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinine.Approved
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ramelteon.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
RapacuroniumIsoflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Riociguat is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
RisperidoneIsoflurane may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
RotigotineIsoflurane may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.Experimental
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sacubitril.Approved
Sage 547The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sage 547.Investigational
SaquinavirIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sertindole.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Sodium Nitrite.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
SotalolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sotalol.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Streptokinase.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
SulfisoxazoleIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
SuvorexantIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tamsulosin.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Isoflurane.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TelavancinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telavancin.Approved
TelithromycinIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Telithromycin.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terazosin is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
TetrabenazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetracaine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tetrodotoxin.Investigational
ThalidomideIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Thiamylal.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Thioridazine.Approved
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Thiothixene.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiagabine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiapride.Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tizanidine.Approved
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tolazoline.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tolcapone.Approved, Withdrawn
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
ToremifeneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Toremifene.Approved, Investigational
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Tretinoin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triazolam.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trifluoperazine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Trimipramine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Triprolidine.Approved
Uc1010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Uc1010.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Investigational
VandetanibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vandetanib.Approved
VemurafenibIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Isoflurane can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Isoflurane.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vigabatrin.Approved
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Vortioxetine.Approved
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zaleplon.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zonisamide.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zopiclone.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Zotepine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolIsoflurane may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Zuclopenthixol.Approved, Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Leonid A. Rozov, Fernando Quiroz, Gerald G. Vernice, “Preparation of isoflurane.” U.S. Patent US5416244, issued March, 1973.

US5416244
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN01AB06
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.00
  • 28:04.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (99.6 KB)
MSDSDownload (37 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.994
Caco-2 permeable+0.6125
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8919
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9297
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7179
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5701
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9408
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5794
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8702
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7574
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9642
Rat acute toxicity1.3804 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9032
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Halocarbon products corp
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Piramal critical care inc
  • Rhodia ltd
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InhalantRespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/mL
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)100 %
LiquidOral; Respiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)99.9 %
LiquidRespiratory (inhalation)1 mL/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Forane liquid0.24USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point48-48.5U.S. Patent 3,535,388.
boiling point48.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility4470 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.06HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.56 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.3ALOGPS
logP2.84ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.33 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-9300000000-c134e176400bbe7073c2View in MoNA
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as halomethanes. These are organic compounds in which at least one of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassAlkyl halides
Sub ClassHalomethanes
Direct ParentHalomethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Halomethane
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. McCracken ML, Borghese CM, Trudell JR, Harris RA: A transmembrane amino acid in the GABAA receptor beta2 subunit critical for the actions of alcohols and anesthetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Dec;335(3):600-6. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.170472. Epub 2010 Sep 8. [PubMed:20826568 ]
  4. Seo K, Seino H, Yoshikawa H, Petrenko AB, Baba H, Fujiwara N, Someya G, Kawano Y, Maeda T, Matsuda M, Kanematsu T, Hirata M: Genetic reduction of GABA(A) receptor gamma2 subunit expression potentiates the immobilizing action of isoflurane. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 12;472(1):1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.01.031. Epub 2010 Jan 25. [PubMed:20097266 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Guo L, Wang Y: Glutamate stimulates glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate surface expression of GluR2. Neuroscience. 2007 Mar 2;145(1):100-9. Epub 2007 Jan 3. [PubMed:17207582 ]
  2. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:19903818). Contributes to the regulation of the membrane potential and nerve signaling, and prevents neuronal hyperexcitability (PubMed:17156368). Forms tetrameric potassium-selective channels through which ...
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular Weight:
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked toget...
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular Weight:
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Titin binding
Specific Function:
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis.
Gene Name:
CALM1
Uniprot ID:
P62158
Molecular Weight:
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Fan RS, Jacamo RO, Jiang X, Sinnett-Smith J, Rozengurt E: G protein-coupled receptor activation rapidly stimulates focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation at Ser-843. Mediation by Ca2+, calmodulin, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 24;280(25):24212-20. Epub 2005 Apr 21. [PubMed:15845548 ]
  2. Bickler PE, Zhan X, Fahlman CS: Isoflurane preconditions hippocampal neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation: role of intracellular Ca2+ and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Anesthesiology. 2005 Sep;103(3):532-9. [PubMed:16129978 ]
  3. Sazonova OV, Blishchenko EY, Tolmazova AG, Khachin DP, Leontiev KV, Karelin AA, Ivanov VT: Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by neokyotorphin requires Ca influx and activation of PKA, CaMK II and MAPK/ERK. FEBS J. 2007 Jan;274(2):474-84. [PubMed:17229152 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular Weight:
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hanley PJ, Ray J, Brandt U, Daut J: Halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) of cardiac mitochondria. J Physiol. 2002 Nov 1;544(Pt 3):687-93. [PubMed:12411515 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110 ]
  2. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23