Identification

Name
Bromazepam
Accession Number
DB01558
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Description

One of the benzodiazepines that is used in the treatment of anxiety disorders. It is a Schedule IV drug in the U.S. and Canada and under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It is a intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Bromacepam
  • Bromazepamum
External IDs
RO 5-3350 / RO-5-3350
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bromazepam-1.5 - Tab 1.5mgTablet1.5 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1997-05-202010-07-13Canada
Bromazepam-3 - Tab 3mgTablet3 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1996-12-04Not applicableCanada
Bromazepam-6 - Tab 6mgTablet6 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1996-12-04Not applicableCanada
Lectopam Tab 1.5mgTablet1.5 mgOralHoffmann La Roche1986-12-312006-07-25Canada
Lectopam Tab 3mgTablet3 mgOralHoffmann La Roche1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Lectopam Tab 6mgTablet6 mgOralHoffmann La Roche1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Alti-bromazepam 1.5mg TabletsTablet1.5 mgOralAltimed Pharma Inc.1996-12-312005-05-27Canada
Alti-bromazepam 3mg TabletsTablet3 mgOralAltimed Pharma Inc.1995-12-312005-05-27Canada
Alti-bromazepam 6mg TabletsTablet6 mgOralAltimed Pharma Inc.1996-12-312005-05-27Canada
Apo-bromazepam - Tab 1.5mgTablet1.5 mgOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-bromazepam - Tab 3mgTablet3 mgOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-bromazepam - Tab 6mgTablet6 mgOralApotex Corporation1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Gen-bromazepam - Tab 3mgTablet3 mgOralGenpharm Ulc1995-12-312010-08-04Canada
Gen-bromazepam - Tab 6mgTablet6 mgOralGenpharm Ulc1995-12-312010-08-04Canada
Mylan-bromazepamTablet1.5 mgOralMylan Pharmaceuticals1995-12-312012-10-19Canada
Nu-bromazepam - Tab 1.5mgTablet1.5 mgOralNu Pharm Inc1995-12-312012-09-04Canada
International/Other Brands
Calmepam / Creosedin / Durazanil / Lectopam / Lekotam / Lexaurin / Lexilium / Lexomil / Lexotan / Normoc / Ultramidol
Categories
UNII
X015L14V0O
CAS number
1812-30-2
Weight
Average: 316.153
Monoisotopic: 315.000724604
Chemical Formula
C14H10BrN3O
InChI Key
VMIYHDSEFNYJSL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C14H10BrN3O/c15-9-4-5-11-10(7-9)14(17-8-13(19)18-11)12-3-1-2-6-16-12/h1-7H,8H2,(H,18,19)
IUPAC Name
7-bromo-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
SMILES
BrC1=CC2=C(NC(=O)CN=C2C2=CC=CC=N2)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the short-term treatment of insomnia, short-term treatment of anxiety or panic attacks, if a benzodiazepine is required, and the alleviation of the symptoms of alcohol- and opiate-withdrawal.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Bromazepam is a lipophilic, long-acting benzodiazepine and with sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It does not possess any antidepressant qualities. Bromazepam shares with other benzodiazepines the risk of abuse, misuse, psychological and/or physical dependence. According to many psychiatric experts Bromazepam has a greater abuse potential than other benzodiazepines because of fast resorption and rapid onset of action.

Mechanism of action

Bromazepam binds to the GABA receptor GABAA, causing a conformational change and increasing inhibitory effects of GABA. Other neurotransmitters are not influenced.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
potentiator
Human
Absorption

Bioavailability is 84% following oral administration. The time to peak plasma level is 1 - 4 hours. Bromazepam is generally well absorbed after oral administration.

Volume of distribution

1.56 L/kg

Protein binding

70%

Metabolism

Hepatically, via oxidative pathways (via an enzyme belonging to the Cytochrome P450 family of enzymes). One of the main metabolites is 3-hydroxybromazepam. It is pharmacologically active and the half life is similar to that of the parent compound.

Route of elimination

Urine (69%), as metabolites

Half life

10-20 hours

Clearance

0.82 mL/min/kg.

Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Bromazepam.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Bromazepam.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Bromazepam.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is combined with Bromazepam.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Bromazepam.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Bromazepam.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Bromazepam.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Methoxyamphetamine is combined with Bromazepam.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of Bromazepam can be decreased when combined with 5-androstenedione.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Oelschlager H: [Chemical and pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepines]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1989 Jul 4;78(27-28):766-72. [PubMed:2570451]
  2. Oda M, Kotegawa T, Tsutsumi K, Ohtani Y, Kuwatani K, Nakano S: The effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of bromazepam in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;59(8-9):615-9. Epub 2003 Sep 27. [PubMed:14517708]
  3. van Harten J: Overview of the pharmacokinetics of fluvoxamine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29 Suppl 1:1-9. [PubMed:8846617]
  4. Ochs HR, Greenblatt DJ, Friedman H, Burstein ES, Locniskar A, Harmatz JS, Shader RI: Bromazepam pharmacokinetics: influence of age, gender, oral contraceptives, cimetidine, and propranolol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987 May;41(5):562-70. [PubMed:2882883]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015511
KEGG Drug
D01245
PubChem Compound
2441
PubChem Substance
46505694
ChemSpider
2347
ChEBI
31302
ChEMBL
CHEMBL277062
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001035
PharmGKB
PA10035
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Bromazepam
ATC Codes
N05BA08 — Bromazepam
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.08 — Benzodiazepines

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3Unknown StatusPreventionNausea / Vomiting1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral1.5 mg
TabletOral3 mg
TabletOral6 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lectopam 6 mg Tablet0.25USD tablet
Lectopam 3 mg Tablet0.17USD tablet
Apo-Bromazepam 6 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Gen-Bromazepam 6 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Novo-Bromazepam 6 mg Tablet0.13USD tablet
Apo-Bromazepam 3 mg Tablet0.09USD tablet
Gen-Bromazepam 3 mg Tablet0.09USD tablet
Novo-Bromazepam 3 mg Tablet0.09USD tablet
Apo-Bromazepam 1.5 mg Tablet0.07USD tablet
Gen-Bromazepam 1.5 mg Tablet0.07USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.05SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0399 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.09ALOGPS
logP2.54ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.24ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.68ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.35 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity76.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.11 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9937
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9848
Caco-2 permeable+0.7571
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5741
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7251
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.924
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.558
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8385
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9117
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7117
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9381
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6329
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8511
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5719
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7405
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6441
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8607
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8704
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.2416 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9974
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7977
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00n0-9463000000-abe7fdab778f08fe18c4
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0049000000-67c4bd48b889caf68ca3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-8d6819f4db99e73f4dbe
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-002r-6090000000-f5e0ef1096bea72d5c89
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9010000000-19864d6c0a50c513bb18
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-59557fda51a0ea2c63d7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-6b0acd4d149e1fb20f9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-6b0acd4d149e1fb20f9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-6b0acd4d149e1fb20f9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-6b0acd4d149e1fb20f9a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0379000000-14ceeb34a706f6a12f41
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-09662342e908d558048e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0029000000-4b93291583996cb3cbda
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-05o0-0492000000-035f589c482b481c5152
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-053r-1890000000-1997ad0374625359f483
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-053r-1960000000-4f105348e7e7804313ce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-053r-1930000000-b0f688a41f88a133b74b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f89-1910000000-c0dd1d47a44a292c87b6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fb9-2900000000-706d4c35cde468a8387d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-6900000000-85795e315602b7e61a6b

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzodiazepines
Sub Class
1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent
1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acids and derivatives / Pyridines and derivatives / Benzenoids / Aryl bromides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Lactams / Ketimines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Azacyclic compounds
show 5 more
Substituents
1,4-benzodiazepine / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Aryl bromide / Aryl halide / Pyridine / Benzenoid / Heteroaromatic compound / Carboxamide group / Ketimine / Lactam
show 17 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB1
Uniprot ID
P18505
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB3
Uniprot ID
P28472
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG1
Uniprot ID
Q8N1C3
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
Molecular Weight
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG3
Uniprot ID
Q99928
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
Molecular Weight
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRD
Uniprot ID
O14764
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
Molecular Weight
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRE
Uniprot ID
P78334
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
Molecular Weight
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the ute...
Gene Name
GABRP
Uniprot ID
O00591
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
Molecular Weight
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR1
Uniprot ID
P24046
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
Molecular Weight
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR2
Uniprot ID
P28476
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
Molecular Weight
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRR3
Uniprot ID
A8MPY1
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
Molecular Weight
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRQ
Uniprot ID
Q9UN88
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
Molecular Weight
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Sproule BA, Naranjo CA, Brenmer KE, Hassan PC: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and CNS drug interactions. A critical review of the evidence. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997 Dec;33(6):454-71. [PubMed:9435993]
  3. Bromazepam Prescribing Information [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. List of drugs that may have potential CYP2E1 interactions [File]

Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:10 / Updated on November 18, 2018 13:32