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Identification
NameNiacin
Accession NumberDB00627  (NUTR00042, APRD00536)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
DescriptionA water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has pellagra-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
3-carboxypyridine
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
3-Pyridylcarboxylic acid
Acide Nicotinique
Acido nicotinico
Acidum Nicotinicum
Anti-pellagra vitamin
beta-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
M-Pyridinecarboxylic Acid
Niacin
Nicotinic Acid
Nikotinsaeure
P.P. factor
Pellagra preventive factor
PP Factor
Pyridine-beta-carboxylic acid
pyridine-β-carboxylic acid
Vitamin B3
β-pyridinecarboxylic acid
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
B-3 500mg Continuous ReleasedTablet, extended release500 mgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1981-12-312000-08-01Canada
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2014-06-30Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2014-06-30Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2014-06-30Not applicableUs
Niacin Ctr Srt 500mgTablet, extended release500 mgOralBioenergy Inc.1981-12-311998-06-03Canada
Niacin Inj 100mg/mlSolution100 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Niacin Pwr 800mg/1.25mlPowder800 mgOralKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1980-12-312012-06-11Canada
NiaspanTablet, extended release500 mgOralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2005-03-15Not applicableCanada
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralAbb Vie Inc.2010-06-29Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralDispensing Solutions, Inc.2010-06-29Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralCardinal Health2010-06-29Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralRebel Distributors Corp1997-07-28Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-05-12Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, extended release1000 mgOralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2005-03-15Not applicableCanada
NiaspanTablet, extended release750 mgOralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2005-03-152012-08-02Canada
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralAbb Vie Inc.1997-07-28Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralDispensing Solutions, Inc.1997-07-28Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralCardinal Health2010-06-29Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-04-03Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2005-03-29Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2010-06-29Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralAbb Vie Inc.1997-07-28Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management2010-06-29Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical & Surgical Supply DBA Quality Care Products LLC2012-04-03Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-07-27Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralRebel Distributors Corp2010-03-10Not applicableUs
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management1997-07-28Not applicableUs
Niaspan ERTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2011-02-07Not applicableUs
Niaspan FctTablet, extended release1000 mgOralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2009-05-22Not applicableCanada
Niaspan FctTablet, extended release500 mgOralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2009-05-22Not applicableCanada
Niaspan FctTablet, extended release750 mgOralSunovion Pharmaceuticals Canada Inc2009-05-22Not applicableCanada
Niodan 500 Mg Time Release TabletsTablet, extended release500 mgOralOdan Laboratories Ltd1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sustained Release Niacin 500mgTablet, extended release500 mgOralKsl Pharmaceuticals1994-12-311997-08-08Canada
Time Released Niacin 500 mgTablet, extended release500 mgOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1997-08-152000-07-29Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-07-27Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2016-08-26Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2013-09-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-12-11Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2015-03-31Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-02-01Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralSun Pharma Global FZE2014-06-27Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2015-07-27Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2016-08-26Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2013-09-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralLUPIN LIMITED2014-03-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-03-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralSun Pharma Global FZE2014-06-27Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-02-01Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-10-14Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2014-10-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralLUPIN LIMITED2014-03-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc2013-09-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-03-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralSun Pharma Global FZE2014-06-27Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-02-01Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2014-10-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralLUPIN LIMITED2014-03-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-03-20Not applicableUs
NiacorTablet500 mg/1OralUpsher Smith Laboratories Inc.2000-05-03Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acti-niacin Caplet 500mgTablet500 mgOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
B3Tablet500 mgOralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.1997-12-302008-07-17Canada
Formula # 7 Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralGolden Pride/Rawleigh1995-12-312004-10-15Canada
Niacin 100 mgCapsule100 mgOralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-03-152004-08-04Canada
Niacin 100 Mg TabletsTablet100 mgOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182005-08-05Canada
Niacin 100mgTablet100 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Niacin 100mgTablet100 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1973-12-312014-05-01Canada
Niacin 100mg TabTablet100 mgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1984-12-312009-09-28Canada
Niacin 100mg Tablets USPTablet100 mgOralPharmetics (2011) Inc1999-08-082006-07-27Canada
Niacin 250mgTablet250 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Niacin 500mgTablet500 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1976-12-312014-04-22Canada
Niacin 500mgTablet500 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Niacin 50mgTablet50 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Niacin Cap 250mgCapsule250 mgOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1984-12-312001-07-06Canada
Niacin Caps 100mgCapsule100 mgOralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada
Niacin Src 400mgCapsule, extended release400 mgOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1981-12-311996-10-02Canada
Niacin Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Niacin Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
Niacin Tab 100mg USPTablet100 mgOralPharmavite Llc1987-12-312000-08-24Canada
Niacin Tab 100mg Yeast FreeTablet100 mgOralVita Health Products Inc1972-12-312004-07-26Canada
Niacin Tab 250mgTablet250 mgOralNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.1986-12-311996-09-09Canada
Niacin Tab 475mgTablet, extended release475 mgOralPure Life International Prods Inc.1992-12-312000-07-27Canada
Niacin Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312002-07-31Canada
Niacin Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralKlaire Labs Inc.1984-12-311999-01-18Canada
Niacin Tab 500mgTablet500 mgOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1978-12-311998-07-15Canada
Niacin Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1983-12-312003-07-31Canada
Niacin Tablets 500mg USPTablet500 mgOralKsl Pharmaceuticals1990-12-311996-09-09Canada
Niacin-100 Tab 100mgTablet100 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1983-12-312003-07-31Canada
Tri B3 Src 300mgCapsule, extended release300 mgOralAnabolic Laboratories Inc.1976-12-312004-03-15Canada
Vitamin B3 Tab 10mg USP ChewableTablet10 mgOralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1985-12-311997-02-21Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Jeuncell Hair Restorer and Hair Growth SolutionShampoo2 mg/100mLTopicalJeun Cell Ltd2012-11-25Not applicableUs
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
AdvicorAbb Vie Inc.
American Eagle Energizer Plus Vitamin Supplement DrinkP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
American Plus Energy & Vitamin DrinkP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Antivert TabPfizer Canada Inc
ArmaxEnzymatic Therapy (Canada) Inc.
B 6 PlusAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
B-complex TabNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
B6 Plus TabVita Health Products Inc
Bev 29 TabBeverly International Nutrition
C-B ComplexAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.
Cal M TabAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Cc IIAdded Dimensions
Cda-21 Vitamins With Non-medicinal Probiotic ComplexRx Vitamins Inc.
ChromematePuresource Inc.
Complex 5 - PwrAst Research
Concept DHAUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Concept ObUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Cool BSisu Inc.
DermanicAllegis Pharmaceuticals, LLC
Flush Free Niacin With InositolNutraceutical Corporation
Formula CwBody Wise International Llc
Formula Cw-capletBody Wise International Llc
Formula LfNumark Laboratories, Inc.
Fortistress TabSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe
Fusion Activator Formula TabL & S Research Corporation
Gesticare DHAJazz Pharmaceuticals Commercial Corp.
Harvest Of Values All B Complex TabHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa
Healthy Mamabe Well Rounded Be Well RoundedMATERNAL SCIENCE, LLC
Hi Potency B Complex W Chelated MineralsKlaire Labs Inc.
Inositol Nicotinate 250 mgGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.
Integra FUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Integra PlusUs Pharmaceutical Corporation
Iron 25mg With Vit B-cmplx, Vit C, Cu & MoQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
KindervitesHerbalife International Of America, Inc.
Lipo-B-C TabMetagenics, Inc.
LipovitanP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Master Key Formula 3 TabNutrition For Life International
Mega 13 Multivitamin FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Metacinamide TabMetagenics, Inc.
MhbVisiontel
Multi Vitamin-mineral FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Multi Vitamines - LiqLand Art Inc.
Multi-vitaminLLC Federal Solutions
Multi-vitamin Fluoride and Iron DropsBoca Pharmacal, LLC
Multi-vitamin Fluoride DropsH.J. Harkins Company, Inc.
Multi-vitamin With FluorideGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.
Multivitamin With FluorideSancilio & Company Inc
Mvc-fluorideSancilio & Company Inc.
My Favorite Niacin and Inositol TabNatrol, Inc.
Myhephron Dialysis and Stress SupplementMartin Ekwealor Pharmaceu
Nata KompleteWh Nutritionals, Llc
NephrocapsCardinal Health
Niachrom CapsuleTrophic Canada Ltd.
Niacin 500 Mg and InositolQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Niacin-niacinamide TabSeroyal International Inc.
O-cal Fa MultivitaminPharmics, Inc.
O-cal Prenatal VitaminPharmics, Inc.
One A Day Advance AdultsBayer Inc Consumer Care
One A Day Advance Adults 50+Bayer Inc Consumer Care
Orange Flavored Crystal Chews TabJeunique International Inc.
PhytopureLaboratoire Lalco Inc.
Prenatal Mega AntioxidantUsana Health Services, Inc.
Prenatal Vitamins Plusbryant ranch prepack
Prenatal Vitamins Plus Low IronPatrin Pharma, Inc.
Reaphirm Plant Source DHAEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Red American Eagle Vitamin Supplement DrinkP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Red BullP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Remedium - Liq OrlF.E.S. Trading Canada Ltd.
Reno CapsNnodum Pharmaceuticals
Shen Min Vitamin SupplementBiotech Corporation
SimcorPhysicians Total Care, Inc.
Spectrum 2 CapNf Formulas Inc.
Stress Formula Multi-B Comp + 500mg Vit C CapQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
Strovite Forte CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Super Daily No 2W.R. Enterprises Inc.
Super Stress Mega B Plus 1000mg Vit C TabQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products
SveetsSensible Delights Specialty Foods
Usana Megavitamin Tablets - TabUsana Health Sciences Inc.
Vasodyn TabNutri Dyn Products Ltd.
Vita B Complex TabNutrimetics International (Canada) Inc.
Vita Day TabJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Vitafol CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol Ob CapletEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol OneEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitafol PlusEverett Laboratories, Inc.
Vitalife - CapsuleHolista Health (Canada) Inc.
Vitamin B + C CapFinlandia Consultants
Vitamin B Complex SupplAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.
Vitamin B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Vitamin B Compound TabNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc
Vtb Vitamin and Mineral SupplementGarden State Nutritionals
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII2679MF687A
CAS number59-67-6
WeightAverage: 123.1094
Monoisotopic: 123.032028409
Chemical FormulaC6H5NO2
InChI KeyPVNIIMVLHYAWGP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H5NO2/c8-6(9)5-2-1-3-7-4-5/h1-4H,(H,8,9)
IUPAC Name
pyridine-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)C1=CN=CC=C1
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of type IV and V hyperlipidemia. It is indicated as ajunctive therapy.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsNiacin and niacinamide are indicated for prevention and treatment of vitamin B3 deficiency states. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) also acts to reduce LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The magnitude of individual lipid and lipoprotein responses may be influenced by the severity and type of underlying lipid abnormality. The increase in total HDL is associated with a shift in the distribution of HDL subfractions (as defined by ultra-centrifugation) with an increase in the HDL2:HDL3 ratio and an increase in apolipoprotein A-I content. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) treatment also decreases the serum levels of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the major protein component of the VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and LDL fractions, and of lipoprotein-a, a variant form of LDL independently associated with coronary risk.
Mechanism of actionNiacin binds to Nicotinate D-ribonucleotide phyrophsopate phosphoribosyltransferase, Nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, Nicotinate N-methyltransferase and the Niacin receptor. Niacin is the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are vital cofactors for dozens of enzymes. The mechanism by which niacin exerts its lipid lowering effects is not entirely understood, but may involve several actions, including a decrease in esterification of hepatic triglycerides. Niacin treatment also decreases the serum levels of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the major protein component of the VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and LDL fractions.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3Proteinyes
agonist
HumanP49019 details
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2Proteinyes
agonist
HumanQ8TDS4 details
Nicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase [carboxylating]Proteinyes
binder
HumanQ15274 details
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferaseProteinyes
binder
HumanP40261 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionBoth nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are efficiently absorbed from the stomach and small intestine.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life20-45 minutes.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNicotinic acid can cause vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels resulting in increased blood flow, principally in the face, neck and chest. This produces the niacin- or nicotinic acid-flush. The niacin-flush is thought to be mediated via the prostaglandin prostacyclin. Histamine may also play a role in the niacin-flush. Flushing is the adverse reaction first observed after intake of a large dose of nicotinic acid, and the most bothersome one. LD50 7000 mg/kg (Rat)
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismMetabolicSMP00048
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Withdrawn
AicarThe therapeutic efficacy of Aicar can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Experimental
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
AtorvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
BalaglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Balaglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
BuforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Buformin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Withdrawn
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
CastanospermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castanospermine can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Experimental
CerivastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Cerivastatin.Withdrawn
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Niacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
CiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Experimental
Coenzyme Q10The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Coenzyme Q10.Experimental
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Niacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Niacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
DeoxyspergualinThe therapeutic efficacy of Deoxyspergualin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
DulaglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dulaglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Empagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Niacin.Approved
ExenatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Exenatide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Niacin.Approved
FluvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
GlibornurideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glibornuride can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Withdrawn
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GlipizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glipizide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GusperimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Gusperimus can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin PorkThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Pork can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
LinagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
LiraglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Liraglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
LovastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
MevastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Mevastatin.Experimental
MiglitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglitol can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
MiglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglustat can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
MitiglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mitiglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
NateglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Nateglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
PhenforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenformin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Withdrawn
PioglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
PitavastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Pitavastatin.Approved
PramlintideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
PravastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Pravastatin.Approved
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Rosuvastatin.Approved
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
SimvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
SitagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sitagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
SulodexideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulodexide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
ThiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Niacin.Approved
TolazamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
TroglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Troglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Withdrawn
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
VogliboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Voglibose can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food.
References
Synthesis Reference

Joseph E. Toomey, Jr., “Electrochemical synthesis of niacin and other N-heterocyclic compounds.” U.S. Patent US5002641, issued 1914.

US5002641
General References
  1. Gopal E, Fei YJ, Miyauchi S, Zhuang L, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V: Sodium-coupled and electrogenic transport of B-complex vitamin nicotinic acid by slc5a8, a member of the Na/glucose co-transporter gene family. Biochem J. 2005 May 15;388(Pt 1):309-16. [PubMed:15651982 ]
External Links
ATC CodesC10BA01C10AD52C10AD02C04AC01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:06.92
  • 88:08.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (330 KB)
MSDSDownload (73.2 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9672
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9648
Caco-2 permeable+0.8701
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8683
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9935
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor1.0
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8938
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8246
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9231
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8381
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.94
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.912
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9875
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9939
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8566
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9437
Rat acute toxicity1.2760 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9557
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9829
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Medpointe pharmaceuticals medpointe healthcare inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Abbott laboratories
  • Everylife
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended release; tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral
PowderOral
TabletOral50 mg
Kit
Tablet, film coatedOral
ShampooTopical2 mg/100mL
Solution / dropsOral
LiquidOral
SolutionOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
TabletOral250 mg
CapsuleOral250 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg
PowderOral800 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral400 mg
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral475 mg
TabletOral500 mg
TabletOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
Tablet, coatedOral
LozengeOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral300 mg
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
TabletOral10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Niaspan 1000 mg Controlled Release Tabs4.67USD tab
Simcor 1000-20 mg 24 Hour tablet4.67USD tablet
Niaspan er 1000 mg tablet4.49USD tablet
Simcor 1000-20 mg tablet4.49USD tablet
Niaspan 1000 mg tablet er4.04USD tablet
Niaspan 750 mg Controlled Release Tabs3.76USD tab
Niaspan er 750 mg tablet3.62USD tablet
Simcor 750-20 mg tablet3.62USD tablet
Niaspan 750 mg tablet er3.25USD tablet
Niaspan 500 mg Controlled Release Tabs2.65USD tab
Simcor 500-20 mg 24 Hour tablet2.64USD tablet
Niaspan er 500 mg tablet2.54USD tablet
Simcor 500-20 mg tablet2.54USD tablet
Niaspan 500 mg tablet er2.28USD tablet
Nicomide-t 4% cream1.1USD g
Niacinamide ascorbate powder0.57USD g
Niacin flush free 750 mg capsule0.35USD capsule
Niacinamide powder0.24USD g
Slo-niacin 750 mg tablet0.19USD tablet
Niacin 500 mg capsule0.16USD capsule
Slo-niacin 500 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Niacin 500 mg tablet0.1USD tablet
Slo-niacin 250 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Niacin 1000 mg tablet sa0.08USD tablet
No flush niacin capsule0.08USD capsule
Niacin 250 mg tablet sa0.06USD tablet
Niacin flush free 500 mg capsule0.06USD capsule
Niacin 250 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Niacinamide 500 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Niacin 100 mg caplet0.02USD caplet
Niacin 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Niacin 50 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Niacinamide 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2283159 No2007-06-192018-03-06Canada
CA2298549 No2006-01-102018-07-31Canada
US6080428 No1997-05-272017-05-27Us
US6129930 No1993-09-202013-09-20Us
US6469035 No1998-03-152018-03-15Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point236.6 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.8E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.36SANGSTER (1993)
logS-0.84ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.75 (at 25 °C)DEAN,JA (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility83.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP-0.17ChemAxon
logS-0.17ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.19ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area50.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity31.16 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.3 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.87 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-053i-0900000000-5daf0093df6c21c7279fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-053i-0900000000-f38b6609b45de8c74565View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0540-0900000000-4f55c81a6cd42f1b961dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-057r-5900000000-00bf3662b5b9db533c0aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0569-2900000000-7820ea736b03b71d2cb8View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-1900000000-27508608b33f1fb9f221View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-9100000000-a2037c9695659dceabd1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0ufr-9100000000-4a2649a83ad2a40e5194View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0kmi-7900000000-1bc47d1b1850f54fb7c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-1900000000-a352c5ce16d4b682b052View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-ab23ecb032e387b40bd9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-02e37a1cfd3947037579View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-75d7e6658d2d6eca736eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-21a2d68d4f364c596f1dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0ab9-0900000000-a74db528f61c435876c8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-6900000000-773c08ab92ace4d48a9cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00aj-9100000000-07b12fbe942e6c7fb12dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-005a-9000000000-66e0a5ba2ca8dbba1ed5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-fbf8ba47b56d7cc7be81View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-b1a48f694fba565108a1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0kor-8900000000-7d3f033a49f5fad75f33View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyridinecarboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentPyridinecarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for 3-OH-octanoid acid mediates a negative feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis to counteract prolipolytic influences under conditions of physiological or pathological increases in beta-oxidation rates. Acts as a low affinity receptor for nicotinic acid. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet.
Gene Name:
HCAR3
Uniprot ID:
P49019
Molecular Weight:
44477.93 Da
References
  1. Tunaru S, Kero J, Schaub A, Wufka C, Blaukat A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S: PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect. Nat Med. 2003 Mar;9(3):352-5. Epub 2003 Feb 3. [PubMed:12563315 ]
  2. Taggart AK, Kero J, Gan X, Cai TQ, Cheng K, Ippolito M, Ren N, Kaplan R, Wu K, Wu TJ, Jin L, Liaw C, Chen R, Richman J, Connolly D, Offermanns S, Wright SD, Waters MG: (D)-beta-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits adipocyte lipolysis via the nicotinic acid receptor PUMA-G. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 22;280(29):26649-52. Epub 2005 Jun 1. [PubMed:15929991 ]
  3. Zhang Y, Schmidt RJ, Foxworthy P, Emkey R, Oler JK, Large TH, Wang H, Su EW, Mosior MK, Eacho PI, Cao G: Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 26;334(2):729-32. [PubMed:16018973 ]
  4. Tunaru S, Lattig J, Kero J, Krause G, Offermanns S: Characterization of determinants of ligand binding to the nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A (HM74A/PUMA-G). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;68(5):1271-80. Epub 2005 Aug 11. [PubMed:16099840 ]
  5. Benyo Z, Gille A, Kero J, Csiky M, Suchankova MC, Nusing RM, Moers A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S: GPR109A (PUMA-G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing. J Clin Invest. 2005 Dec;115(12):3634-40. [PubMed:16322797 ]
  6. Wise A, Foord SM, Fraser NJ, Barnes AA, Elshourbagy N, Eilert M, Ignar DM, Murdock PR, Steplewski K, Green A, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Szekeres PG, Hassall DG, Marshall FH, Wilson S, Pike NB: Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14;278(11):9869-74. Epub 2003 Jan 9. [PubMed:12522134 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Nicotinic acid receptor activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This pharmacological effect requires nicotinic acid doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Mediates nicotinic acid-induced apoptosi...
Gene Name:
HCAR2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TDS4
Molecular Weight:
41849.08 Da
References
  1. Wise A, Foord SM, Fraser NJ, Barnes AA, Elshourbagy N, Eilert M, Ignar DM, Murdock PR, Steplewski K, Green A, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Szekeres PG, Hassall DG, Marshall FH, Wilson S, Pike NB: Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14;278(11):9869-74. Epub 2003 Jan 9. [PubMed:12522134 ]
  2. Soga T, Kamohara M, Takasaki J, Matsumoto S, Saito T, Ohishi T, Hiyama H, Matsuo A, Matsushime H, Furuichi K: Molecular identification of nicotinic acid receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Mar 28;303(1):364-9. [PubMed:12646212 ]
  3. Zellner C, Pullinger CR, Aouizerat BE, Frost PH, Kwok PY, Malloy MJ, Kane JP: Variations in human HM74 (GPR109B) and HM74A (GPR109A) niacin receptors. Hum Mutat. 2005 Jan;25(1):18-21. [PubMed:15580557 ]
  4. Zhang Y, Schmidt RJ, Foxworthy P, Emkey R, Oler JK, Large TH, Wang H, Su EW, Mosior MK, Eacho PI, Cao G: Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 26;334(2):729-32. [PubMed:16018973 ]
  5. Tunaru S, Lattig J, Kero J, Krause G, Offermanns S: Characterization of determinants of ligand binding to the nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A (HM74A/PUMA-G). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;68(5):1271-80. Epub 2005 Aug 11. [PubMed:16099840 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
binder
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the catabolism of quinolinic acid (QA).
Gene Name:
QPRT
Uniprot ID:
Q15274
Molecular Weight:
30845.31 Da
References
  1. Fukuwatari T, Morikawa Y, Hayakawa F, Sugimoto E, Shibata K: Influence of adenine-induced renal failure on tryptophan-niacin metabolism in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Oct;65(10):2154-61. [PubMed:11758903 ]
  2. Shin DH, Oganesyan N, Jancarik J, Yokota H, Kim R, Kim SH: Crystal structure of a nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase from Thermoplasma acidophilum. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 6;280(18):18326-35. Epub 2005 Mar 6. [PubMed:15753098 ]
  3. Zheng XQ, Hayashibe E, Ashihara H: Changes in trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) content and nicotinic acid metabolism during germination of mungbean (Phaseolus aureus) seeds. J Exp Bot. 2005 Jun;56(416):1615-23. Epub 2005 Apr 18. [PubMed:15837705 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
binder
General Function:
Nicotinamide n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide and other pyridines to form pyridinium ions. This activity is important for biotransformation of many drugs and xenobiotic compounds.
Gene Name:
NNMT
Uniprot ID:
P40261
Molecular Weight:
29573.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Riederer M, Erwa W, Zimmermann R, Frank S, Zechner R: Adipose tissue as a source of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase and homocysteine. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Jun;204(2):412-7. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.09.015. Epub 2008 Sep 27. [PubMed:18996527 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular Weight:
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724351 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Acts as an electrogenic sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl-)-dependent sodium-coupled solute transporter, including transport of monocarboxylates (short-chain fatty acids including L-lactate, D-lactate, pyruvate, acetate, propionate, valerate and butyrate), lactate, mocarboxylate drugs (nicotinate, benzoate, salicylate and 5-aminosalicylate) and ketone bodies (beta-D-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate ...
Gene Name:
SLC5A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8N695
Molecular Weight:
66577.005 Da
References
  1. Gopal E, Fei YJ, Miyauchi S, Zhuang L, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V: Sodium-coupled and electrogenic transport of B-complex vitamin nicotinic acid by slc5a8, a member of the Na/glucose co-transporter gene family. Biochem J. 2005 May 15;388(Pt 1):309-16. [PubMed:15651982 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID:
O15427
Molecular Weight:
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16213084 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 09, 2016 02:37