Identification

Name
Niacin
Accession Number
DB00627  (NUTR00042, APRD00536)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Description

A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has pellagra-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 3-carboxypyridine
  • 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
  • 3-Pyridylcarboxylic acid
  • Acide Nicotinique
  • Acido nicotinico
  • Acidum Nicotinicum
  • Anti-pellagra vitamin
  • beta-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
  • M-Pyridinecarboxylic Acid
  • Niacin
  • Nicotinic Acid
  • Nikotinsaeure
  • P.P. factor
  • Pellagra preventive factor
  • PP Factor
  • Pyridine-beta-carboxylic acid
  • pyridine-β-carboxylic acid
  • Vitamin B3
  • β-pyridinecarboxylic acid
External IDs
NSC-169454
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
B-3 500mg Continuous ReleasedTablet, extended release500 mgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1981-12-312000-08-01Canada
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2014-06-30Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2014-06-30Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2014-06-30Not applicableUs
Niacin Ctr Srt 500mgTablet, extended release500 mgOralBioenergy Inc.1981-12-311998-06-03Canada
Niacin Inj 100mg/mlSolution100 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Niacin Pwr 800mg/1.25mlPowder800 mgOralKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1980-12-312012-06-11Canada
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralLake Erie Medical &Surgical Supply Dba Quality Care Products Llc2012-04-032017-11-18Us
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions2010-06-292017-06-20Us
NiaspanTablet, film coated, extended release500 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management2010-06-29Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York Llc2015-07-27Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2016-05-26Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release500 mg/1OralTeva2013-09-202018-11-30Us00093 7392 98 nlmimage10 2e391708
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals2014-03-20Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release750 mg/1OralSun Pharma Global FZE2014-06-27Not applicableUs47335 0614 81 nlmimage10 9b3f4daa
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2016-02-01Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralLupin Pharmaceuticals2014-03-20Not applicableUs68180 0223 01 nlmimage10 6d3f3689
NiacinTablet, extended release1000 mg/1OralKremers Urban2017-02-16Not applicableUs
NiacinTablet, extended release750 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2015-03-312017-10-17Us68180 0222 01 nlmimage10 503c2841
NiacinTablet, film coated, extended release1000 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2016-01-18Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acti-niacin Caplet 500mgTablet500 mgOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
B3Tablet500 mgOralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.1997-12-302008-07-17Canada
Formula # 7 Tab 50mgTablet50 mgOralGolden Pride/Rawleigh1995-12-312004-10-15Canada
Niacin 100 mgCapsule100 mgOralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-03-152004-08-04Canada
Niacin 100 Mg TabletsTablet100 mgOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182005-08-05Canada
Niacin 100mgTablet100 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1973-12-312014-05-01Canada
Niacin 100mgTablet100 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Niacin 100mg TabTablet100 mgOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1984-12-312009-09-28Canada
Niacin 100mg Tablets USPTablet100 mgOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-08-082006-07-27Canada
Niacin 250mgTablet250 mgOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
JEUNCELL Hair restorer and Hair Growth SolutionShampoo2 mg/100mLTopicalJeun Cell Ltd2012-11-25Not applicableUs
NiacorTablet500 mg/1OralAvondale Pharmaceuticals, Llc2000-05-03Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AdvicorNiacin (500 mg) + Lovastatin (20 mg)Tablet, extended release; Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOralSepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc2005-11-092012-08-02Canada
AdvicorNiacin (1000 mg/1) + Lovastatin (40 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-08-08Not applicableUs
AdvicorNiacin (1000 mg/1) + Lovastatin (20 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbvie2001-12-172017-11-30Us
AdvicorNiacin (750 mg/1) + Lovastatin (20 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbvie2001-12-172017-04-30Us
AdvicorNiacin (1000 mg) + Lovastatin (40 mg)Tablet, extended release; Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOralSepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc2007-05-152010-07-26Canada
AdvicorNiacin (500 mg/1) + Lovastatin (20 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-06-032017-03-11Us
AdvicorNiacin (500 mg/1) + Lovastatin (20 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbvie2001-12-172018-03-31Us
AdvicorNiacin (1000 mg) + Lovastatin (20 mg)Tablet, extended release; Tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOralSepracor Pharmaceuticals Inc2005-11-092012-08-02Canada
AdvicorNiacin (1000 mg/1) + Lovastatin (40 mg/1)Tablet, extended releaseOralAbbvie2001-12-172018-01-31Us
American Eagle Energizer Plus Vitamin Supplement DrinkNiacin (20 mg) + Choline (50 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mg) + Inositol nicotinate (50 mg) + Pantothenic acid (5 mg) + Pyridoxine (3 mg)LiquidOralP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
2679MF687A
CAS number
59-67-6
Weight
Average: 123.1094
Monoisotopic: 123.032028409
Chemical Formula
C6H5NO2
InChI Key
PVNIIMVLHYAWGP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H5NO2/c8-6(9)5-2-1-3-7-4-5/h1-4H,(H,8,9)
IUPAC Name
pyridine-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)C1=CN=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of type IV and V hyperlipidemia. It is indicated as ajunctive therapy.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Niacin and niacinamide are indicated for prevention and treatment of vitamin B3 deficiency states. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) also acts to reduce LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The magnitude of individual lipid and lipoprotein responses may be influenced by the severity and type of underlying lipid abnormality. The increase in total HDL is associated with a shift in the distribution of HDL subfractions (as defined by ultra-centrifugation) with an increase in the HDL2:HDL3 ratio and an increase in apolipoprotein A-I content. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) treatment also decreases the serum levels of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the major protein component of the VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and LDL fractions, and of lipoprotein-a, a variant form of LDL independently associated with coronary risk.

Mechanism of action

Niacin binds to Nicotinate D-ribonucleotide phyrophsopate phosphoribosyltransferase, Nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, Nicotinate N-methyltransferase and the Niacin receptor. Niacin is the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which are vital cofactors for dozens of enzymes. The mechanism by which niacin exerts its lipid lowering effects is not entirely understood, but may involve several actions, including a decrease in esterification of hepatic triglycerides. Niacin treatment also decreases the serum levels of apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B), the major protein component of the VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) and LDL fractions.

TargetActionsOrganism
AHydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3
agonist
Human
AHydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2
agonist
Human
ANicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase [carboxylating]
binder
Human
ANicotinamide N-methyltransferase
binder
Human
Absorption

Both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are efficiently absorbed from the stomach and small intestine.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

20-45 minutes.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Nicotinic acid can cause vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels resulting in increased blood flow, principally in the face, neck and chest. This produces the niacin- or nicotinic acid-flush. The niacin-flush is thought to be mediated via the prostaglandin prostacyclin. Histamine may also play a role in the niacin-flush. Flushing is the adverse reaction first observed after intake of a large dose of nicotinic acid, and the most bothersome one. LD50 7000 mg/kg (Rat)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
AcarboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
AcetohexamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetohexamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational, Withdrawn
AICA ribonucleotideThe therapeutic efficacy of AICA ribonucleotide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Experimental, Investigational
AllicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Allicin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
AlogliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Alogliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
AtorvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Atorvastatin.Approved
BalaglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Balaglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
Bempedoic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Bempedoic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
BuforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Buformin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational, Withdrawn
CanagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Canagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
CarbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Carbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Experimental
CastanospermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Castanospermine can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Experimental
CerivastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Cerivastatin.Withdrawn
ChlorpropamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Niacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
CiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Ciglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Experimental
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Niacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Niacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
DeoxyspergualinThe therapeutic efficacy of Deoxyspergualin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
DulaglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dulaglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
EmpagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Empagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Niacin.Approved
ExenatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Exenatide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Niacin.Approved
FluvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
GlibornurideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glibornuride can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational, Withdrawn
GliclazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliclazide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GlimepirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glimepiride can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GlipizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glipizide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GliquidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gliquidone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
GlyburideThe therapeutic efficacy of Glyburide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
GusperimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Gusperimus can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
Insulin AspartThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin DetemirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Detemir can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin GlargineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glargine can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin GlulisineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Glulisine can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin HumanThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
Insulin LisproThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Lispro can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
Insulin PorkThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Pork can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
LinagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Linagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
LiraglutideThe therapeutic efficacy of Liraglutide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
LovastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
MetforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Metformin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
MevastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Mevastatin.Experimental
MiglitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglitol can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
MiglustatThe therapeutic efficacy of Miglustat can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
MitiglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mitiglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
NateglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Nateglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
PhenforminThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenformin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PioglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Pioglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
PitavastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Pitavastatin.Approved
PramlintideThe therapeutic efficacy of Pramlintide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
PravastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Pravastatin.Approved
RepaglinideThe therapeutic efficacy of Repaglinide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Rosiglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
RosuvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Rosuvastatin.Approved
SaxagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Saxagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
SimvastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Simvastatin.Approved
SitagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sitagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
SotagliflozinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sotagliflozin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational
SulodexideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulodexide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Niacin.Approved, Withdrawn
TolazamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
TolbutamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolbutamide can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved
TroglitazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Troglitazone can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Investigational, Withdrawn
UbidecarenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niacin is combined with Ubidecarenone.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
VildagliptinThe therapeutic efficacy of Vildagliptin can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
VogliboseThe therapeutic efficacy of Voglibose can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Joseph E. Toomey, Jr., "Electrochemical synthesis of niacin and other N-heterocyclic compounds." U.S. Patent US5002641, issued 1914.

US5002641
General References
  1. Gopal E, Fei YJ, Miyauchi S, Zhuang L, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V: Sodium-coupled and electrogenic transport of B-complex vitamin nicotinic acid by slc5a8, a member of the Na/glucose co-transporter gene family. Biochem J. 2005 May 15;388(Pt 1):309-16. [PubMed:15651982]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01488
KEGG Drug
D00049
KEGG Compound
C00253
PubChem Compound
938
PubChem Substance
46507508
ChemSpider
913
BindingDB
23515
ChEBI
15940
ChEMBL
CHEMBL573
PharmGKB
PA450617
IUPHAR
1594
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
NIO
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Niacin
ATC Codes
C10BA01 — Lovastatin and nicotinic acidC04AC01 — Nicotinic acidC10AD52 — Nicotinic acid, combinationsC10AD02 — Nicotinic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 24:06.92 — Miscellaneous Antilipemic Agents
  • 88:08.00 — Vitamin B Complex
PDB Entries
1d0v / 1fsl / 1icr / 1icu / 1icv / 1jha / 1jho / 1jhq / 1jhr / 1jhv
show 18 more
FDA label
Download (330 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingPreventionAortic Stenosis and Lipoprotein(a) Levels1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias2
1CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia1
1CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia / Hyperlipidemias1
1RecruitingNot AvailableDyslipidemias1
1RecruitingTreatmentNHL / Sarcomas / Tumors, Solid1
1Unknown StatusNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedDiagnosticBMI >30 kg/m2 / Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) / Short Stature1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeurodegenerative Disorders1
2CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m21
2CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentAortocoronary Saphenous Vein Bypass Graft Atherosclerosis / Intermediate Saphenous Vein Graft Lesions1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedTreatmentCarotid Atherosclerosis1
2CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias2
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I1
2CompletedTreatmentOpioid Abuse1
2CompletedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentObsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBranch Retinal Vein Occlusion / Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRetinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases / Atherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Artery Diseases / Cerebral Arteriosclerosis / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias2
3CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia1
3CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia / Hyperlipidemias2
3CompletedTreatmentHyperlipidemias / Mixed hypercholesterolemia1
3CompletedTreatmentIntermittent Claudication / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)2
3CompletedTreatmentPsychosis1
3TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Accidents / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI)1
3TerminatedTreatmentHyperlipidemias / Kidney Failure,Chronic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentElevated Lipoprotein(a) Levels1
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Carotid Artery Diseases / Coronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHypoalphalipoproteinemias1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias / Strokes1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Outcomes1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Lipoprotein deficiency1
4CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias1
4CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Hyperlipidemias / Mixed hypercholesterolemia1
4CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia1
4CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia / Hyperlipidemias1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertriglyceridemias / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedTreatmentInsulin Resistance / Metabolic Syndromes1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHyperphosphataemia1
4RecruitingTreatmentHyperphosphataemia1
4TerminatedNot AvailableDyslipidemias1
4TerminatedPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
4TerminatedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Dyslipidemias1
4TerminatedTreatmentHyperlipoproteinemias / Metabolic Syndromes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Dyslipidemias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCholesterol, HDL / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Lipoproteins1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Carotid Artery Diseases / Coronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCarotid Artery Diseases / Coronary Artery Disease / Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFacial Flushing1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDyslipidemias / Healthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAneurysms / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Valve Disease / Rheumatic Heart Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hyperlipidemias / Hypertriglyceridemias / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCoronary Arteriosclerosis / Genetic Diseases, Inborn / Hypoalphalipoproteinemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hypercholesterolaemia / Hypertriglyceridemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / Endothelial Dysfunction / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNon-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionCongenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Valve Disease1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic SciencePeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Dialysis therapy / Inflammatory Reaction1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAtherosclerosis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Medpointe pharmaceuticals medpointe healthcare inc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Abbott laboratories
  • Everylife
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mk laboratories inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Tablicaps inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, extended release; tablet, multilayer, extended releaseOral
PowderOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral50 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
ShampooTopical2 mg/100mL
Solution / dropsOral
LiquidOral
SolutionOral
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
TabletOral250 mg
CapsuleOral250 mg
CapsuleOral100 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg
PowderOral800 mg
Capsule, extended releaseOral400 mg
TabletOral100 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral475 mg
TabletOral500 mg
TabletOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral1000 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral750 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral500 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral1000 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
TabletOral
Kit
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
Tablet, coatedOral
LozengeOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral300 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
TabletOral10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Niaspan 1000 mg Controlled Release Tabs4.67USD tab
Simcor 1000-20 mg 24 Hour tablet4.67USD tablet
Niaspan er 1000 mg tablet4.49USD tablet
Simcor 1000-20 mg tablet4.49USD tablet
Niaspan 1000 mg tablet er4.04USD tablet
Niaspan 750 mg Controlled Release Tabs3.76USD tab
Niaspan er 750 mg tablet3.62USD tablet
Simcor 750-20 mg tablet3.62USD tablet
Niaspan 750 mg tablet er3.25USD tablet
Niaspan 500 mg Controlled Release Tabs2.65USD tab
Simcor 500-20 mg 24 Hour tablet2.64USD tablet
Niaspan er 500 mg tablet2.54USD tablet
Simcor 500-20 mg tablet2.54USD tablet
Niaspan 500 mg tablet er2.28USD tablet
Nicomide-t 4% cream1.1USD g
Niacinamide ascorbate powder0.57USD g
Niacin flush free 750 mg capsule0.35USD capsule
Niacinamide powder0.24USD g
Slo-niacin 750 mg tablet0.19USD tablet
Niacin 500 mg capsule0.16USD capsule
Slo-niacin 500 mg tablet0.14USD tablet
Niacin 500 mg tablet0.1USD tablet
Slo-niacin 250 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Niacin 1000 mg tablet sa0.08USD tablet
No flush niacin capsule0.08USD capsule
Niacin 250 mg tablet sa0.06USD tablet
Niacin flush free 500 mg capsule0.06USD capsule
Niacin 250 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Niacinamide 500 mg tablet0.03USD tablet
Niacin 100 mg caplet0.02USD caplet
Niacin 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Niacin 50 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
Niacinamide 100 mg tablet0.02USD tablet
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Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6129930No1993-09-202013-09-20Us
CA2283159No2007-06-192018-03-06Canada
CA2298549No2006-01-102018-07-31Canada
US6080428No1997-05-272017-05-27Us
US6469035No1998-03-152018-03-15Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)236.6 °CPhysProp
water solubility1.8E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP0.36SANGSTER (1993)
logS-0.84ADME Research, USCD
pKa4.75 (at 25 °C)DEAN,JA (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility83.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP-0.17ChemAxon
logS-0.17ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.19ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area50.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity31.16 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.3 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9672
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9648
Caco-2 permeable+0.8701
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8683
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9935
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor1.0
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8938
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8246
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9231
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8381
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.94
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.912
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9875
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9939
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8566
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9437
Rat acute toxicity1.2760 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9557
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9829
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.87 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-053i-0900000000-5daf0093df6c21c7279f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-053i-0900000000-f38b6609b45de8c74565
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0540-0900000000-4f55c81a6cd42f1b961d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-057r-5900000000-00bf3662b5b9db533c0a
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0569-2900000000-7820ea736b03b71d2cb8
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0kmi-7900000000-9e4efda763cce5ddfe57
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-053i-0900000000-5daf0093df6c21c7279f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-053i-0900000000-f38b6609b45de8c74565
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0540-0900000000-4f55c81a6cd42f1b961d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-057r-5900000000-00bf3662b5b9db533c0a
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0569-2900000000-7820ea736b03b71d2cb8
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0540-0900000000-a701904fe6ded0abd98f
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0kor-8900000000-7d3f033a49f5fad75f33
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-27508608b33f1fb9f221
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-003r-9100000000-a2037c9695659dceabd1
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0ufr-9100000000-4a2649a83ad2a40e5194
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0kmi-7900000000-1bc47d1b1850f54fb7c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-a352c5ce16d4b682b052
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-ab23ecb032e387b40bd9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-02e37a1cfd3947037579
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-75d7e6658d2d6eca736e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-9000000000-21a2d68d4f364c596f1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ab9-0900000000-a74db528f61c435876c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-6900000000-773c08ab92ace4d48a9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00aj-9100000000-07b12fbe942e6c7fb12d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-005a-9000000000-66e0a5ba2ca8dbba1ed5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-fbf8ba47b56d7cc7be81
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-b1a48f694fba565108a1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-a352c5ce16d4b682b052
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-ab23ecb032e387b40bd9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-02e37a1cfd3947037579
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-75d7e6658d2d6eca736e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-9000000000-21a2d68d4f364c596f1d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-b1a48f694fba565108a1
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-affdac58f480428e02c6
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-19b41866469269d2235b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-b84242a938bd40d61ff6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-1174a7f46485752c0daa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ea-9400000000-4539592b8e6a4564120c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-005a-9000000000-df6b83e44b493afab79b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-005a-9000000000-82b9c8aec085da3d0553
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ab9-0900000000-a74db528f61c435876c8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-6900000000-773c08ab92ace4d48a9c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00aj-9100000000-7dcd57505ae0cfbee247
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-005a-9000000000-66e0a5ba2ca8dbba1ed5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-fbf8ba47b56d7cc7be81
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9600000000-fc78f932208250ddafaf
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-cc3a4b4e586e5dbe55be
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyridinecarboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic acid group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Pyridines and derivatives
Sub Class
Pyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Pyridinecarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Heteroaromatic compounds / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Pyridine carboxylic acid / Heteroaromatic compound / Azacycle / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
pyridine alkaloid, pyridinemonocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:15940) / Water-soluble vitamins, Pyridine alkaloids (C00253)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for 3-OH-octanoid acid mediates a negative feedback regulation of adipocyte lipolysis to counteract prolipolytic influences under conditions of physiological or pathological increases in b...
Gene Name
HCAR3
Uniprot ID
P49019
Uniprot Name
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3
Molecular Weight
44477.93 Da
References
  1. Tunaru S, Kero J, Schaub A, Wufka C, Blaukat A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S: PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect. Nat Med. 2003 Mar;9(3):352-5. Epub 2003 Feb 3. [PubMed:12563315]
  2. Taggart AK, Kero J, Gan X, Cai TQ, Cheng K, Ippolito M, Ren N, Kaplan R, Wu K, Wu TJ, Jin L, Liaw C, Chen R, Richman J, Connolly D, Offermanns S, Wright SD, Waters MG: (D)-beta-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits adipocyte lipolysis via the nicotinic acid receptor PUMA-G. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 22;280(29):26649-52. Epub 2005 Jun 1. [PubMed:15929991]
  3. Zhang Y, Schmidt RJ, Foxworthy P, Emkey R, Oler JK, Large TH, Wang H, Su EW, Mosior MK, Eacho PI, Cao G: Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 26;334(2):729-32. [PubMed:16018973]
  4. Tunaru S, Lattig J, Kero J, Krause G, Offermanns S: Characterization of determinants of ligand binding to the nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A (HM74A/PUMA-G). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;68(5):1271-80. Epub 2005 Aug 11. [PubMed:16099840]
  5. Benyo Z, Gille A, Kero J, Csiky M, Suchankova MC, Nusing RM, Moers A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S: GPR109A (PUMA-G/HM74A) mediates nicotinic acid-induced flushing. J Clin Invest. 2005 Dec;115(12):3634-40. [PubMed:16322797]
  6. Wise A, Foord SM, Fraser NJ, Barnes AA, Elshourbagy N, Eilert M, Ignar DM, Murdock PR, Steplewski K, Green A, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Szekeres PG, Hassall DG, Marshall FH, Wilson S, Pike NB: Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14;278(11):9869-74. Epub 2003 Jan 9. [PubMed:12522134]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Nicotinic acid receptor activity
Specific Function
Acts as a high affinity receptor for both nicotinic acid (also known as niacin) and (D)-beta-hydroxybutyrate and mediates increased adiponectin secretion and decreased lipolysis through G(i)-protei...
Gene Name
HCAR2
Uniprot ID
Q8TDS4
Uniprot Name
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2
Molecular Weight
41849.08 Da
References
  1. Wise A, Foord SM, Fraser NJ, Barnes AA, Elshourbagy N, Eilert M, Ignar DM, Murdock PR, Steplewski K, Green A, Brown AJ, Dowell SJ, Szekeres PG, Hassall DG, Marshall FH, Wilson S, Pike NB: Molecular identification of high and low affinity receptors for nicotinic acid. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 14;278(11):9869-74. Epub 2003 Jan 9. [PubMed:12522134]
  2. Soga T, Kamohara M, Takasaki J, Matsumoto S, Saito T, Ohishi T, Hiyama H, Matsuo A, Matsushime H, Furuichi K: Molecular identification of nicotinic acid receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Mar 28;303(1):364-9. [PubMed:12646212]
  3. Zellner C, Pullinger CR, Aouizerat BE, Frost PH, Kwok PY, Malloy MJ, Kane JP: Variations in human HM74 (GPR109B) and HM74A (GPR109A) niacin receptors. Hum Mutat. 2005 Jan;25(1):18-21. [PubMed:15580557]
  4. Zhang Y, Schmidt RJ, Foxworthy P, Emkey R, Oler JK, Large TH, Wang H, Su EW, Mosior MK, Eacho PI, Cao G: Niacin mediates lipolysis in adipose tissue through its G-protein coupled receptor HM74A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 26;334(2):729-32. [PubMed:16018973]
  5. Tunaru S, Lattig J, Kero J, Krause G, Offermanns S: Characterization of determinants of ligand binding to the nicotinic acid receptor GPR109A (HM74A/PUMA-G). Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;68(5):1271-80. Epub 2005 Aug 11. [PubMed:16099840]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Involved in the catabolism of quinolinic acid (QA).
Gene Name
QPRT
Uniprot ID
Q15274
Uniprot Name
Nicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase [carboxylating]
Molecular Weight
30845.31 Da
References
  1. Fukuwatari T, Morikawa Y, Hayakawa F, Sugimoto E, Shibata K: Influence of adenine-induced renal failure on tryptophan-niacin metabolism in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Oct;65(10):2154-61. [PubMed:11758903]
  2. Shin DH, Oganesyan N, Jancarik J, Yokota H, Kim R, Kim SH: Crystal structure of a nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase from Thermoplasma acidophilum. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 6;280(18):18326-35. Epub 2005 Mar 6. [PubMed:15753098]
  3. Zheng XQ, Hayashibe E, Ashihara H: Changes in trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) content and nicotinic acid metabolism during germination of mungbean (Phaseolus aureus) seeds. J Exp Bot. 2005 Jun;56(416):1615-23. Epub 2005 Apr 18. [PubMed:15837705]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Nicotinamide n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the N-methylation of nicotinamide and other pyridines to form pyridinium ions. This activity is important for biotransformation of many drugs and xenobiotic compounds.
Gene Name
NNMT
Uniprot ID
P40261
Uniprot Name
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
29573.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Riederer M, Erwa W, Zimmermann R, Frank S, Zechner R: Adipose tissue as a source of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase and homocysteine. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Jun;204(2):412-7. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.09.015. Epub 2008 Sep 27. [PubMed:18996527]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID
O94956
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1
Molecular Weight
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucin...
Gene Name
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID
P53985
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 1
Molecular Weight
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Tamai I, Sai Y, Ono A, Kido Y, Yabuuchi H, Takanaga H, Satoh E, Ogihara T, Amano O, Izeki S, Tsuji A: Immunohistochemical and functional characterization of pH-dependent intestinal absorption of weak organic acids by the monocarboxylic acid transporter MCT1. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Oct;51(10):1113-21. [PubMed:10579682]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Acts as an electrogenic sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl-)-dependent sodium-coupled solute transporter, including transport of monocarboxylates (short-chain fatty acids including L-lactate, D-lactat...
Gene Name
SLC5A8
Uniprot ID
Q8N695
Uniprot Name
Sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1
Molecular Weight
66577.005 Da
References
  1. Gopal E, Fei YJ, Miyauchi S, Zhuang L, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V: Sodium-coupled and electrogenic transport of B-complex vitamin nicotinic acid by slc5a8, a member of the Na/glucose co-transporter gene family. Biochem J. 2005 May 15;388(Pt 1):309-16. [PubMed:15651982]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine...
Gene Name
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID
O15427
Uniprot Name
Monocarboxylate transporter 4
Molecular Weight
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16213084]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2017 17:18