Identification

Name
Zolpidem
Accession Number
DB00425  (APRD00095)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Zolpidem is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). It is classified as an imidazopyridine. As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the beneficial effects start to emerge at 10 and 20 times the dose required for sedation, respectively. For that reason, it has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Recently, zolpidem has been cited in various medical reports mainly in the United Kingdom as waking persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, and dramatically improving the conditions of people with brain injuries.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • N,N,6-Trimethyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine-3-acetamide
  • Zolpidem
  • Zolpidemum
External IDs
HSDB 7045 / SL 800750 / SL 800750-23N
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Zolpidem tartrateWY6W63843K99294-93-6VXRDAMSNTXUHFX-CEAXSRTFSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AmbienTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1993-04-012017-06-20Us
AmbienTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralStat Rx USA1993-04-01Not applicableUs
AmbienTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralSanofi Aventis1993-04-01Not applicableUs
AmbienTablet, film coated10 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack1993-04-01Not applicableUs
AmbienTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1993-04-012017-06-20Us
AmbienTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1993-04-012017-06-20Us
AmbienTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2009-06-30Not applicableUs
AmbienTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1993-04-012017-06-20Us
AmbienTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralStat Rx USA1993-04-01Not applicableUs
AmbienTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralSanofi Aventis1993-04-01Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AmbienTablet10 mg/1OralDirectrx2016-01-28Not applicableUs
AmbienTablet5 mg/1OralDirectrx2016-02-10Not applicableUs
Apo-zolpidem ODTTablet, orally disintegrating10 mgSublingualApotex Corporation2015-02-13Not applicableCanada
Apo-zolpidem ODTTablet, orally disintegrating5 mgSublingualApotex Corporation2015-02-13Not applicableCanada
ZolpidemTablet10 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2008-04-30Not applicableUs
ZolpidemTablet5 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical2008-04-30Not applicableUs
Zolpidem TartrateTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralApotex Corporation2007-04-232017-01-13Us
Zolpidem TartrateTablet10 mg/1OralMesource Pharmaceuticals2007-09-05Not applicableUs
Zolpidem TartrateTablet5 mg/1OralRebel Distributors2007-09-05Not applicableUs
Zolpidem TartrateTablet, film coated5 mg/1OralProficient Rx LP2008-11-21Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Zolpidem TartrateTablet, film coated, extended release12.5 mg/1OralDirectrx2017-10-31Not applicableUs
Zolpidem TartrateTablet5 mg/1OralH.J Harkins Company Inc.2017-01-03Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Adormix (Sanofi Pasteur) / Bikalm (sanofi-aventis) / Dormizol (sanofi-aventis) / Hypnogen (Zentiva) / Ivedal (Winthrop) / Nasen (Polfarmex) / Nimadorm (Sandoz) / Nottem (sanofi-aventis) / Stilnoct (sanofi-aventis) / Stilnox (sanofi-aventis) / Stilnox CR (sanofi-aventis) / Zolsana (Krka) / Zoltis (Biofarm)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Gabazolpidem-5Zolpidem tartrate + CholineKitPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-072016-10-13Us
Sentrazolpidem PM-5Zolpidem tartrate + CholineKitOralPhysician Therapeutics Llc2011-07-072016-10-13Us
Categories
UNII
7K383OQI23
CAS number
82626-48-0
Weight
Average: 307.3895
Monoisotopic: 307.168462309
Chemical Formula
C19H21N3O
InChI Key
ZAFYATHCZYHLPB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H21N3O/c1-13-5-8-15(9-6-13)19-16(11-18(23)21(3)4)22-12-14(2)7-10-17(22)20-19/h5-10,12H,11H2,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
N,N-dimethyl-2-[6-methyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]acetamide
SMILES
CN(C)C(=O)CC1=C(N=C2C=CC(C)=CN12)C1=CC=C(C)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the short-term treatment of insomnia.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Zolpidem is a sedative or hypnotic agent with a chemical structure unrelated to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other drugs with known hypnotic properties. It interacts with a GABA-BZ receptor complex and shares some of the pharmacological properties of the benzodiazepines. In contrast to the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively bind to and activate all three alpha receptor subtypes, zolpidem in vitro binds the (alpha1) receptor preferentially. The (alpha1) receptor is found primarily on the Lamina IV of the sensorimotor cortical regions, substantia nigra (pars reticulata), cerebellum molecular layer, olfactory bulb, ventral thalamic complex, pons, inferior colliculus, and globus pallidus.

Mechanism of action

Zolpidem modulates the alpha-subunit, known as the benzodiazepine receptor, within the GABAA receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex. Unlike the benzodiazepines, which non-selectively interact with all three alpha-receptor subtypes, Zolpidem preferentially binds to the alpha-1 receptor.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
agonist
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
agonist
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
agonist
Human
UGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
agonist
Human
Absorption

Zolpidem is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

92.5 ± 0.1% (independent of concentration between 40 and 790 ng/mL)

Metabolism

Zolpidem is converted to inactive metabolites in the liver.

Route of elimination

Zolpidem tartrate tablets are converted to inactive metabolites that are eliminated primarily by renal excretion.

Half life

2.6 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral (male rat) LD50 = 695 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include impairment of consciousness ranging from somnolence to light coma.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONEThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with 2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE.Experimental
2-mercaptobenzothiazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole.Vet Approved
7-Nitroindazole7-Nitroindazole may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineAceprometazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
AdipiplonAdipiplon may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
AgomelatineAgomelatine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Alaproclate.Experimental
AlfaxaloneAlfaxalone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
AlfentanilAlfentanil may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
AllopregnanoloneAllopregnanolone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolAlphacetylmethadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineAlphaprodine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Illicit
AlprazolamAlprazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideAmisulpride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
AmorolfineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Amorolfine.Approved, Investigational
AmoxapineAmoxapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
AmperozideAmperozide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
Amphotericin BThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Amphotericin B.Approved, Investigational
AnidulafunginThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Anidulafungin.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Artemether.Approved
ArticaineArticaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
AsenapineAsenapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AzaperoneAzaperone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineAzelastine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BaclofenBaclofen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Bafilomycin A1The serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Bafilomycin A1.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Illicit
BenperidolBenperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
BenzocaineBenzocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Benzoic AcidThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Benzoic Acid.Approved
Benzyl alcoholBenzyl alcohol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.Approved
BifonazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Bifonazole.Approved, Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
Brefeldin AThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with 1,6,7,8,9,11A,12,13,14,14A-DECAHYDRO-1,13-DIHYDROXY-6-METHYL-4H-CYCLOPENT[F]OXACYCLOTRIDECIN-4-ONE.Experimental
BrexpiprazoleBrexpiprazole may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
BromazepamBromazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
BromisovalBromisoval may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
BromperidolBromperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
BrompheniramineBrompheniramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
BrotizolamBrotizolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BupivacaineBupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineBuprenorphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.Approved
BuspironeBuspirone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalButabarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineButacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
ButalbitalButalbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
ButambenButamben may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ButenafineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Butenafine.Approved
ButethalButethal may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
ButoconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Butoconazole.Approved
ButorphanolButorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CandicidinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Candicidin.Withdrawn
CanertinibCanertinib may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
Capric acidThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Capric acid.Experimental
CarbamazepineZolpidem may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineCarbinoxamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
CarfentanilCarfentanil may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolCarisoprodol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Caspofungin.Approved
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CeruleninThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Cerulenin.Approved
CetirizineCetirizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Chloral hydrateChloral hydrate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideChlordiazepoxide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneChlormezanone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineChloroprocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChloroxineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Chloroxine.Approved
ChlorphenamineChlorphenamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneChlorprothixene may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneChlorzoxazone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CiclopiroxThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Ciclopirox.Approved, Investigational
CimetidineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CinchocaineCinchocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineClemastine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ClidiniumClidinium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ClobazamClobazam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleclomethiazole may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
ClomipramineClomipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamClonazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineClonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ClopenthixolClopenthixol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
ClorazepateClorazepate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
ClothiapineClothiapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineClozapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineCocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
CodeineCodeine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CordycepinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Cordycepin.Investigational
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineCyclizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
CyclobenzaprineCyclobenzaprine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineCyproheptadine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DantroleneDantrolene may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DapiprazoleDapiprazole may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Dapoxetine.Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeramciclaneDeramciclane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
DesfluraneDesflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DesipramineDesipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DesloratadineDesloratadine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineDetomidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineDexbrompheniramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DexmedetomidineDexmedetomidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
DextromoramideDextromoramide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneDextropropoxyphene may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineDezocine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamDiazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DichloropheneThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Dichlorophene.Vet Approved
Diethyl etherDiethyl ether may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
DifenoxinDifenoxin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineDihydrocodeine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DihydroetorphineDihydroetorphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineDihydromorphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DimenhydrinateDimenhydrinate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DiphenhydramineDiphenhydramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DiphenoxylateDiphenoxylate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineDixyrazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
DoramectinDoramectin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxepinDoxepin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEDPDPE may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolDrotebanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineDyclonine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
EcgonineEcgonine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental, Illicit
EconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Econazole.Approved
EcopipamEcopipam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
EfavirenzEfavirenz may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
EfinaconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Efinaconazole.Approved
EliglustatThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
EltanoloneEltanolone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
EnfluraneEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeEntacapone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.Approved
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamEstazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneEszopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
EthanolEthanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
EthchlorvynolEthchlorvynol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideEthosuximide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
EthotoinEthotoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Ethyl carbamateEthyl carbamate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideEthyl chloride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateEthyl loflazepate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineEthylmorphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineEtidocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
EtifoxineEtifoxine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamEtizolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
EtomidateEtomidate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineEtorphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
EzogabineEzogabine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FelbamateFelbamate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FencamfamineFencamfamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylFentanyl may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenticonazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Fenticonazole.Experimental
FexofenadineFexofenadine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FlibanserinFlibanserin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluanisoneFluanisone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FlucytosineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Flucytosine.Approved
FludiazepamFludiazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
FlumazenilFlumazenil may decrease the sedative activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FlunarizineFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FlunitrazepamFlunitrazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolFlupentixol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineFluphenazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FlurazepamFlurazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneFluspirilene may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateFluticasone propionate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FlutrimazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Flutrimazole.Experimental
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinFosphenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
FospropofolFospropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
GabapentinGabapentin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilGabapentin Enacarbil may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GepironeGepirone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
GlutethimideGlutethimide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
GlyphosateThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Glyphosate.Experimental
GriseofulvinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Griseofulvin.Approved, Vet Approved
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
HachimycinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Hachimycin.Experimental
HalazepamHalazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolHaloperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
HaloproginThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Haloprogin.Approved, Withdrawn
HalothaneHalothane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinHeroin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexetidineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Hexetidine.Approved, Investigational
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
HydrocodoneZolpidem may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneHydromorphone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneIloperidone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineImipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndiplonIndiplon may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Isoconazole.Approved
IsofluraneIsoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetamineKetamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamKetazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
KetobemidoneKetobemidone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineLamotrigine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamLevetiracetam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineLevobupivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineLevocabastine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LevocetirizineLevocetirizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LevodopaLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateLevomethadyl Acetate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolLevorphanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LidocaineLidocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
LithiumLithium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LobeglitazoneThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Lobeglitazone.Approved, Investigational
LofentanilLofentanil may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Illicit
LopinavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamLoprazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
LoratadineLoratadine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LorazepamLorazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LormetazepamLormetazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineLoxapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneLurasidone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineMaprotiline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MebicarMebicar may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
MeclizineMeclizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MedazepamMedazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
MedetomidineMedetomidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
MelatoninMelatonin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneMelperone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
MepartricinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Mepartricin.Experimental
MepivacaineMepivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateMeprobamate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolMeptazinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
MesoridazineMesoridazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
MetaxaloneMetaxalone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MethadoneMethadone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Methadyl AcetateMethadyl Acetate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneMethapyrilene may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneMethaqualone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolMethocarbamol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MethotrimeprazineZolpidem may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneMethoxyflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethsuximideMethsuximide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MethylecgonineMethylecgonine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MetoprololThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineZolpidem may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MevastatinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Mevastatin.Experimental
MexiletineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MicafunginThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Micafungin.Approved, Investigational
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamMidazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MiltefosineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Miltefosine.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
MirabegronThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MirtazapineMirtazapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.Approved
ModafinilThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.Approved, Investigational
MolindoneMolindone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
MonensinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Monensin.Vet Approved
MorphineMorphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
MyxothiazolThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Myxothiazol.Experimental
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Naftifine.Approved
NalbuphineNalbuphine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
NatamycinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Natamycin.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NifuratelThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Nifuratel.Experimental
Nikkomycin ZThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Nikkomycin Z.Investigational
NilotinibThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitrazepamNitrazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Nitrous oxideNitrous oxide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
NitroxolineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Nitroxoline.Approved
NorfluraneNorflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
NormethadoneNormethadone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineNortriptyline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
NystatinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Nystatin.Approved, Vet Approved
OlanzapineOlanzapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlopatadineOlopatadine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OmoconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Omoconazole.Experimental
OndansetronOndansetron may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
OpiumOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
OsanetantOsanetant may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxazepamOxazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
OxethazaineOxethazaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
OxiconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Oxiconazole.Approved
OxprenololOxprenolol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
OxybuprocaineOxybuprocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
OxycodoneOxycodone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneOxymorphone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
pafuramidineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with pafuramidine.Investigational
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PaliperidonePaliperidone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PenfluridolPenfluridol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
PentamidineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Pentamidine.Approved
PentazocinePentazocine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PerazinePerazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
PerospironePerospirone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PerphenazinePerphenazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PethidinePethidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PhenazocinePhenazocine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
PhenibutPhenibut may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PhenoperidinePhenoperidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolPhenoxyethanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PhenytoinPhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozidePimozide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PipamperonePipamperone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
PipotiazinePipotiazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
PiritramidePiritramide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
PizotifenPizotifen may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PomalidomidePomalidomide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleZolpidem may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocainePramocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PrazepamPrazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinPregabalin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocainePrilocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineProcaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineProchlorperazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazinePromazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazinePromethazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
PropanididPropanidid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
ProparacaineProparacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolPropofol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycainePropoxycaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ProxibarbalProxibarbal may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
PSD502PSD502 may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
PyrrolnitrinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Pyrrolnitrin.Experimental
QuazepamQuazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineQuetiapine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
QuinidineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineQuinisocaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
RacloprideRaclopride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
RadicicolThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Radicicol.Experimental
RamelteonRamelteon may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RemifentanilRemifentanil may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
RemoxiprideRemoxipride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineReserpine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RisperidoneRisperidone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinRitanserin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RomifidineRomifidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
RopiniroleZolpidem may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineRopivacaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
RotigotineZolpidem may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Zolpidem.Approved
Salicylhydroxamic AcidThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Salicylhydroxamic Acid.Experimental
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineScopolamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
SepranoloneSepranolone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
SertaconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Sertaconazole.Approved
SertindoleSertindole may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneSevoflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SinefunginThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Sinefungin.Experimental
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SorafenibThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolStiripentol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
SulconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Sulconazole.Approved
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideSulpiride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideSultopride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
SuvorexantZolpidem may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TandospironeTandospirone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TasimelteonTasimelteon may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TavaboroleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Tavaborole.Approved
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemazepamTemazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TerbinafineThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Terconazole.Approved
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TetrabenazineTetrabenazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TetracaineTetracaine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineTetrahydropalmatine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
TetrodotoxinTetrodotoxin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Investigational
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThiothixene may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ThymolThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Thymol.Approved
TiagabineTiagabine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TiaprideTiapride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineTiletamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
TilidineTilidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
TioconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Tioconazole.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineTizanidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved
TolcaponeTolcapone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Withdrawn
TolciclateThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Tolciclate.Experimental
TolnaftateThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Tolnaftate.Approved, Vet Approved
TopiramateTopiramate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TramadolTramadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TrazodoneTrazodone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamTriazolam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Tricaine methanesulfonateTricaine methanesulfonate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneTrichloroethylene may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
TrifluoperazineTrifluoperazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TrifluperidolTrifluperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
TriflupromazineTriflupromazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimetrexateThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Trimetrexate.Approved, Investigational
TrimipramineTrimipramine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
TriprolidineTriprolidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Valproic AcidValproic Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideVeralipride may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
VerapamilThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VigabatrinVigabatrin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
Vinyl etherVinyl ether may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Zolpidem can be increased when it is combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineVortioxetine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
XenonXenon may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Experimental
XylazineXylazine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZaleplonZaleplon may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideZiconotide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneZiprasidone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZolazepamZolazepam may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Vet Approved
ZonisamideZonisamide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneZopiclone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZotepineZotepine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
ZucapsaicinThe metabolism of Zolpidem can be decreased when combined with Zucapsaicin.Approved
ZuclopenthixolZuclopenthixol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Should not be administered with or immediately after a meal.

References

Synthesis Reference

Markus Sauter, "Process for preparing zolpidem." U.S. Patent US20020183522, issued December 05, 2002.

US20020183522
General References
  1. Lemmer B: The sleep-wake cycle and sleeping pills. Physiol Behav. 2007 Feb 28;90(2-3):285-93. Epub 2006 Oct 16. [PubMed:17049955]
  2. Depoortere H, Zivkovic B, Lloyd KG, Sanger DJ, Perrault G, Langer SZ, Bartholini G: Zolpidem, a novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. I. Neuropharmacological and behavioral effects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 May;237(2):649-58. [PubMed:2871178]
  3. Clauss RP, Guldenpfennig WM, Nel HW, Sathekge MM, Venkannagari RR: Extraordinary arousal from semi-comatose state on zolpidem. A case report. S Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;90(1):68-72. [PubMed:10721397]
  4. Schlich D, L'Heritier C, Coquelin JP, Attali P, Kryrein HJ: Long-term treatment of insomnia with zolpidem: a multicentre general practitioner study of 107 patients. J Int Med Res. 1991 May-Jun;19(3):271-9. [PubMed:1670039]
  5. Maarek L, Cramer P, Attali P, Coquelin JP, Morselli PL: The safety and efficacy of zolpidem in insomniac patients: a long-term open study in general practice. J Int Med Res. 1992 Apr;20(2):162-70. [PubMed:1521672]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB05023
KEGG Compound
C07219
PubChem Compound
5732
PubChem Substance
46507949
ChemSpider
5530
BindingDB
26266
ChEBI
10125
ChEMBL
CHEMBL911
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000112
PharmGKB
PA451976
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Zolpidem
ATC Codes
N05CF02 — Zolpidem
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.92 — Miscellaneous Anxiolytics Sedatives and Hypnotics
FDA label
Download (323 KB)
MSDS
Download (170 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceDepressive State1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInsomnia Chronic1
0Unknown StatusBasic SciencePsychotropic Drugs Effects1
1CompletedNot AvailableAbuse Potential Study1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers / Therapeutic Equivalency1
1CompletedBasic ScienceMarijuana Dependence1
1CompletedBasic ScienceMethodology Study1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / Sleeplessness1
1CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness3
1RecruitingTreatmentComplications, Arthroplasty / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications / Shoulder Arthritis / Sleep Disturbances1
1RecruitingTreatmentInsomnia Disorders1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSleep Disorder / Sleeplessness1
2CompletedOtherInsomnia Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentInsomnia Disorder1
2CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia / Secondary Insomnia1
2CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentMinor burns / Sleep1
2TerminatedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
2WithdrawnTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDrug Dependence1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPrimary Insomnia / Secondary Insomnia1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1
3CompletedTreatmentChild's Anxiety / Parental/Caregiver Anxiety1
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
3CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders2
3CompletedTreatmentSleep disorders and disturbances / Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness2
3RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Sleep / Sleep disorders and disturbances / Sleeplessness1
3RecruitingTreatmentSleeplessness2
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depressive State / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentInsomnia Comorbid to Psychiatric Disorder / Primary Insomnia1
4CompletedNot AvailablePostural Instability1
4CompletedBasic ScienceMemory / Sleep1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Insomnia1
4CompletedTreatmentDepressive State / Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders2
4CompletedTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
4CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia / Psychophysiologic Insomnia / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia / Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders2
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / Sleeplessness1
4CompletedTreatmentSleep disorders and disturbances3
4CompletedTreatmentSleeplessness6
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Sleep Disturbances1
4RecruitingOtherPsychomotor Impairment1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive State / Sleeplessness / Suicidal Ideation1
4TerminatedPreventionDelirium / Hip Fractures1
4Unknown StatusDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
4WithdrawnBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceSleeplessness1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailablePrimary Insomnia1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareCancer, Breast / Menopausal Hot Flushes / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAging / Balance / Sleep1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Circadian Dysregulation / Dementia, Vascular / Dementias / Sleep disorders and disturbances1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Insomnia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSleeplessness2
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic SciencePhysiology1
Not AvailableTerminatedSupportive CareNeoplasms, Endometrial / Pain / Sleep1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableOlder Adults1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableSleep Duration on the First Night After Surgery1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Novadel pharma inc
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Biovail laboratories international srl
  • Apotex inc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Caraco pharmaceutical laboratories ltd
  • Carlsbad technology inc
  • Dr reddys laboratories ltd
  • Genpharm inc
  • Hikma pharmaceuticals
  • Invagen pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lek pharmaceuticals dd
  • Mutual pharmacal co
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Ranbaxy laboratories ltd
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Synthon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Torrent pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals llc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • World gen llc
  • Meda pharmaceuticals
  • Pfizer inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral6.25 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral12.5 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral6.25 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual10 mg
Tablet, orally disintegratingSublingual5 mg
Kit
TabletSublingual1.75 mg/1
TabletSublingual3.5 mg/1
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral5 mg
KitOral
TabletOral10 mg/1
TabletOral5 mg/1
TabletSublingual10 mg/1
TabletSublingual5 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral5 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral12.5 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral6.25 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral5 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral12.5 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral6.25 mg/1
Spray, meteredOral5 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ambien cr 12.5 mg tablet6.19USD tablet
Ambien cr 6.25 mg tablet6.19USD tablet
Ambien 10 mg tablet6.11USD tablet
Ambien 5 mg tablet6.04USD tablet
Ambien CR 12.5 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.0USD tab
Ambien CR 6.25 mg Controlled Release Tabs6.0USD tab
Edluar 10 mg sl tablet5.0USD tablet
Edluar 5 mg sl tablet5.0USD tablet
Zolpidem tartrate 10 mg tablet2.73USD tablet
Zolpidem tartrate 5 mg tablet2.73USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6761910No1999-09-242019-09-24Us
US8512747No1999-09-242019-09-24Us
US9265720No2010-05-132030-05-13Us
US6514531Yes2000-06-012020-06-01Us
US7632517No1997-10-012017-10-01Us
US7658945No2007-04-152027-04-15Us
US7682628No2005-02-162025-02-16Us
US8242131No2009-08-202029-08-20Us
US8252809No2005-02-162025-02-16Us
US9597281No2007-04-062027-04-06Us
US8236285No2012-08-072032-08-07Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)196 °CPhysProp
water solubility23 mg/mLNot Available
logP1.2Not Available
pKa6.2MERCK INDEX (1996)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0313 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.15ALOGPS
logP3.02ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.65ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.61 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity93.58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9392
Caco-2 permeable+0.6638
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8564
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7574
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.621
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7412
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7407
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.624
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8331
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8754
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9119
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5265
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5507
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8352
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9928
Rat acute toxicity2.5614 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9831
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6928
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-000i-1090000000-5429f5620534a2340098
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4r-0196000000-6304f5b37ed9f071eb26

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylimidazoles. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring linked to an imidazole ring through a CC or CN bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Azoles
Sub Class
Imidazoles
Direct Parent
Phenylimidazoles
Alternative Parents
Imidazopyridines / Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines / Toluenes / Methylpyridines / N-substituted imidazoles / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
5-phenylimidazole / 4-phenylimidazole / Imidazopyridine / Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine / Toluene / Methylpyridine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / N-substituted imidazole / Pyridine / Benzenoid
show 14 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
imidazopyridine (CHEBI:10125)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Vlainic J, Pericic D: Effects of acute and repeated zolpidem treatment on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold and on locomotor activity: comparison with diazepam. Neuropharmacology. 2009 Jun;56(8):1124-30. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.03.010. Epub 2009 Apr 1. [PubMed:19345234]
  4. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. [PubMed:11306694]
  5. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. [PubMed:2157817]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. [PubMed:2157817]
  2. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. [PubMed:11306694]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Pritchett DB, Seeburg PH: Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor alpha 5-subunit creates novel type II benzodiazepine receptor pharmacology. J Neurochem. 1990 May;54(5):1802-4. [PubMed:2157817]
  2. Smith AJ, Alder L, Silk J, Adkins C, Fletcher AE, Scales T, Kerby J, Marshall G, Wafford KA, McKernan RM, Atack JR: Effect of alpha subunit on allosteric modulation of ion channel function in stably expressed human recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors determined using (36)Cl ion flux. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1108-18. [PubMed:11306694]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB3
Uniprot ID
P28472
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Hadingham KL, Garrett EM, Wafford KA, Bain C, Heavens RP, Sirinathsinghji DJ, Whiting PJ: Cloning of cDNAs encoding the human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 6 subunit and characterization of the pharmacology of alpha 6-containing receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):253-9. [PubMed:8632757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Hadingham KL, Garrett EM, Wafford KA, Bain C, Heavens RP, Sirinathsinghji DJ, Whiting PJ: Cloning of cDNAs encoding the human gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 6 subunit and characterization of the pharmacology of alpha 6-containing receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 Feb;49(2):253-9. [PubMed:8632757]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Wang B, Zhou SF: Synthetic and natural compounds that interact with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(31):4066-218. [PubMed:19754423]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 13, 2017 21:49