Identification

Name
Flurazepam
Accession Number
DB00690  (APRD00983)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Description

A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Flurazepam
  • Flurazépam
  • Flurazepamum
  • Insumin
External IDs
ID 480 / Ro 5-6901
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Flurazepam Hydrochloride7C4JH842IJ36105-20-1PUGVROXLRUQCAF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DalmaneCapsule30 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1971-12-312016-07-08Canada
DalmaneCapsule15 mgOralValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1971-12-312016-07-08Canada
FlurazepamCapsule30 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
FlurazepamCapsule15 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
Flurazepam 15Capsule15 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
Flurazepam 15mg CapsuleCapsule15 mgOralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Flurazepam 30Capsule30 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1982-12-31Not applicableCanada
Flurazepam 30mg CapsuleCapsule30 mgOralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Som-pamCapsule30 mgOralBiomed Pharma1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Som-pamCapsule15 mgOralBiomed Pharma1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bio-flurazepamCapsule30 mgOralBiomed Pharma2004-04-23Not applicableCanada
Bio-flurazepamCapsule15 mgOralBiomed Pharma2004-04-23Not applicableCanada
FlurazepamCapsule15 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1986-12-08Not applicableUs00143 3367 01 nlmimage10 821c4162
FlurazepamCapsule30 mg/1OralRebel Distributors1986-12-08Not applicableUs
FlurazepamCapsule15 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceutical1986-12-08Not applicableUs0143 336720180907 15195 z23osa
FlurazepamCapsule15 mg/1OralGolden State Medical Supply1986-12-082017-01-02Us
FlurazepamCapsule30 mg/1OralH.J. Harkins Company1986-12-08Not applicableUs
FlurazepamCapsule30 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-01-27Not applicableUs00143 3370 01 nlmimage10 4215a14d
FlurazepamCapsule30 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack1986-12-082018-05-29Us63629 320020180907 15195 xpeti2
FlurazepamCapsule30 mg/1OralA S Medication Solutions1986-12-08Not applicableUs54569 089820180907 15195 n3cw01
International/Other Brands
Dalmadorm (Meda) / Dalmadorm medium (Meda) / Felison (SIT) / Flunox (Teofarma) / Sompan (I.C.N.) / Valdorm (Valeas)
Categories
UNII
IHP475989U
CAS number
17617-23-1
Weight
Average: 387.878
Monoisotopic: 387.151368285
Chemical Formula
C21H23ClFN3O
InChI Key
SAADBVWGJQAEFS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H23ClFN3O/c1-3-25(4-2)11-12-26-19-10-9-15(22)13-17(19)21(24-14-20(26)27)16-7-5-6-8-18(16)23/h5-10,13H,3-4,11-12,14H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
7-chloro-1-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCN1C2=C(C=C(Cl)C=C2)C(=NCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1F

Pharmacology

Indication

For short-term and intermittent use in patients with recurring insomnia and poor sleeping habits

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Flurazepam, a benzodiazepine derivative, is a hypnotic agent which does not appear to decrease dream time as measured by rapid eye movements (REM). Furthermore, it decreases sleep latency and number of awakenings for a consequent increase in total sleep time.

Mechanism of action

Flurazepam binds to an allosteric site on GABA-A receptors. Binding potentiates the action of GABA on GABA-A receptors by opening the chloride channel within the receptor, causing chloride influx and hyperpolarization.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
potentiator
Human
Absorption

Flurazepam hydrochloride is rapidly (30 minutes) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

83%

Metabolism

Flurazepam is rapidly metabolized and is excreted primarily in the urine. Both hydroxyethyl flurazepam (the major metabolite) and N-desalkyl flurazepam are active. The N-desalkyl metabolite is slowly excreted in the urine as the conjugated form

Route of elimination

Flurazepam is rapidly metabolized and is excreted primarily in the urine. Less than 1% of the dose is excreted in the urine as N1-desalkyl-flurazepam.

Half life

The mean apparent half-life of flurazepam is 2.3 hours. The half life of elimination of N1-des-alkyl- flurazepam ranged from 47 to 100 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Coma, confusion, low blood pressure, sleepiness

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Flurazepam.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Flurazepam.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe therapeutic efficacy of Flurazepam can be decreased when used in combination with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Flurazepam.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Flurazepam.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Flurazepam.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference

Fryer, R. and Sternbach, L.H.; U.S. Patent 3,567,710; March 2, 1971; assigned to Hoffman-La Roche, Inc.

General References
  1. Rickels K: The clinical use of hypnotics: indications for use and the need for a variety of hypnotics. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1986;332:132-41. [PubMed:2883820]
  2. Vermeeren A: Residual effects of hypnotics: epidemiology and clinical implications. CNS Drugs. 2004;18(5):297-328. [PubMed:15089115]
  3. Oelschlager H: [Chemical and pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepines]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1989 Jul 4;78(27-28):766-72. [PubMed:2570451]
  4. Rooke KC: The use of flurazepam (dalmane) as a substitute for barbiturates and methaqualone/diphenhydramine (mandrax) in general practice. J Int Med Res. 1976;4(5):355-9. [PubMed:18375]
  5. Olive G, Dreux C: [Pharmacologic bases of use of benzodiazepines in pereinatal medicine]. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1977 Jan;34(1):74-89. [PubMed:851373]
  6. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014828
KEGG Drug
D00329
PubChem Compound
3393
PubChem Substance
46508451
ChemSpider
3276
ChEBI
5128
ChEMBL
CHEMBL968
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000242
PharmGKB
PA449681
HET
FL7
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Flurazepam
ATC Codes
N05CD01 — Flurazepam
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.08 — Benzodiazepines
PDB Entries
2yoe
MSDS
Download (50.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentInsomnia Disorder1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Warner chilcott inc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
Packagers
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Hl Moore Drug Exchange
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Legacy Pharmaceuticals Packaging LLC
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mylan
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Valeant Ltd.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral15 mg/1
CapsuleOral30 mg
CapsuleOral30 mg/1
CapsuleOral15 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral30 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Dalmane 30 mg capsule2.01USD capsule
Dalmane 15 mg capsule1.79USD capsule
Flurazepam HCl 15 mg capsule0.43USD capsule
Flurazepam HCl 30 mg capsule0.4USD capsule
Flurazepam 30 mg capsule0.34USD capsule
Flurazepam 15 mg capsule0.28USD capsule
Apo-Flurazepam 30 mg Capsule0.1USD capsule
Apo-Flurazepam 15 mg Capsule0.08USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)190-220British Patent 1,040,548.
water solubility500 mg/mL (HCl salt)Not Available
logP3.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.01 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.81ALOGPS
logP3.95ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.71ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area35.91 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity107.54 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.22 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9898
Caco-2 permeable+0.6115
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.9455
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6624
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6523
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7716
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7794
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5194
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5469
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5082
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6347
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6231
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7597
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.5654 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9528
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7183
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0009000000-c0e65a54e856d501ed8c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014r-0009000000-5a2839fdce5817956437
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0009000000-ef2f40465f355c7e04c0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0049000000-aeef40f08b145e9212fb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0392000000-706f2398b20890152e43

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzodiazepines
Sub Class
1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent
1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acids and derivatives / Fluorobenzenes / Aryl chlorides / Aryl fluorides / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Trialkylamines / Lactams / Ketimines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Azacyclic compounds
show 6 more
Substituents
1,4-benzodiazepine / Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Halobenzene / Fluorobenzene / Aryl chloride / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Aryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
show 24 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB1
Uniprot ID
P18505
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB3
Uniprot ID
P28472
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG1
Uniprot ID
Q8N1C3
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
Molecular Weight
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG3
Uniprot ID
Q99928
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
Molecular Weight
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRD
Uniprot ID
O14764
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
Molecular Weight
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRE
Uniprot ID
P78334
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
Molecular Weight
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the ute...
Gene Name
GABRP
Uniprot ID
O00591
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
Molecular Weight
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR1
Uniprot ID
P24046
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
Molecular Weight
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR2
Uniprot ID
P28476
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
Molecular Weight
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRR3
Uniprot ID
A8MPY1
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
Molecular Weight
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRQ
Uniprot ID
Q9UN88
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
Molecular Weight
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Const...
Gene Name
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID
P11509
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2A6
Molecular Weight
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Capello S, Henderson L, DeGrazia F, Liberato D, Garland W, Town C: The effect of the cytochrome P-450 suicide inactivator, 1-aminobenzotriazole, on the in vivo metabolism and pharmacologic activity of flurazepam. Drug Metab Dispos. 1990 Mar-Apr;18(2):190-6. [PubMed:1971572]
  2. Linder CD, Renaud NA, Hutzler JM: Is 1-aminobenzotriazole an appropriate in vitro tool as a nonspecific cytochrome P450 inactivator? Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):10-3. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.024075. Epub 2008 Oct 20. [PubMed:18936109]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Capello S, Henderson L, DeGrazia F, Liberato D, Garland W, Town C: The effect of the cytochrome P-450 suicide inactivator, 1-aminobenzotriazole, on the in vivo metabolism and pharmacologic activity of flurazepam. Drug Metab Dispos. 1990 Mar-Apr;18(2):190-6. [PubMed:1971572]
  2. Linder CD, Renaud NA, Hutzler JM: Is 1-aminobenzotriazole an appropriate in vitro tool as a nonspecific cytochrome P450 inactivator? Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan;37(1):10-3. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.024075. Epub 2008 Oct 20. [PubMed:18936109]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Zolk O, Solbach TF, Konig J, Fromm MF: Functional characterization of the human organic cation transporter 2 variant p.270Ala>Ser. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jun;37(6):1312-8. doi: 10.1124/dmd.108.023762. Epub 2009 Feb 27. [PubMed:19251820]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 20, 2018 13:19