Identification

Name
Oxazepam
Accession Number
DB00842  (APRD01152)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Oxazepam is an intermediate-acting benzodiazepine used to treat alcohol withdrawal and anxiety disorders. Oxazepam is also the metabolite of other benzodiazpines.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-Oxazepam
  • (RS)-Oxazepam
External IDs
J3.308A / NSC-169448 / WY-3498
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Oxazepam Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo Oxazepam Tab 15mgTablet15 mgOralApotex Corporation1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo Oxazepam Tab 30mgTablet30 mgOralApotex Corporation1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Novoxapam Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralNovopharm Limited1982-12-312015-10-26Canada
Novoxapam Tab 15mgTablet15 mgOralNovopharm Limited1982-12-312015-10-26Canada
Novoxapam Tab 30mgTablet30 mgOralNovopharm Limited1982-12-312015-10-26Canada
Oxazepam 10 Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Oxazepam 10mg TabletsTablet10 mgOralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Oxazepam 15 Tab 15mgTablet15 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1980-12-31Not applicableCanada
Oxazepam 15mg TabletsTablet15 mgOralLaboratoires Confab IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Bio-oxazepamTablet10 mgOralBiomed Pharma2003-04-23Not applicableCanada
Bio-oxazepamTablet30 mgOralBiomed Pharma2003-04-23Not applicableCanada
Bio-oxazepamTablet15 mgOralBiomed Pharma2003-04-23Not applicableCanada
OxazepamCapsule, gelatin coated10 mg/1OralAmerican Health Packaging2007-07-31Not applicableUs
OxazepamCapsule10 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.1988-04-19Not applicableUs
OxazepamCapsule, gelatin coated10 mg/1OralActavis Pharma, Inc.2007-01-02Not applicableUs00228 2067 10 nlmimage10 c11b60fb
OxazepamCapsule, gelatin coated30 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-01-102012-06-30Us
OxazepamCapsule, gelatin coated10 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1999-03-092013-06-30Us
OxazepamCapsule15 mg/1OralSandoz Inc1988-04-192019-08-31Us00781 2810 01 nlmimage10 44392279
OxazepamCapsule15 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2011-01-062013-06-01Us
International/Other Brands
Adumbran / Alepam / Alopam / Anxiolit / Durazepam / Limbial / Medopam / Murelax / Noripam / Opamox / Ox-Pam / Oxascand / Praxiten / Purata / Serax (Landsteiner (Mexico)) / Serenal / Serenid / Serepax / Seresta / Serpax / Sobril / Tazepam / Vaben / Zaxpam
Categories
UNII
6GOW6DWN2A
CAS number
604-75-1
Weight
Average: 286.713
Monoisotopic: 286.050905313
Chemical Formula
C15H11ClN2O2
InChI Key
ADIMAYPTOBDMTL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H11ClN2O2/c16-10-6-7-12-11(8-10)13(9-4-2-1-3-5-9)18-15(20)14(19)17-12/h1-8,15,20H,(H,17,19)
IUPAC Name
7-chloro-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
SMILES
OC1N=C(C2=CC=CC=C2)C2=C(NC1=O)C=CC(Cl)=C2

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol withdrawal.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Oxazepam is believed to stimulate GABA receptors in the ascending reticular activating system. Since GABA is inhibitory, receptor stimulation increases inhibition and blocks both cortical and limbic arousal following stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation.

Mechanism of action

Similar to other benzodiazepines, oxazepam exerts its anxiolytic effects by potentiating the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA-A receptors through a cooperative mechanism of action. GABA receptors are ionotropic chloride-linked channel receptors that produce inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. When activated by GABA, the GABA receptor/chloride ionophore complex undergoes a conformational change that allows the passage of chloride ions through the channel. Benzodiazepines are believed to exert their effect by increasing the effect of GABA at its receptor. Benzodiazepine binding increases chloride conductance in the presence of GABA by increasing the frequency at which the channel opens. In contrast, barbiturates increase chloride conductance in the presence of GABA by prolonging the time in which the channel remains open. There are 18 subtypes of the GABA receptor subunits. The α2 subunit of the α2β3γ2 receptor complex is thought to mediate anxiolytic effects while the α1 subunit of the α1β2γ2 receptor complex is thought to mediate sedative, anticonvulsant and anterograde amnesia effects.

TargetActionsOrganism
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
potentiator
Human
AGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
potentiator
Human
AGABA-A receptor (anion channel)
positive allosteric modulator
Human
Absorption

Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration however is absorbed at a slower rate compared to other benzodiazepines like diazepam or flurazepam. Time to peak concentration = 2-4 hours. Onset of action is slow, > 3 hours, following oral administration.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

80-99%

Metabolism

No active metabolites. It is hepatically metabolized and undergoes glucuronidation. The glucuronidation of the S-isomer is catalyzed by UGT2B15. The glucuronidation of the R-isomer is catalyzed by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9.

Route of elimination

This product has a single, major inactive metabolite in man, a glucuronide excreted in the urine.

Half life

Mean elimination half-life - 8.2 hours (range of 5.7 to 10.9 hours)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include confusion, drowsiness, and lethargy.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Oxazepam.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Oxazepam.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxazepam can be decreased when used in combination with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Oxazepam.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Oxazepam.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Oxazepam.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Take with food.

References

General References
  1. Peppers MP: Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal in the elderly and in patients with liver disease. Pharmacotherapy. 1996 Jan-Feb;16(1):49-57. [PubMed:8700792]
  2. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Enhancement of GABA binding by benzodiazepines and related anxiolytics. Eur J Pharmacol. 1983 May 6;89(3-4):193-8. [PubMed:6135616]
  3. Oelschlager H: [Chemical and pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepines]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1989 Jul 4;78(27-28):766-72. [PubMed:2570451]
  4. Christensen P, Lolk A, Gram LF, Kragh-Sorensen P: Benzodiazepine-induced sedation and cortisol suppression. A placebo-controlled comparison of oxazepam and nitrazepam in healthy male volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992;106(4):511-6. [PubMed:1349754]
  5. Olive G, Dreux C: [Pharmacologic bases of use of benzodiazepines in pereinatal medicine]. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1977 Jan;34(1):74-89. [PubMed:851373]
  6. Altamura AC, Moliterno D, Paletta S, Maffini M, Mauri MC, Bareggi S: Understanding the pharmacokinetics of anxiolytic drugs. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2013 Apr;9(4):423-40. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2013.759209. Epub 2013 Jan 21. [PubMed:23330992]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0061121
KEGG Drug
D00464
KEGG Compound
C07359
PubChem Compound
4616
PubChem Substance
46506031
ChemSpider
4455
BindingDB
85031
ChEBI
7823
ChEMBL
CHEMBL568
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000243
PharmGKB
PA450731
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Oxazepam
ATC Codes
N05BA04 — Oxazepam
AHFS Codes
  • 28:24.08 — Benzodiazepines
FDA label
Download (356 KB)
MSDS
Download (44.2 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentCocaine Use Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentCocaine Use Disorders / Tobacco Use Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome(AWS)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDependence, Cocaine1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Actavis elizabeth llc
  • American therapeutics inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Alpharma us pharmaceuticals division
  • Quantum pharmics ltd
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Centaur Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Qualitest
  • Remedy Repack
  • Sandoz
  • Stat Rx Usa
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral30 mg
CapsuleOral10 mg/1
CapsuleOral15 mg/1
CapsuleOral30 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral10 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral15 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral30 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Oxazepam 30 mg capsule1.2USD capsule
Serax 10 mg capsule1.17USD capsule
Oxazepam 15 mg capsule0.73USD capsule
Oxazepam 10 mg capsule0.6USD capsule
Apo-Oxazepam 30 mg Tablet0.09USD tablet
Apo-Oxazepam 15 mg Tablet0.07USD tablet
Apo-Oxazepam 10 mg Tablet0.04USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)205-206 °CPhysProp
water solubility179 mg/LNot Available
logP2.24HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0881 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.01ALOGPS
logP2.92ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area61.69 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity77.89 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability28.38 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9826
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9641
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.517
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8866
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9167
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8812
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7692
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8685
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5631
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8262
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5063
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8445
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5065
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6563
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6407
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7711
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity1.8229 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.999
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8734
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0699-7490000000-e90f4b8174c78110a07a
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0pxr-6490000000-98a9035e85eeea7c02e5
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-05r0-5590000000-87245820addec0215473
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-dc62fcc1bbffbe41a418
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-0babffe4ebd04774afee
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-93028caba51f80d16e67
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0490000000-e36258d846328fd12f7d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-d4bd0b0355dc42f3606f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-cb90c6162b5e9a189120
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-cfdd9662d1f355ecf572
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-0090000000-1c26508a42811abbe1cb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udl-0980000000-870c5260836b760916d2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-f0561f08464034626ee2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-d55c5dfc5658fa7a4e05
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-7682f5c8dc13b49aa59e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-526eef46646595e92a99
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-21ba02c0de7b6e8c51ff
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014r-0090000000-61c68689382573975141
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-74e04f10a2b801bba9ba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0490000000-31f82dff12f0e9088719
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6x-0960000000-90758cc09aa77510b07c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0w2c-1920000000-c885875f53b407082d2c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-ff519596d2f3661430c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kr-0090000000-be9b911b5bceb5198ddf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-0f188e3108f6469a5b48
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0490000000-42926fc509d963549129
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f6x-0960000000-38ad8b94aca33eb321e0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udl-1920000000-5bbf6943424b7702e596
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-e8e44c252369ee147dfb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ko-0190000000-28e03cc6951a989a43bb

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,4-benzodiazepines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a 1,4-azepine.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzodiazepines
Sub Class
1,4-benzodiazepines
Direct Parent
1,4-benzodiazepines
Alternative Parents
Benzene and substituted derivatives / Aryl chlorides / Cyclic carboximidic acids / Ketimines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Azacyclic compounds / Alkanolamines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organochlorides
show 1 more
Substituents
1,4-benzodiazepine / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Benzenoid / Cyclic carboximidic acid / Ketimine / Alkanolamine / Azacycle / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
show 11 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organochlorine compound, 1,4-benzodiazepinone (CHEBI:7823)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRA1
Uniprot ID
P14867
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA2
Uniprot ID
P47869
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2
Molecular Weight
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA3
Uniprot ID
P34903
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3
Molecular Weight
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA4
Uniprot ID
P48169
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA5
Uniprot ID
P31644
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5
Molecular Weight
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRA6
Uniprot ID
Q16445
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6
Molecular Weight
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB1
Uniprot ID
P18505
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1
Molecular Weight
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB2
Uniprot ID
P47870
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRB3
Uniprot ID
P28472
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3
Molecular Weight
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG1
Uniprot ID
Q8N1C3
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1
Molecular Weight
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine...
Gene Name
GABRG2
Uniprot ID
P18507
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2
Molecular Weight
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRG3
Uniprot ID
Q99928
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3
Molecular Weight
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRD
Uniprot ID
O14764
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
Molecular Weight
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRE
Uniprot ID
P78334
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
Molecular Weight
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the ute...
Gene Name
GABRP
Uniprot ID
O00591
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
Molecular Weight
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR1
Uniprot ID
P24046
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1
Molecular Weight
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA...
Gene Name
GABRR2
Uniprot ID
P28476
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2
Molecular Weight
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRR3
Uniprot ID
A8MPY1
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3
Molecular Weight
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name
GABRQ
Uniprot ID
Q9UN88
Uniprot Name
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
Molecular Weight
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Mohler H, Fritschy JM, Rudolph U: A new benzodiazepine pharmacology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan;300(1):2-8. [PubMed:11752090]
  2. Riss J, Cloyd J, Gates J, Collins S: Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008 Aug;118(2):69-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. Epub 2008 Mar 31. [PubMed:18384456]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Monooxygenase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID
Q9HB55
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A43
Molecular Weight
57669.21 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme displays activity toward several classes of xeno...
Gene Name
UGT2B15
Uniprot ID
P54855
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15
Molecular Weight
61035.815 Da
References
  1. Court MH, Duan SX, Guillemette C, Journault K, Krishnaswamy S, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Stereoselective conjugation of oxazepam by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): S-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B15, while R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Nov;30(11):1257-65. [PubMed:12386133]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID
P16662
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
References
  1. Court MH, Duan SX, Guillemette C, Journault K, Krishnaswamy S, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Stereoselective conjugation of oxazepam by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): S-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B15, while R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Nov;30(11):1257-65. [PubMed:12386133]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks trans...
Gene Name
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID
O60656
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9
Molecular Weight
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Court MH, Duan SX, Guillemette C, Journault K, Krishnaswamy S, Von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Stereoselective conjugation of oxazepam by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): S-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B15, while R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Nov;30(11):1257-65. [PubMed:12386133]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 20, 2018 00:47