Identification

Name
Dopamine
Accession Number
DB00988  (APRD00085)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

One of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (receptors, dopamine) mediate its action.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
  • 3-Hydroxytyramine
  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
  • 4-(2-aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
  • 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
  • 4-(2-aminoethyl)catechol
  • 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
  • Dopamina
  • Dopamine
  • Dopaminum
  • Oxytyramine
External IDs
NSC-173182
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Dopamine hydrochloride7L3E358N9L62-31-7CTENFNNZBMHDDG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dopamine HciInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousHF Acquisition Co LLC, DBA HealthFirst2018-09-19Not applicableUs
Dopamine HciInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousHf Acquisition Co. Llc, Dba Health First2018-08-23Not applicableUs
Dopamine HCl Inj 4%Liquid40 mgIntravenousInternational Medication Systems, Limited1980-12-311997-08-15Canada
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2015-09-18Not applicableUs
DOPamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-06-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-08-01Not applicableUs
DOPamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-08-25Not applicableUs
DOPamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousRemedy Repack2015-01-232016-02-05Us
DOPamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution, concentrate40 mg/1mLIntravenousCardinal Health1981-05-19Not applicableUs
DOPamine HYDROCHLORIDE AND DEXTROSEInjection, solution160 mg/100mLIntravenousHospira, Inc.2005-02-282009-06-01Us
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DopamineInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-04-012014-09-01Us
Dopamine HClInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1990-09-302007-06-30Us
Dopamine HClInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClInjection, solution80 mg/1mLIntravenousCardinal Health1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClInjection, solution160 mg/1mLIntravenousAmerican Regent1990-09-30Not applicableUs
Dopamine HClInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousCardinal Health1987-02-11Not applicableUs
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection80 mg/1mLIntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2018-04-11Not applicableUs
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection40 mg/1mLIntravenousWest-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2018-04-11Not applicableUs
Dopamine HydrochlorideInjection, solution40 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-07-012013-12-01Us
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dopamine HCl 0.8mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPDopamine hydrochloride (.8 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dopamine HCl 1.6mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPDopamine hydrochloride (1.6 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dopamine HCl 3.2mg/ml Dextrose 5% Inj USPDopamine hydrochloride (3.2 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dopamine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPDopamine hydrochloride (3.2 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dopamine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPDopamine hydrochloride (0.8 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dopamine Hydrochloride and 5% Dextrose Injection USPDopamine hydrochloride (1.6 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (50 mg)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (160 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01Us
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (320 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01Us
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (80 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01Us
Dopamine Hydrochloride in DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (160 mg/100mL) + D-glucose monohydrate (5 g/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2007-03-012012-09-01Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DOPamine HydrochlorideDopamine hydrochloride (80 mg/1mL)Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenousHospira2008-07-212008-07-21Us
DOPamine Hydrochloride and DextroseDopamine hydrochloride (80 mg/100mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2006-07-192006-07-19Us
International/Other Brands
Intropin / Revimine
Categories
UNII
VTD58H1Z2X
CAS number
51-61-6
Weight
Average: 153.1784
Monoisotopic: 153.078978601
Chemical Formula
C8H11NO2
InChI Key
VYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
IUPAC Name
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
SMILES
NCCC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the correction of hemodynamic imbalances present in the shock syndrome due to myocardial infarction, trauma, endotoxic septicemia, open-heart surgery, renal failure, and chronic cardiac decompensation as in congestive failure

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Dopamine is a natural catecholamine formed by the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). It is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system, especially in the nigrostriatal tract, and in a few peripheral sympathetic nerves. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings.

Mechanism of action

Dopamine is a precursor to norepinephrine in noradrenergic nerves and is also a neurotransmitter in certain areas of the central nervous system. Dopamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the myocardium, resulting in increased heart rate and cardiac contractility. This is accomplished directly by exerting an agonist action on beta-adrenoceptors and indirectly by causing release of norepinephrine from storage sites in sympathetic nerve endings. In the brain, dopamine actas as an agonist to the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D!, D2, D3, D4, D5).

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(2) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(1A) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(1B) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(3) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
AD(4) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
inducer
Human
ADopamine beta-hydroxylase
ligand
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
binder
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7
binder
Human
UD(1) dopamine receptor
agonist
Human
USodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
inhibitor
Human
USodium-dependent serotonin transporter
inhibitor
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3ANot AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3BNot AvailableHuman
USuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]Not AvailableHuman
USynaptic vesicular amine transporterNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

Dopamine is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

No information currently available on protein binding.

Metabolism

Biotransformation of dopamine proceeds rapidly to yield the principal excretion products, 3-4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylacetic acid (homovanillic acid, HVA).

Route of elimination

It has been reported that about 80% of the drug is excreted in the urine within 24 hours, primarily as HVA and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates and as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. A very small portion is excreted unchanged.

Half life

2 minutes

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50 oral mice = 1460 mg/kg, LD50 oral rats = 1780 mg/kg. Spasm or closing of eyelids, nausea, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, involuntary movements of the body including the face, tongue, arms, hand, head, and upper body; hypotension, haemolytic anaemia, urinary retention, duodenal ulcer, sialorrhea, ataxia, abdominal pain, dry mouth, nightmares, tachypnoea, bruxism, confusion, and insomnia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Remifentanil Action PathwayDrug action
Sufentanil Action PathwayDrug action
Imipramine Action PathwayDrug action
Desipramine Action PathwayDrug action
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Nicotine Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosine Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Tramadol Action Action PathwayDrug action
Diphenoxylate Action PathwayDrug action
Dimethylthiambutene Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Dibucaine Action PathwayDrug action
Oxybuprocaine Action PathwayDrug action
Proparacaine Action PathwayDrug action
Morphine Action PathwayDrug action
Methadone Action PathwayDrug action
Hydromorphone Action PathwayDrug action
Tyrosinemia, Transient, of the NewbornDisease
Levorphanol Action PathwayDrug action
Anileridine Action PathwayDrug action
Dezocine Action PathwayDrug action
Oxycodone Action PathwayDrug action
Propoxyphene Action PathwayDrug action
Methadyl Acetate Action PathwayDrug action
Ethylmorphine Action PathwayDrug action
Levallorphan Action PathwayDrug action
Alvimopan Action PathwayDrug action
Pentazocine Action PathwayDrug action
Ketobemidone Action PathwayDrug action
Nalbuphine Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Acebutolol.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Dopamine can be decreased when combined with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AgmatineThe serum concentration of Agmatine can be increased when it is combined with Dopamine.
AlprazolamAlprazolam may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AmilorideThe serum concentration of Dopamine can be increased when it is combined with Amiloride.
AmitriptylineDopamine may decrease the excretion rate of Amitriptyline which could result in a higher serum level.
AmlodipineAmlodipine may decrease the excretion rate of Dopamine which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Klaus Schoellkopf, Rudolf Albrecht, Manfred Lehmann, Gertrud Schroeder, "Novel dopamine derivatives, processes for their preparation, and their use as medicinal agents." U.S. Patent US4958026, issued February, 1972.

US4958026
General References
  1. Barron AB, Maleszka R, Vander Meer RK, Robinson GE: Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 30;104(5):1703-7. Epub 2007 Jan 19. [PubMed:17237217]
  2. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and male sexual function. Eur Urol. 2001 Dec;40(6):601-8. [PubMed:11805404]
  3. Giuliano F, Allard J: Dopamine and sexual function. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Aug;13 Suppl 3:S18-28. [PubMed:11477488]
  4. Berridge KC, Robinson TE: What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998 Dec;28(3):309-69. [PubMed:9858756]
  5. Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Zhuang X: Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9395-402. [PubMed:14561867]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000073
KEGG Drug
D07870
KEGG Compound
C03758
PubChem Compound
681
PubChem Substance
46506043
ChemSpider
661
BindingDB
55121
ChEBI
18243
ChEMBL
CHEMBL59
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000212
PharmGKB
PA449396
IUPHAR
940
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
LDP
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Dopamine
ATC Codes
C01CA04 — Dopamine
AHFS Codes
  • 12:12.08.08 — Selective Beta 1-adrenergic Agonists
PDB Entries
2a3r / 2qmz / 2vq5 / 3nk2 / 4a7v / 4dtz / 4du2 / 4dub / 4xp1 / 5log
show 2 more
MSDS
Download (72.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Blood Pressures / Infant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants1
1CompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias / Sepsis1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Arterial hypoxia1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Heart Failure (AHF)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionTransplant, Kidney1
2, 3SuspendedPreventionPost-operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
3CompletedTreatmentShock, Septic1
3RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Intraventricular Hemorrhage of Prematurity1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentArterial Hypotension1
4CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Diastolic1
4RecruitingPreventionRenal Function1
4SuspendedTreatmentAcute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF)1
4TerminatedTreatmentStrokes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDystonic Cerebral Palsy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMicrocirculation / Severe Sepsis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Shock1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntra Operative Fluid Management1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceHealth1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentShock, Septic1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentArterial hypoxia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Abraxis pharmaceutical products
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Hospira inc
  • International medication system
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • B braun medical inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp
Packagers
  • American Regent
  • B. Braun Melsungen AG
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Cardinal Health
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous160 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous40 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous80 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous40 mg
InjectionIntravenous40 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous80 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous40 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous80 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous160 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous320 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous80 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solutionIntravenous0.8 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1.6 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous3.2 mg/1mL
SolutionIntravenous40 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Dopamine 40 mg/ml vial0.15USD ml
Dopamine 800 mg-d5w 500 ml0.05USD ml
Dopamine 400 mg-d5w 250 ml0.04USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)128 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)227 °C at 2.30E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility600 g/LNot Available
logP-0.98HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-5.03ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.93PERRIN,DD (1965)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.43 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.4ALOGPS
logP0.03ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.21 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9547
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8414
Caco-2 permeable-0.5479
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5431
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9739
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9357
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7115
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8462
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6383
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6905
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9459
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9422
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9477
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9001
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8648
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8642
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7449
Rat acute toxicity2.1415 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7712
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5715
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-117a1a7207245f5377e7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-8b7dcae82868308513da
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-117a1a7207245f5377e7
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-8b7dcae82868308513da
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00e9-8900000000-88acdc978fe4a64e0fc5
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0uxu-4900000000-ff51177ebcb89b8c956c
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9200000000-a554eb700a06cecb8292
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-db9813e1025f237a549b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-27e0d71db6d14d79759c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0900000000-f1cf97c0d0dd509e229e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-aa09a2411e287abe74ed
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-97c42b109cab2005373d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-9700000000-974bd18febffcceea2d6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-099173d4201beca9e548
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-9dc09f2661247c9d84b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-8b85fa9aac1ffb4c2873
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-9ea16d2057010279d433
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-32ca2db8fe2b4729ab94
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-ff587935c79b4592ffcf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-8a35d8a2241bc18d6c50
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-356a4b8f268863c7893e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a88c1004f357858fbc6c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-271874005dcb90288512
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-cfa7e1cb9f02ffb4447d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-46710e11fd65e4eff57b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fk9-0900000000-9dd18d949c0827d3f09e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-7bc01b4577dd65504b1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-92056f2762508fb506f1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-bd67f5e0746a2ca0a324
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-27e0d71db6d14d79759c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0uk9-0900000000-f1cf97c0d0dd509e229e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-501c6004e6d496b38d4f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-1900000000-97c42b109cab2005373d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-9700000000-974bd18febffcceea2d6
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-c7eee50eadc1157e3f4e
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-0900000000-0975ff8173d3c9ccddd6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-0a7d58ac6a4039fe88e3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-b6a88ada58ee095efb64
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-6a41764b2a237d93a762
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00ko-6900000000-572c1a8f1e8c0f7114ce
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-148262aeb883ad1a8508
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-bbb50786787764c3e72b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-4769b29a6d00fe5d4db7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-0827bb8aa6cc224fce1e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-3a862057cf8a009ef9bd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fdcbbd6eae324ae068b8
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-76762d9949198fa094f7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-099173d4201beca9e548
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-9dc09f2661247c9d84b0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-8b85fa9aac1ffb4c2873
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-9ea16d2057010279d433
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-32ca2db8fe2b4729ab94
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-0900000000-ff587935c79b4592ffcf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-8a35d8a2241bc18d6c50
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-356a4b8f268863c7893e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-a88c1004f357858fbc6c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-271874005dcb90288512
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-ad06f0bcaccfb6ab447a
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-0bc64319c91c17ded449
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0900000000-8c08ab2bbc658f751898
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Phenols
Sub Class
Benzenediols
Direct Parent
Catecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Phenethylamines / 2-arylethylamines / Aralkylamines / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Catecholamine / Phenethylamine / 2-arylethylamine / 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid / 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid / Aralkylamine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Amine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary amine
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
catecholamine (CHEBI:18243) / Biogenic amines, Tyramine derivatives, Dopamine (C03758)

Targets

Details
1. D(2) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Details
2. D(1A) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD1
Uniprot ID
P21728
Uniprot Name
D(1A) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
  2. Dolzan V, Plesnicar BK, Serretti A, Mandelli L, Zalar B, Koprivsek J, Breskvar K: Polymorphisms in dopamine receptor DRD1 and DRD2 genes and psychopathological and extrapyramidal symptoms in patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007 Sep 5;144B(6):809-15. [PubMed:17455212]
  3. Hoenicka J, Aragues M, Ponce G, Rodriguez-Jimenez R, Jimenez-Arriero MA, Palomo T: From dopaminergic genes to psychiatric disorders. Neurotox Res. 2007 Jan;11(1):61-72. [PubMed:17449449]
  4. da Silva Lobo DS, Vallada HP, Knight J, Martins SS, Tavares H, Gentil V, Kennedy JL: Dopamine genes and pathological gambling in discordant sib-pairs. J Gambl Stud. 2007 Dec;23(4):421-33. Epub 2007 Mar 30. [PubMed:17394052]
  5. Fu W, Shen J, Luo X, Zhu W, Cheng J, Yu K, Briggs JM, Jin G, Chen K, Jiang H: Dopamine D1 receptor agonist and D2 receptor antagonist effects of the natural product (-)-stepholidine: molecular modeling and dynamics simulations. Biophys J. 2007 Sep 1;93(5):1431-41. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [PubMed:17468175]
Details
3. D(1B) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD5
Uniprot ID
P21918
Uniprot Name
D(1B) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Details
4. D(3) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Details
5. D(4) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins ...
Gene Name
DRD4
Uniprot ID
P21917
Uniprot Name
D(4) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Ostadali MR, Ahangari G, Eslami MB, Razavi A, Zarrindast MR, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Boulhari J: The Detection of Dopamine Gene Receptors (DRD1-DRD5) Expression on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Real Time PCR. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Dec;3(4):169-74. [PubMed:17301410]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name
DBH
Uniprot ID
P09172
Uniprot Name
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17258889]
  2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. [PubMed:17561816]
  3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. [PubMed:17625104]
  4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17287146]
  5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17433386]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...
Gene Name
HTR1A
Uniprot ID
P08908
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Molecular Weight
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Weber JT, Hayataka K, O'Connor MF, Parker KK: Rabbit cerebral cortex 5HT1a receptors. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1997 May;117(1):19-24. [PubMed:9185324]
  2. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [PubMed:9686407]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor ...
Gene Name
HTR7
Uniprot ID
P34969
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7
Molecular Weight
53554.43 Da
References
  1. Lovenberg TW, Baron BM, de Lecea L, Miller JD, Prosser RA, Rea MA, Foye PE, Racke M, Slone AL, Siegel BW, et al.: A novel adenylyl cyclase-activating serotonin receptor (5-HT7) implicated in the regulation of mammalian circadian rhythms. Neuron. 1993 Sep;11(3):449-58. [PubMed:8398139]
  2. Shen Y, Monsma FJ Jr, Metcalf MA, Jose PA, Hamblin MW, Sibley DR: Molecular cloning and expression of a 5-hydroxytryptamine7 serotonin receptor subtype. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 25;268(24):18200-4. [PubMed:8394362]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.

Components:
References
  1. Hubner H, Haubmann C, Utz W, Gmeiner P: Conjugated enynes as nonaromatic catechol bioisosteres: synthesis, binding experiments, and computational studies of novel dopamine receptor agonists recognizing preferentially the D(3) subtype. J Med Chem. 2000 Feb 24;43(4):756-62. [PubMed:10691700]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS: Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse. 2001 Jan;39(1):32-41. [PubMed:11071707]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, Partilla JS: Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse. 2001 Jan;39(1):32-41. [PubMed:11071707]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3A
Uniprot ID
P46098
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A
Molecular Weight
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Rusch D, Musset B, Wulf H, Schuster A, Raines DE: Subunit-dependent modulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor open-close equilibrium by n-alcohols. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1069-74. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17360702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin-activated cation-selective channel activity
Specific Function
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gate...
Gene Name
HTR3B
Uniprot ID
O95264
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3B
Molecular Weight
50291.3 Da
References
  1. Rusch D, Musset B, Wulf H, Schuster A, Raines DE: Subunit-dependent modulation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor open-close equilibrium by n-alcohols. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):1069-74. Epub 2007 Mar 7. [PubMed:17360702]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Wright GS, Antonyuk SV, Kershaw NM, Strange RW, Samar Hasnain S: Ligand binding and aggregation of pathogenic SOD1. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1758. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2750. [PubMed:23612299]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles...
Gene Name
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID
Q05940
Uniprot Name
Synaptic vesicular amine transporter
Molecular Weight
55712.075 Da
References
  1. Gonzalez AM, Walther D, Pazos A, Uhl GR: Synaptic vesicular monoamine transporter expression: distribution and pharmacologic profile. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994 Mar;22(1-4):219-26. [PubMed:7912402]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2008.06.002. Epub 2008 Jul 4. [PubMed:18652859]
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.09.010. Epub 2010 Sep 24. [PubMed:20869994]
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. [PubMed:15817751]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Bortolato M, Chen K, Shih JC: Monoamine oxidase inactivation: from pathophysiology to therapeutics. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008 Oct-Nov;60(13-14):1527-33. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2008.06.002. Epub 2008 Jul 4. [PubMed:18652859]
  2. Kaludercic N, Carpi A, Menabo R, Di Lisa F, Paolocci N: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jul;1813(7):1323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.09.010. Epub 2010 Sep 24. [PubMed:20869994]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
O-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOP...
Gene Name
COMT
Uniprot ID
P21964
Uniprot Name
Catechol O-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
30036.77 Da
References
  1. Ittiwut R, Listman JB, Ittiwut C, Cubells JF, Weiss RD, Brady K, Oslin D, Farrer LA, Kranzler HR, Gelernter J: Association between polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and cocaine-induced paranoia in European-American and African-American populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Sep;156B(6):651-60. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.31205. Epub 2011 Jun 8. [PubMed:21656904]
  2. Boot E, Booij J, Abeling N, Meijer J, da Silva Alves F, Zinkstok J, Baas F, Linszen D, van Amelsvoort T: Dopamine metabolism in adults with 22q11 deletion syndrome, with and without schizophrenia--relationship with COMT Val(1)(0)(8)/(1)(5)(8)Met polymorphism, gender and symptomatology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Jul;25(7):888-95. doi: 10.1177/0269881111400644. Epub 2011 Mar 29. [PubMed:21447540]
  3. Volavka J, Bilder R, Nolan K: Catecholamines and aggression: the role of COMT and MAO polymorphisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1036:393-8. [PubMed:15817751]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name
DBH
Uniprot ID
P09172
Uniprot Name
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase
Molecular Weight
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Goldman JM, Cooper RL, Murr AS: Reproductive functions and hypothalamic catecholamines in response to the soil fumigant metam sodium: adaptations to extended exposures. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 May-Jun;29(3):368-76. Epub 2006 Dec 6. [PubMed:17258889]
  2. Arboleda G, Huang TJ, Waters C, Verkhratsky A, Fernyhough P, Gibson RM: Insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent maintenance of neuronal metabolism through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway is inhibited by C2-ceramide in CAD cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(10):3030-8. [PubMed:17561816]
  3. Garland EM, Black BK, Harris PA, Robertson D: Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):H684-90. [PubMed:17625104]
  4. Pyatskowit JW, Prohaska JR: Rodent brain and heart catecholamine levels are altered by different models of copper deficiency. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Mar;145(2):275-81. Epub 2007 Jan 12. [PubMed:17287146]
  5. LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB: Plasma dopamine and noradrenaline variations in response to stress. Physiol Behav. 2007 Jun 8;91(2-3):208-11. Epub 2007 Mar 2. [PubMed:17433386]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID
P11712
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365]
  2. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759]
  4. Busch AE, Karbach U, Miska D, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Volk C, Arndt P, Ulzheimer JC, Sonders MS, Baumann C, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Human neurons express the polyspecific cation transporter hOCT2, which translocates monoamine neurotransmitters, amantadine, and memantine. Mol Pharmacol. 1998 Aug;54(2):342-52. [PubMed:9687576]
  5. Grundemann D, Koster S, Kiefer N, Breidert T, Engelhardt M, Spitzenberger F, Obermuller N, Schomig E: Transport of monoamine transmitters by the organic cation transporter type 2, OCT2. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):30915-20. [PubMed:9812985]
  6. Verhaagh S, Schweifer N, Barlow DP, Zwart R: Cloning of the mouse and human solute carrier 22a3 (Slc22a3/SLC22A3) identifies a conserved cluster of three organic cation transporters on mouse chromosome 17 and human 6q26-q27. Genomics. 1999 Jan 15;55(2):209-18. [PubMed:9933568]
  7. Grundemann D, Liebich G, Kiefer N, Koster S, Schomig E: Selective substrates for non-neuronal monoamine transporters. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;56(1):1-10. [PubMed:10385678]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759]
  4. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. [PubMed:8898084]
  5. Breidert T, Spitzenberger F, Grundemann D, Schomig E: Catecholamine transport by the organic cation transporter type 1 (OCT1). Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Sep;125(1):218-24. [PubMed:9776363]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Transcription factor that binds to the octamer motif (5'-ATTTGCAT-3'). Forms a trimeric complex with SOX2 on DNA and controls the expression of a number of genes involved in embryonic development s...
Gene Name
POU5F1
Uniprot ID
Q01860
Uniprot Name
POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1
Molecular Weight
38570.415 Da
References
  1. Zhu HJ, Appel DI, Grundemann D, Markowitz JS: Interaction of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) and amphetamine. J Neurochem. 2010 Jul;114(1):142-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06738.x. Epub 2010 Apr 6. [PubMed:20402963]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 21, 2018 00:07