Identification

Name
Pimozide
Accession Number
DB01100  (APRD00218)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to haloperidol for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Pimozida
  • Pimozide
  • Pimozidum
External IDs
MCN-JR-6238 / R 623 / R-623 / R-6238
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OrapTablet2 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
OrapTablet2 mg/1OralTeva Select Brands1990-09-302017-10-31Us57844 0187 01 nlmimage10 a73553ba
OrapTablet2 mg/1OralTeva Select Brands2014-10-31Not applicableUs
OrapTablet4 mgOralAa Pharma Inc1975-12-31Not applicableCanada
OrapTablet1 mg/1OralTeva Select Brands2000-06-07Not applicableUs57844 0151 01 nlmimage10 9a354d2a
Orap Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralMcneil Pharmaceutical, Division Of Ortho Mcneil Inc.1983-12-311996-08-19Canada
PimozideTablet2 mgOralAa Pharma Inc2003-04-01Not applicableCanada
PimozideTablet4 mgOralAa Pharma Inc2003-04-01Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
PimozideTablet2 mg/1OralAvera McKennan Hospital2016-01-072018-06-26Us
PimozideTablet2 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2015-09-28Not applicableUs
PimozideTablet1 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2015-09-28Not applicableUs
PMS-pimozideTablet10 mgOralPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-pimozideTablet4 mgOralPharmascience Inc2002-10-18Not applicableCanada
PMS-pimozideTablet2 mgOralPharmascience Inc2002-10-18Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Neoperidole / Opiran
Categories
UNII
1HIZ4DL86F
CAS number
2062-78-4
Weight
Average: 461.5462
Monoisotopic: 461.227868975
Chemical Formula
C28H29F2N3O
InChI Key
YVUQSNJEYSNKRX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C28H29F2N3O/c29-22-11-7-20(8-12-22)25(21-9-13-23(30)14-10-21)4-3-17-32-18-15-24(16-19-32)33-27-6-2-1-5-26(27)31-28(33)34/h1-2,5-14,24-25H,3-4,15-19H2,(H,31,34)
IUPAC Name
1-{1-[4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]piperidin-4-yl}-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,3-benzodiazol-2-one
SMILES
FC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(CCCN1CCC(CC1)N1C(=O)NC2=CC=CC=C12)C1=CC=C(F)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for the suppression of motor and phonic tics in patients with Tourette's Disorder who have failed to respond satisfactorily to standard treatment.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Pimozide is an orally active antipsychotic drug product which shares with other antipsychotics the ability to blockade dopaminergic receptors on neurons in the central nervous system. However, receptor blockade is often accompanied by a series of secondary alterations in central dopamine metabolism and function which may contribute to both pimozide's therapeutic and untoward effects. In addition, pimozide, in common with other antipsychotic drugs, has various effects on other central nervous system receptor systems which are not fully characterized. Pimozide also has less potential for inducing sedation and hypotension as it has more specific dopamine receptor blocking activity than other neuroleptic agents (and is therefore a suitable alternative to haloperidol).

Mechanism of action

The ability of pimozide to suppress motor and phonic tics in Tourette's Disorder is thought to be primarily a function of its dopaminergic blocking activity. Pimozide binds and inhibits the dopamine D2 receptor in the CNS.

TargetActionsOrganism
AD(2) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
AD(3) dopamine receptor
antagonist
Human
APotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
inhibitor
Human
UCalmodulin
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Greater than 50% absorption after oral administration. Serum peak appears 6-8 hours post ingestion.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Notable first-pass metabolism in the liver, primarily by N-dealkylation via the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP3A and CYP1A2 (and possibly CYP2D6). The activity of the two major metabolites has not been determined.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

29 ± 10 hours (single-dose study of healthy volunteers).

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50 = 1100 mg/kg (rat, oral), 228 mg/kg (mouse, oral)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*3Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*4Not AvailableC alleleEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*5Not AvailableWhole-gene deletionEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*6Not Available1707delTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*7Not Available2935A>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*8Not Available1758G>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*11Not Available883G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*12Not Available124G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*13Not AvailableCYP2D7/2D6 hybrid gene structureEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*14ANot Available1758G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*15Not Available137insT, 137_138insTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*19Not Available2539_2542delAACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*20Not Available1973_1974insGEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*21Not Available2573insCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*31Not Available-1770G>A / -1584C>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*36Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*38Not Available2587_2590delGACTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*40Not Available1863_1864ins(TTT CGC CCC)2Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*42Not Available3259_3260insGTEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*44Not Available2950G>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*47Not Available100C>T / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*51Not Available-1584C>G / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*56Not Available3201C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*57Not Available100C>T / 310G>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*62Not Available4044C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68ANot Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*68BNot AvailableSimilar but not identical switch region compared to CYP2D6*68A. Found in tandem arrangement with CYP2D6*4.Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*69Not Available2988G>A / -1426C>T  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*92Not Available1995delCEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*100Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6CYP2D6*101Not Available-1426C>T / -1235A>G  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirement.Details

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of Pimozide can be decreased when combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of Pimozide can be decreased when combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetaminePimozide may decrease the stimulatory activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be increased when it is combined with Pimozide.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetaminePimozide may decrease the stimulatory activities of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of Pimozide can be decreased when combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
3,5-DinitrocatecholThe therapeutic efficacy of 3,5-Dinitrocatechol can be decreased when used in combination with Pimozide.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Pimozide.
Food Interactions
  • Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided throughout treatment. Grapefruit can increase serum levels of this product.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015232
KEGG Drug
D00560
KEGG Compound
C07566
PubChem Compound
16362
PubChem Substance
46507096
ChemSpider
15520
BindingDB
50334150
ChEBI
8212
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1423
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000316
PharmGKB
PA450965
IUPHAR
90
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Pimozide
ATC Codes
N05AG02 — Pimozide
AHFS Codes
  • 28:16.08.92 — Miscellaneous Antipsychotics
MSDS
Download (29 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
2CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizophrenic Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentPsychosis Nos/Other1
4CompletedTreatmentPsychotic Disorder NOS / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenia and Disorders With Psychotic Features / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD) / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Gate Pharmaceuticals
  • McNeil Laboratories
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral2 mg/1
TabletOral10 mg
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral2 mg
TabletOral4 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Orap 1 mg tablet1.22USD tablet
Orap 2 mg tablet1.17USD tablet
Orap 4 mg Tablet0.47USD tablet
Apo-Pimozide 4 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Apo-Pimozide 2 mg Tablet0.24USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)214-218 °CPhysProp
water solubility10 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP6.30HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.63EL TAYAR,N ET AL. (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00173 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.36ALOGPS
logP5.83ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.9ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.38ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area35.58 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity132.21 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability50.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9974
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9685
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6639
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8842
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8388
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7255
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7829
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9112
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6579
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9062
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8932
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.686
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9217
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7856
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9348
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.5907 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.6925
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.9192
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-001i-4890100000-ff909df45204eac82c46
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03fr-3945500000-63d831a19fe77286e9e1

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Diphenylmethanes
Direct Parent
Diphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Phenylbutylamines / Benzimidazoles / Fluorobenzenes / Aralkylamines / Piperidines / N-substituted imidazoles / Aryl fluorides / Heteroaromatic compounds / Trialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds
show 4 more
Substituents
Diphenylmethane / Phenylbutylamine / Benzimidazole / Aralkylamine / Fluorobenzene / Halobenzene / Aryl fluoride / Aryl halide / Piperidine / N-substituted imidazole
show 17 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound, benzimidazoles, heteroarylpiperidine (CHEBI:8212)

Targets

Details
1. D(2) dopamine receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name
DRD2
Uniprot ID
P14416
Uniprot Name
D(2) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Seeman P: Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;47(1):27-38. [PubMed:11873706]
  3. Silva MR, Bernardi MM, Cruz-Casallas PE, Felicio LF: Pimozide injections into the Nucleus accumbens disrupt maternal behaviour in lactating rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003 Jul;93(1):42-7. [PubMed:12828573]
  4. Muscat R, Sampson D, Willner P: Dopaminergic mechanism of imipramine action in an animal model of depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1990 Aug 1;28(3):223-30. [PubMed:2378927]
  5. Zarrindast MR, Heidari MR: On the mechanisms by which theophylline changes core body temperature in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 May 12;257(1-2):13-20. [PubMed:8082693]
  6. Freedman SB, Patel S, Marwood R, Emms F, Seabrook GR, Knowles MR, McAllister G: Expression and pharmacological characterization of the human D3 dopamine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jan;268(1):417-26. [PubMed:8301582]
  7. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  8. Murphy LL, Adrian BA, Kohli M: Inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the ovariectomized rat: effect of pretreatment with neurotransmitter or neuropeptide receptor antagonists. Steroids. 1999 Sep;64(9):664-71. [PubMed:10503726]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name
DRD3
Uniprot ID
P35462
Uniprot Name
D(3) dopamine receptor
Molecular Weight
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Freedman SB, Patel S, Marwood R, Emms F, Seabrook GR, Knowles MR, McAllister G: Expression and pharmacological characterization of the human D3 dopamine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jan;268(1):417-26. [PubMed:8301582]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Channel properties are modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates the rapidly activating component of the ...
Gene Name
KCNH2
Uniprot ID
Q12809
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
Molecular Weight
126653.52 Da
References
  1. Kang J, Wang L, Cai F, Rampe D: High affinity blockade of the HERG cardiac K(+) channel by the neuroleptic pimozide. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Mar 31;392(3):137-40. [PubMed:10762666]
  2. Osypenko VM, Degtiar VIe, Naid'onov VG, Shuba IaM: [Blockade of HERG K+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes by antipsychotic agents]. Fiziol Zh. 2001;47(1):17-25. [PubMed:11296551]
  3. Shuba YM, Degtiar VE, Osipenko VN, Naidenov VG, Woosley RL: Testosterone-mediated modulation of HERG blockade by proarrhythmic agents. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Jul 1;62(1):41-9. [PubMed:11377395]
  4. Kang J, Chen XL, Rampe D: The antipsychotic drugs sertindole and pimozide block erg3, a human brain K(+) channel. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Aug 24;286(3):499-504. [PubMed:11511086]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Titin binding
Specific Function
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number...
Gene Name
CALM1
Uniprot ID
P0DP23
Uniprot Name
Calmodulin
Molecular Weight
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Papadopoulos V, Brown AS, Hall PF: Calcium-calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins from adrenal cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1990 Dec 3;74(2):109-23. [PubMed:1965307]
  2. Wang XB, Sato N, Greer MA, Greer SE, McAdams S: Role of extracellular calcium and calmodulin in prolactin secretion induced by hyposmolarity, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and high K+ in GH4C1 cells. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1990 Aug;123(2):218-24. [PubMed:2120879]
  3. Strobl JS, Kirkwood KL, Lantz TK, Lewine MA, Peterson VA, Worley JF 3rd: Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation in tissue culture by the neuroleptic agents pimozide and thioridazine. Cancer Res. 1990 Sep 1;50(17):5399-405. [PubMed:2386945]
  4. Cimino M, Weiss B: Characteristics of the binding of phenoxybenzamine to calmodulin. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988 Jul 15;37(14):2739-45. [PubMed:3134891]
  5. Mody I, Baimbridge KG, Miller JJ: Blockade of tetanic- and calcium-induced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal slice preparation by neuroleptics. Neuropharmacology. 1984 Jun;23(6):625-31. [PubMed:6146939]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID
P24462
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A7
Molecular Weight
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Details
3. Cytochrome P450 3A4
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Desta Z, Kerbusch T, Soukhova N, Richard E, Ko JW, Flockhart DA: Identification and characterization of human cytochrome P450 isoforms interacting with pimozide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 May;285(2):428-37. [PubMed:9580580]
  3. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Desta Z, Kerbusch T, Soukhova N, Richard E, Ko JW, Flockhart DA: Identification and characterization of human cytochrome P450 isoforms interacting with pimozide. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 May;285(2):428-37. [PubMed:9580580]
  3. Pimozide FDA label [File]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic ...
Gene Name
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID
P05181
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2E1
Molecular Weight
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. List of drugs that may have potential CYP2E1 interactions [File]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389]
  2. Ibrahim S, Peggins J, Knapton A, Licht T, Aszalos A: Influence of antipsychotic, antiemetic, and Ca(2+) channel blocker drugs on the cellular accumulation of the anticancer drug daunorubicin: P-glycoprotein modulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Dec;295(3):1276-83. [PubMed:11082465]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 13, 2018 07:55