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Identification
NameFlunarizine
Accession NumberDB04841
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionFlunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl]piperazine
Flunarizina
Flunarizinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
FlunarizineCapsule5 mgOralAa Pharma Inc2002-08-08Not applicableCanada
Novo-flunarizine - Cap 5mgCapsule5 mgOralNovopharm Limited1998-04-302015-10-26Canada
Sibelium Cap 5mgCapsule5 mgOralPharmascience Inc1990-12-312009-01-29Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
FlugeralItalfarmaco
FluxartenGlaxoSmithKline
GradientPolifarma
SibeliumJanssen
ZinasenAtralCipan
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Flunarizine dihydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: RXKMOPXNWTYEHI-RDRKJGRWSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 476.15976073
  • Average Mass: 477.417
DBSALT000382
Categories
UNIIR7PLA2DM0J
CAS number52468-60-7
WeightAverage: 404.4948
Monoisotopic: 404.206405252
Chemical FormulaC26H26F2N2
InChI KeySMANXXCATUTDDT-QPJJXVBHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C26H26F2N2/c27-24-12-8-22(9-13-24)26(23-10-14-25(28)15-11-23)30-19-17-29(18-20-30)16-4-7-21-5-2-1-3-6-21/h1-15,26H,16-20H2/b7-4+
IUPAC Name
1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl]piperazine
SMILES
FC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(N1CCN(C\C=C\C2=CC=CC=C2)CC1)C1=CC=C(F)C=C1
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsFlunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity.
Mechanism of actionFlunarizine inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium through myocardial and vascular membrane pores by physically plugging the channel. The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of smooth muscle cells, causing dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries, increased oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue, decreased total peripheral resistance, decreased systemic blood pressure, and decreased afterload.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1GProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanO43497 details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1HProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanO95180 details
Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1IProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanQ9P0X4 details
Histamine H1 receptorProteinunknown
antagonist
HumanP35367 details
CalmodulinProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP62158 details
Related Articles
Absorption85% following oral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding99% bound to plasma proteins
Metabolism

Hepatic, to two metabolites via N-dealylation and hydroxylation.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Flunarizine
Flunarizine metabolite M1Details
Flunarizine
Flunarizine metabolite M2Details
Flunarizine
Flunarizine metabolite M3Details
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life18 days
ClearanceNot Available
Toxicity-Flunarizine should be used with care in patients with depression or those being prescribed other agents, such as phenothiazines, concurrently, which may cause extrapyramidal side-effects. -Acute overdosage has been reported and the observed symptoms were sedation, agitation and tachycardia. -Treatment of acute overdosage consists of charcoal administration, induction of emesis or gastric lavage, and supportive measures. No specific antidote is known.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,1,1,2 TetrafluoroethaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with 1,1,1,2 Tetrafluoroethane.Investigational
2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2-HYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
2-mercaptobenzothiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2-mercaptobenzothiazole is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when adipiplon is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
AmorolfineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amorolfine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
AmphetamineAmphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
AN2690The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when AN2690 is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
AnidulafunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anidulafungin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Artemether is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Atosiban.Approved
Atracurium besylateFlunarizine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
AzelastineFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
AzithromycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Azithromycin.Approved
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Bafilomycin A1The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bafilomycin A1 is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
BarbexacloneThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Barbexaclone.Experimental
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Flunarizine.Illicit
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Benperidol.Investigational
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Benzoic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzoic Acid is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Benzylpenicilloyl PolylysineFlunarizine may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine as a diagnostic agent.Approved
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Betahistine can be decreased when used in combination with Flunarizine.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.Approved
BifonazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bifonazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
BortezomibThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brimonidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
BucindololBucindolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Investigational
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ButenafineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butenafine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
ButoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butoconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
CaffeineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Caffeine.Approved
CalciumThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium.Nutraceutical
Calcium AcetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Acetate.Approved
Calcium carbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium carbonate.Approved
Calcium ChlorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.Approved
Calcium citrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium citrate.Approved
Calcium glubionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium glubionate.Approved
Calcium GluceptateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Gluceptate.Approved
Calcium gluconateThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium gluconate.Approved, Vet Approved
CandicidinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candicidin is combined with Flunarizine.Withdrawn
CapecitabineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Capecitabine.Approved, Investigational
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
CarbomycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Carbomycin.Vet Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Flunarizine.Illicit, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
CaspofunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caspofungin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CeruleninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cerulenin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChloroxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroxine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenamine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ChlorphentermineChlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Illicit, Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CiclopiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ciclopirox is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ClopidogrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Clopidogrel can be decreased when used in combination with Flunarizine.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
ClotrimazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clotrimazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
CordycepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cordycepin is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclizine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
CyclosporineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclosporine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dantrolene is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Investigational
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
Decanoic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Decanoic Acid is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when deramciclane is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desloratadine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
DesvenlafaxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Desvenlafaxine.Approved
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
DextroamphetamineDextroamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
DiethylpropionDiethylpropion may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difenoxin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dimenhydrinate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when ECGONINE METHYL ESTER is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
EconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Econazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EfinaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efinaconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EliglustatThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EthanolFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Flunarizine.Withdrawn
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Flunarizine.Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Etoperidone.Approved
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Flunarizine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtravirineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.Approved
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Ezogabine.Approved
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbamate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fexofenadine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Flibanserin.Approved
FloxuridineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Floxuridine.Approved
FluconazoleThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FlucytosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flucytosine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
FluorouracilThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluorouracil.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone Propionate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
FluvastatinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluvastatin.Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.Approved
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
GlyphosateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glyphosate is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
GriseofulvinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Griseofulvin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HaloproginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloprogin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
HexetidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexetidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
HydrocodoneFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
Hydroxyamphetamine hydrobromideHydroxyamphetamine hydrobromide may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Iloperidone.Approved
ImipramineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndinavirThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndoraminIndoramin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
ItraconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Itraconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
JosamycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Josamycin.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
KetoconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketoconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
KitasamycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Kitasamycin.Experimental
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Levocabastine.Approved
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Levocetirizine.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Levomilnacipran.Approved
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
LidocaineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Lidocaine.Approved, Vet Approved
LisdexamfetamineLisdexamfetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Flunarizine.Illicit
LopinavirThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lu AA21004 is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
Magnesium hydroxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.Approved
Magnesium oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Magnesium oxide.Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Magnesium salicylate.Approved
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Maprotiline is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MephedroneMephedrone may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Investigational
MephentermineMephentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MethadoneThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
MethamphetamineMethamphetamine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Flunarizine.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Flunarizine.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MethotrimeprazineFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Methsuximide.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MetoprololThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineFlunarizine may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MevastatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mevastatin is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
MexiletineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Mexiletine.Approved
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Flunarizine can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved
MicafunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Micafungin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
MiconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Miconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Milnacipran.Approved
MiltefosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Miltefosine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
MirabegronThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MirtazapineFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MivacuriumFlunarizine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
MMDAMMDA may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Experimental, Illicit
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
MonensinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Monensin is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
MyxothiazolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Myxothiazol is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
NafcillinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Nafcillin.Approved
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
NatamycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Natamycin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
NefazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NevirapineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NicotineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
NitroprussideFlunarizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Nitroprusside.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
NitroxolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroxoline is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Normethadone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
NystatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nystatin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
OleandomycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Oleandomycin.Vet Approved
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OrphenadrineFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Oxetacaine.Investigational
OxiconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxiconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
pafuramidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when pafuramidine is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
ParaldehydeFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentamidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentamidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Perazine.Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PhenterminePhentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipotiazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
PosaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Posaconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleFlunarizine may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Pregnanolone.Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
PseudoephedrinePseudoephedrine may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Approved
PyrimethamineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Pyrimethamine.Approved, Vet Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
QuinidineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RadicicolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Radicicol is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RapacuroniumFlunarizine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RitobegronRitobegron may decrease the sedative activities of Flunarizine.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleFlunarizine may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
RotigotineFlunarizine may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when S-Ethylisothiourea is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
Sage 547The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Sage 547.Investigational
Salicylhydroxamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylhydroxamic Acid is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylic acid is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SertaconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertaconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
SertralineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinSilodosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved
SimeprevirThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SinefunginThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sinefungin is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
SirolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sirolimus is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved
SolithromycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Solithromycin.Investigational
SorafenibThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
StiripentolThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
SulconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
SuvorexantFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved
TamsulosinTamsulosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Flunarizine.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Tasimelteon.Approved
TavaboroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tavaborole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TenofovirThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Tenofovir.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinTerazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TerconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TeriflunomideThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Tetrabenazine.Approved
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Flunarizine.Investigational
ThalidomideFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Theophylline.Approved
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Thioridazine.Approved
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ThymolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thymol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Tiapride.Investigational
TicagrelorThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
TioconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tioconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Tolbutamide.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Withdrawn
TolnaftateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolnaftate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Flunarizine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may increase the hypotensive activities of Flunarizine.Experimental
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TrimetrexateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimetrexate is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
TroleandomycinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Troleandomycin.Approved
TylosinThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Tylosin.Vet Approved
Uc1010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Uc1010.Investigational
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
ValsartanThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Valsartan.Approved, Investigational
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be increased when it is combined with Vemurafenib.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vigabatrin is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
VoriconazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Voriconazole is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vortioxetine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Zafirlukast.Approved, Investigational
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Ziconotide.Approved
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Flunarizine can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Flunarizine.Vet Approved
ZolpidemFlunarizine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Flunarizine.Approved
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Flunarizine.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take without regard to meals.
References
Synthesis Reference

Matthew Peterson, Julius Remenar, Carlos Sanrame, “NOVEL FLUNARIZINE SALT FORMS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME.” U.S. Patent US20080200474, issued August 21, 2008.

US20080200474
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN07CA03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9574
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9789
Caco-2 permeable+0.5893
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7209
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.9266
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6563
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7605
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8855
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7208
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9107
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9229
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.9323
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9034
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7304
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8902
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9422
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.3271 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5261
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7549
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Apo-Flunarizine 5 mg Capsule0.75USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point251.5Janssen, P.A.J.; U.S. Patent 3,773,939; November 20, 1973; assigned to Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.
logP5.78BIOBYTE (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00168 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.3ALOGPS
logP6.17ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity120.3 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability44.2 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassDiphenylmethanes
Direct ParentDiphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Phenylpropene
  • Styrene
  • Aralkylamine
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Halobenzene
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Piperazine
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1G gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1G
Uniprot ID:
O43497
Molecular Weight:
262468.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Uebele VN, Nuss CE, Fox SV, Garson SL, Cristescu R, Doran SM, Kraus RL, Santarelli VP, Li Y, Barrow JC, Yang ZQ, Schlegel KA, Rittle KE, Reger TS, Bednar RA, Lemaire W, Mullen FA, Ballard JE, Tang C, Dai G, McManus OB, Koblan KS, Renger JJ: Positive allosteric interaction of structurally diverse T-type calcium channel antagonists. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2009;55(2):81-93. doi: 10.1007/s12013-009-9057-4. Epub 2009 Jul 7. [PubMed:19582593 ]
  4. Santi CM, Cayabyab FS, Sutton KG, McRory JE, Mezeyova J, Hamming KS, Parker D, Stea A, Snutch TP: Differential inhibition of T-type calcium channels by neuroleptics. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15;22(2):396-403. [PubMed:11784784 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1H gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-v...
Gene Name:
CACNA1H
Uniprot ID:
O95180
Molecular Weight:
259160.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  4. Uebele VN, Nuss CE, Fox SV, Garson SL, Cristescu R, Doran SM, Kraus RL, Santarelli VP, Li Y, Barrow JC, Yang ZQ, Schlegel KA, Rittle KE, Reger TS, Bednar RA, Lemaire W, Mullen FA, Ballard JE, Tang C, Dai G, McManus OB, Koblan KS, Renger JJ: Positive allosteric interaction of structurally diverse T-type calcium channel antagonists. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2009;55(2):81-93. doi: 10.1007/s12013-009-9057-4. Epub 2009 Jul 7. [PubMed:19582593 ]
  5. Santi CM, Cayabyab FS, Sutton KG, McRory JE, Mezeyova J, Hamming KS, Parker D, Stea A, Snutch TP: Differential inhibition of T-type calcium channels by neuroleptics. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15;22(2):396-403. [PubMed:11784784 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. Isoform alpha-1I gives rise to T-type calcium currents. T-type calcium channels belong to the "low-volta...
Gene Name:
CACNA1I
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0X4
Molecular Weight:
245100.8 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Uebele VN, Nuss CE, Fox SV, Garson SL, Cristescu R, Doran SM, Kraus RL, Santarelli VP, Li Y, Barrow JC, Yang ZQ, Schlegel KA, Rittle KE, Reger TS, Bednar RA, Lemaire W, Mullen FA, Ballard JE, Tang C, Dai G, McManus OB, Koblan KS, Renger JJ: Positive allosteric interaction of structurally diverse T-type calcium channel antagonists. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2009;55(2):81-93. doi: 10.1007/s12013-009-9057-4. Epub 2009 Jul 7. [PubMed:19582593 ]
  4. Santi CM, Cayabyab FS, Sutton KG, McRory JE, Mezeyova J, Hamming KS, Parker D, Stea A, Snutch TP: Differential inhibition of T-type calcium channels by neuroleptics. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15;22(2):396-403. [PubMed:11784784 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Taylor JE, Defeudis FV: Interactions of verapamil, D 600, flunarizine and nifedipine with cerebral histamine-receptors. Neurochem Int. 1986;9(3):379-81. [PubMed:20493137 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Titin binding
Specific Function:
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis.
Gene Name:
CALM1
Uniprot ID:
P62158
Molecular Weight:
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on September 27, 2007 07:47 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24