Identification

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Name
Lithium carbonate
Accession Number
DB14509  (DBSALT001075)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Lithium has been used to treat manic episodes since the 19th century3. Though it is widely used, its mechanism of action is still unknownLabel1,3,4,6. Lithium carbonate has a narrow therapeutic range and so careful monitoring is required to avoid adverse effectsLabel.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Carbonic acid, dilithium salt
  • Dilithium carbonate
  • Lithii carbonas
  • Lithium carbonate
  • Lithonate
External IDs
CP-15,467-61 / CP-15467-61 / CP-1546761
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Lithium cationionic8H8Z5UER667439-93-2HBBGRARXTFLTSG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CarbolithCapsuleOralBausch Health, Canada Inc.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
CarbolithCapsuleOralBausch Health, Canada Inc.1971-12-31Not applicableCanada
CarbolithCapsuleOralBausch Health, Canada Inc.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Duralith Tab 300mgTablet, extended releaseOralJanssen Pharmaceuticals1985-12-312010-02-12Canada
EskalithCapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1OralGlaxoSmithKline2006-05-102007-06-25Us
EskalithCapsule, gelatin coated300 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1970-04-062007-08-15Us
Eskalith CRTablet, extended release450 mg/1OralGlaxoSmithKline2006-05-102007-06-25Us
Eskalith CRTablet, extended release450 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1982-03-292007-08-15Us
LithaneCapsule300 mgOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
LithaneTablet300 mg/1OralMiles Pharmaceuticals2006-06-12Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-lithium CarbonateCapsuleOralApotex Corporation2001-02-12Not applicableCanada
Apo-lithium CarbonateCapsuleOralApotex Corporation2001-02-12Not applicableCanada
Dom-lithium CarbonateCapsuleOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-lithium CarbonateCapsuleOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Dom-lithium CarbonateCapsuleOralDominion PharmacalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Euro LithiumCapsuleOralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2008-02-262013-07-10Canada
Euro LithiumCapsuleOralEuro Pharm International Canada Inc2008-02-262013-07-10Canada
Lithium CarbonateTablet, extended release450 mg/1OralCardinal Health2003-06-172018-07-20Us
Lithium CarbonateTablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-01-192017-02-27Us
Lithium CarbonateCapsule150 mg/1Oralbryant ranch prepack2009-02-03Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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International/Other Brands
LithoTab
Categories
UNII
2BMD2GNA4V
CAS number
554-13-2
Weight
Average: 73.89
Monoisotopic: 74.01675074
Chemical Formula
CLi2O3
InChI Key
XGZVUEUWXADBQD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
InChI
InChI=1S/CH2O3.2Li/c2-1(3)4;;/h(H2,2,3,4);;/q;2*+1/p-2
IUPAC Name
dilithium(1+) carbonate
SMILES
[Li+].[Li+].[O-]C([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and maintenance of bipolar disorderLabel.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Lithium's mechanism of action is still unknownLabel. Lithium's therapeutic action may be due to a number of effects, ranging from inhibition of enzymes such as glycogen synthase kinase 3, inositol phosphatases, or modulation of glutamate receptors3,4.

Mechanism of action

Lithium's mechanism of action is still unknownLabel. However, the “inositol depletion theory” suggests 3 main potential targets3. These targets are inositol monophosphatase, inositol polyphosphatase, and glycogen synthase kinase 3(GSK-3)3,6.

The “Inositol depletion theory” suggests lithium behaves as an uncompetitive inhibitor of inositol monophosphatase in a manner inversely proportional to the degree of stimulus3. This inhibition lowers levels of inositol triphosphate6. However, stronger inhibitors of inositol monophosphatase are not as clinically effective and low levels of inositol triphosphate are associated with memory impairment3,6.

Lithium acts on inositol polyphosphatase as an uncompetitive inhibitor3. This inhibition is thought to have multiple downstream effects that have yet to be clarified3.

Lithium regulates phosphorylation of GSK-3 which regulates other enzymes through phosphorylation3. Lithium can also inhibit GSK-3 through interfering with the magnesium ion in the active site3.

TargetActionsOrganism
UInositol monophosphatase 2Not AvailableHumans
UInositol monophosphatase 1Not AvailableHumans
UGlycogen synthase kinase-3 betaNot AvailableHumans
UGlutamate receptor 3Not AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Lithium absorption is rapid and oral bioavailability is close to 100%2.

Volume of distribution

Apparent volume of distribution is 0.7 to 1.0L/kgLabel7.

Protein binding

Lithium carbonate is not significantly protein boundLabel2.

Metabolism

Lithium carbonate is not metabolized before excretionLabel.

Route of elimination

Lithium is primarily eliminated through the kidneys and elimination in the feces is insignificantLabel.

Half life

The half life of lithium carbonate is 18 to 36 hoursLabel. Other sources say it may be 7 to 20 hours7.

Clearance

Clearance is generally between 10 and 40mL/min but may be as low as 15mL/min in elderly patients and those with renal impairment2.

Toxicity

In rats, the oral LD50 is 525mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is >2.17mg/L over 4 hoursMSDS.

There is insufficient data regarding the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility impairment of lithium carbonateLabel. However, studies in rats and mice have shown repeated daily dosing of lithium carbonate result in adverse effects on male reproductive organs, spermatogenesis, and testosterone levelsLabel.

There is conflicting evidence regarding the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities in first trimester administration of lithiumLabel. Animal studies have shown adverse effects on the fetus and fertility overallLabel. The risk and benefit of lithium use in pregnancy must be weighed and should lithium treatment continue in pregnancy, serum lithium concentrations should be regularly monitored, dosages should be adjusted, and lithium should be decreased or stopped 2 or 3 days before delivery to avoid maternal and/or neonatal toxicityLabel.

Breastfeeding is not recommended with maternal lithium use but if it is continued, the infant should be monitored for thyroid function and symptoms of lithium toxicity such as hypertonia, hypothermia, cyanosis, and ECG changesLabel.

Safety in effectiveness in patients under 12 years has not been established, however dosing for patients 12 years and older is similar to that of adult patientsLabel.

Safety in geriatric patients has not been established, however caution is advised when using lithium as this population is more likely to have impaired renal functionLabel.

Patients with creatinine clearance between 30mL/min and 89mL/min should be started at a lower dose and slowly titrated to the correct dose while monitoring serum lithium levelsLabel. Patients with a creatinine clearance less than 30mL/min should not take lithium, especially in the case of a low sodium dietLabel.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium carbonate is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium carbonate is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine can be decreased when used in combination with Lithium carbonate.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine can be decreased when used in combination with Lithium carbonate.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe serum concentration of Lithium carbonate can be decreased when it is combined with 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe therapeutic efficacy of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine can be decreased when used in combination with Lithium carbonate.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium carbonate is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Methoxyamphetamine is combined with Lithium carbonate.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is combined with Lithium carbonate.
6-O-benzylguanineThe serum concentration of Lithium carbonate can be decreased when it is combined with 6-O-benzylguanine.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action
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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Quiroz JA, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr, Manji HK: Novel insights into lithium's mechanism of action: neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. Neuropsychobiology. 2010;62(1):50-60. doi: 10.1159/000314310. Epub 2010 May 7. [PubMed:20453535]
  2. Hedya SA, Swoboda HD: Lithium Toxicity . [PubMed:29763168]
  3. Serretti A, Drago A, De Ronchi D: Lithium pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenetics: focus on inositol mono phosphatase (IMPase), inositol poliphosphatase (IPPase) and glycogen sinthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta). Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(15):1917-48. [PubMed:19442155]
  4. Chalecka-Franaszek E, Chuang DM: Lithium activates the serine/threonine kinase Akt-1 and suppresses glutamate-induced inhibition of Akt-1 activity in neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jul 20;96(15):8745-50. [PubMed:10411946]
  5. ILO: Lithium [Link]
  6. Bipolar Disorders and Lithium: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, Therapeutic Effects and Indications of Lithium: Review of Articles [Link]
  7. New Zealand Drug Data Sheet: Lithium Carbonate [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C07964
ChemSpider
10654
ChEBI
6504
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200826
Wikipedia
Lithium_carbonate
ATC Codes
N05AN01 — Lithium
AHFS Codes
  • 28:28.00 — Antimanic Agents
FDA label
Download (487 KB)
MSDS
Download (51 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNiemann-Pick Disease, Type C11
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7) / Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a) / Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4) / Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a) / Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b) / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
1CompletedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1CompletedTreatmentSpinocerebellar Ataxia Type I1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Colorectal / Neoplasms, Esophageal / Stomach Neoplasms1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceDrug Mechanism1
1TerminatedSupportive CareBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Cognitive/Functional Effects / Neurologic toxicity / Tumors, Solid1
1WithdrawnNot AvailableGeneralized Anxiety Disease1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceCombat Posttraumatic Stess Disorder / Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareSmall Cell Lung Carcinoma1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Dependence, Cocaine1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCorticobasal Degeneration / Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Partner Relational Disorder (V61.10)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)3
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder Without Psychotic Symptoms1
2CompletedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD) / Depression Not Otherwise Specified / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence / Substance Withdrawal Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2CompletedTreatmentDifferentiated Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
2CompletedTreatmentNeuralgia / Pain, Neuropathic / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentNeuroendocrine Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentSpinocerebellar ataxia 21
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAgitation / Alzheimer's Disease (AD) / Psychosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentFracture Bone1
2RecruitingTreatmentFrontotemporal Dementia (FTD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentBrain Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentMedullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentMultiple System Atrophy (MSA)1
2Unknown StatusPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Cognitive Impairments1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2WithdrawnBasic ScienceTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide, Attempted1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMachado Joseph Disease / Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31
2, 3TerminatedPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depressive Disorders / Suicide / Suicide, Attempted1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
3CompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3CompletedPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3CompletedPreventionBipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Bipolar Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Bipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)6
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder Mania1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
3CompletedTreatmentMania1
3CompletedTreatmentManic or Mixed Episode Associated With Bipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentAggressive reaction / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentStroke1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceBipolar I Disorder1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedPreventionDepression, Bipolar1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Mania1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Mania in Bipolar Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)8
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression2
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Depressive Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania2
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizoaffective Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Type II Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression4
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Neurocognitive Disturbance1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)3
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Thoughts1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
4RecruitingDiagnosticAsthma / Asthma: [Nos] or [Attack] / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingPreventionMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)3
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeriatric Depression / Late Life Depression (LLD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) / Treatment-Refractory Depression1
4RecruitingTreatmentSarcoma, Osteogenic1
4RecruitingTreatmentThe Use of Antidepressants in Patients With Bipolar Depression1
4TerminatedBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4TerminatedPreventionDepression1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute Bipolar Mania1
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableBipolar Affective Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
4WithdrawnBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAccelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative / Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Breakpoint Cluster Region-abl Translocation (BCR-ABL) Negative / Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission / Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL) / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia / Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Disseminated Neuroblastoma / Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue / Gastrointestinal Complications / Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable / Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Poor Prognosis Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor / Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma / Primary Myelofibrosis / Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma / Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Recurrent Wilm's Tumor / Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors / Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia / Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (Secondary AML, sAML) / Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage I Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor / Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage III Multiple Myeloma / Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer / Stage IIIB Breast Cancer / Stage IIIC Breast Cancer / Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Breast Cancer / Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)5
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis Pseudoglioma1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD) / Bipolar II Depression / Depression / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Episode1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAffective Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar / Unipolar Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDepression / Suicidal thoughts or behaviours1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionDepressive Disorders / Suicide1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral300 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral450 mg/1
CapsuleOral150 mg
CapsuleOral300 mg
TabletOral300 mg/1
SolutionOral8 meq/5mL
CapsuleOral150 mg/1
CapsuleOral300 mg/1
CapsuleOral600 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral150 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral600 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral300 mg/1
TabletOral450 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)180.5http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_card_id=0710
boiling point (°C)1336http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_card_id=0710
water solubility100mMhttp://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.10654.html
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility644.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.28ALOGPS
logP0.25ChemAxon
logS0.94ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity31.17 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability3.52 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organic carbonic acids. These are compounds comprising the carbonic acid functional group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Organic carbonic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Organic carbonic acids
Direct Parent
Organic carbonic acids
Alternative Parents
Carbonate salts / Organic lithium salts / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Carbonate salt / Carbonic acid / Organic lithium salt / Organic alkali metal salt / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic salt / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
lithium salt, carbonate salt (CHEBI:6504)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Can use myo-inositol monophosphates, scylloinositol 1,4-diphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, and 2'-AMP as substrates. Has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lith...
Gene Name
IMPA2
Uniprot ID
O14732
Uniprot Name
Inositol monophosphatase 2
Molecular Weight
31320.525 Da
References
  1. Cryns K, Shamir A, Shapiro J, Daneels G, Goris I, Van Craenendonck H, Straetemans R, Belmaker RH, Agam G, Moechars D, Steckler T: Lack of lithium-like behavioral and molecular effects in IMPA2 knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Apr;32(4):881-91. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16841073]
  2. Ohnishi T, Ohba H, Seo KC, Im J, Sato Y, Iwayama Y, Furuichi T, Chung SK, Yoshikawa T: Spatial expression patterns and biochemical properties distinguish a second myo-inositol monophosphatase IMPA2 from IMPA1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 5;282(1):637-46. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17068342]
  3. Ohnishi T, Yamada K, Ohba H, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Hattori E, Inada T, Kunugi H, Tatsumi M, Ozaki N, Iwata N, Sakamoto K, Iijima Y, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sugihara G, Nanko S, Osumi N, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Kato T, Yoshikawa T: A promoter haplotype of the inositol monophosphatase 2 gene (IMPA2) at 18p11.2 confers a possible risk for bipolar disorder by enhancing transcription. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Aug;32(8):1727-37. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17251911]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the provision of inositol required for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and polyphosphoinositides and has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lithium action in brain....
Gene Name
IMPA1
Uniprot ID
P29218
Uniprot Name
Inositol monophosphatase 1
Molecular Weight
30188.59 Da
References
  1. Sarkar S, Rubinsztein DC: Inositol and IP3 levels regulate autophagy: biology and therapeutic speculations. Autophagy. 2006 Apr-Jun;2(2):132-4. Epub 2006 Apr 6. [PubMed:16874097]
  2. Trinquet E, Fink M, Bazin H, Grillet F, Maurin F, Bourrier E, Ansanay H, Leroy C, Michaud A, Durroux T, Maurel D, Malhaire F, Goudet C, Pin JP, Naval M, Hernout O, Chretien F, Chapleur Y, Mathis G: D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate as a surrogate of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris phosphate to monitor G protein-coupled receptor activation. Anal Biochem. 2006 Nov 1;358(1):126-35. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PubMed:16965760]
  3. Ohnishi T, Ohba H, Seo KC, Im J, Sato Y, Iwayama Y, Furuichi T, Chung SK, Yoshikawa T: Spatial expression patterns and biochemical properties distinguish a second myo-inositol monophosphatase IMPA2 from IMPA1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 5;282(1):637-46. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17068342]
  4. Tanizawa Y, Kuhara A, Inada H, Kodama E, Mizuno T, Mori I: Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2006 Dec 1;20(23):3296-310. [PubMed:17158747]
  5. Ohnishi T, Yamada K, Ohba H, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Hattori E, Inada T, Kunugi H, Tatsumi M, Ozaki N, Iwata N, Sakamoto K, Iijima Y, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sugihara G, Nanko S, Osumi N, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Kato T, Yoshikawa T: A promoter haplotype of the inositol monophosphatase 2 gene (IMPA2) at 18p11.2 confers a possible risk for bipolar disorder by enhancing transcription. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Aug;32(8):1727-37. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17251911]
  6. Li Z, Stieglitz KA, Shrout AL, Wei Y, Weis RM, Stec B, Roberts MF: Mobile loop mutations in an archaeal inositol monophosphatase: modulating three-metal ion assisted catalysis and lithium inhibition. Protein Sci. 2010 Feb;19(2):309-18. doi: 10.1002/pro.315. [PubMed:20027624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by pho...
Gene Name
GSK3B
Uniprot ID
P49841
Uniprot Name
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
Molecular Weight
46743.865 Da
References
  1. Borsotto M, Cavarec L, Bouillot M, Romey G, Macciardi F, Delaye A, Nasroune M, Bastucci M, Sambucy JL, Luan JJ, Charpagne A, Jouet V, Leger R, Lazdunski M, Cohen D, Chumakov I: PP2A-Bgamma subunit and KCNQ2 K+ channels in bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics J. 2007 Apr;7(2):123-32. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16733521]
  2. Adli M, Hollinde DL, Stamm T, Wiethoff K, Tsahuridu M, Kirchheiner J, Heinz A, Bauer M: Response to lithium augmentation in depression is associated with the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta -50T/C single nucleotide polymorphism. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Dec 1;62(11):1295-302. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17628506]
  3. O'Brien WT, Klein PS: Validating GSK3 as an in vivo target of lithium action. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Oct;37(Pt 5):1133-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0371133. [PubMed:19754466]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA3
Uniprot ID
P42263
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 3
Molecular Weight
101155.975 Da
References
  1. Karkanias NB, Papke RL: Lithium modulates desensitization of the glutamate receptor subtype gluR3 in Xenopus oocytes. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Dec 31;277(3):153-6. [PubMed:10626836]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ww domain binding
Specific Function
Sodium permeable non-voltage-sensitive ion channel inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. Mediates the electrodiffusion of the luminal sodium (and water, which follows osmotically) through the apical...
Gene Name
SCNN1A
Uniprot ID
P37088
Uniprot Name
Amiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
75703.08 Da
References
  1. Christensen BM, Zuber AM, Loffing J, Stehle JC, Deen PM, Rossier BC, Hummler E: alphaENaC-mediated lithium absorption promotes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Feb;22(2):253-61. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2010070734. Epub 2010 Nov 4. [PubMed:21051735]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ww domain binding
Specific Function
Sodium permeable non-voltage-sensitive ion channel inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. Mediates the electrodiffusion of the luminal sodium (and water, which follows osmotically) through the apical...
Gene Name
SCNN1B
Uniprot ID
P51168
Uniprot Name
Amiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit beta
Molecular Weight
72658.485 Da
References
  1. Christensen BM, Zuber AM, Loffing J, Stehle JC, Deen PM, Rossier BC, Hummler E: alphaENaC-mediated lithium absorption promotes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Feb;22(2):253-61. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2010070734. Epub 2010 Nov 4. [PubMed:21051735]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ww domain binding
Specific Function
Sodium permeable non-voltage-sensitive ion channel inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. Mediates the electrodiffusion of the luminal sodium (and water, which follows osmotically) through the apical...
Gene Name
SCNN1G
Uniprot ID
P51170
Uniprot Name
Amiloride-sensitive sodium channel subunit gamma
Molecular Weight
74269.62 Da
References
  1. Christensen BM, Zuber AM, Loffing J, Stehle JC, Deen PM, Rossier BC, Hummler E: alphaENaC-mediated lithium absorption promotes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Feb;22(2):253-61. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2010070734. Epub 2010 Nov 4. [PubMed:21051735]

Drug created on July 11, 2018 16:07 / Updated on November 21, 2019 16:30