Identification

Name
Atropine
Accession Number
DB00572  (APRD00807, EXPT02427)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet Approved
Description

An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly solanaceae. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-Atropine
  • (+-)-Hyoscyamine
  • (+,-)-Tropyl tropate
  • (±)-atropine
  • (±)-hyoscyamine
  • (3-Endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
  • [(1S,5R)-8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl] 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
  • 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
  • 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
  • Atropin
  • Atropina
  • Atropine
  • Atropinum
  • dl-Hyoscyamine
  • dl-tropyltropate
  • Mydriasine
  • Tropine tropate
External IDs
NSC 61810
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Atropine HydrochlorideEUF58V826B33952-38-4OJIPQOWZZMSBGY-RIMUKSHESA-N
Atropine SulfateKAE4PSB0Z355-48-1HOBWAPHTEJGALG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection.25 mg/.3mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2004-09-17Not applicableUs
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection.5 mg/.7mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2003-06-19Not applicableUs
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection2 mg/.7mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2003-06-19Not applicableUs
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection1 mg/.7mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2003-06-19Not applicableUs
AtropineSolution / drops10 mg/mLOphthalmicMwi2015-03-23Not applicableUs
AtropineSolution1 %OphthalmicEberth Pharmaceuticals Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
AtropineSolution / drops10 mg/mLOphthalmicAkorn2014-07-18Not applicableUs
Atropine 1%Solution / drops1 %OphthalmicNovartis Ophthalmics Novartis Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Inc1987-12-312003-12-10Canada
Atropine Injection BPSolution0.4 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousTeligent Ou2015-12-04Not applicableCanada
Atropine Injection BPSolution0.6 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousTeligent Ou2016-01-28Not applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Atropine SulfateInjection, solution.1 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateInjection, solution1 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Regent1992-11-012017-07-20Us
Atropine SulfateSolution1 mg/mLOphthalmicFalcon Laboratory Ltd2000-06-302016-03-11Us
Atropine SulfateInjection, solution.1 mg/mLIntravenousRemedy Repack2017-05-12Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateInjection, solution.4 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-04-01Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateInjection.4 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2012-05-08Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateInjection, solution1 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-08-012017-01-20Us
Atropine SulfateInjection.1 mg/mLParenteralRemedy Repack2016-06-012017-02-16Us
Atropine SulfateInjection, solution.4 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health2011-07-07Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateInjection, solution.4 mg/mLIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Regent1992-11-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Anespin (Oriental Chemical Works) / Antol (Ying Yuan) / AtroPen (Meridian) / Atropt (Sigma) / Atrospan (Fischer) / Bellapan (Farmapol) / Dysurgal (MaxMedic) / Kintropine (Synpac-Kingdom) / Tromine (The Central)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ATNAA atropine and pralidoxime chloride Auto-InjectorAtropine + PralidoximeKitIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2002-01-17Not applicableUs
B-DonnaAtropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Phenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralWinder Laboratories, LLC2015-12-302016-03-11Us
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobarbitalAtropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Phenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralWest Ward Pharmaceutical1966-01-01Not applicableUs0143 114020170720 1564 4ev749
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalAtropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Phenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralApace Packaging2000-12-01Not applicableUs
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalAtropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Phenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralRebel Distributors2004-08-31Not applicableUs
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalAtropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Phenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralLegacy Pharmaceutical Packaging2000-12-01Not applicableUs
Belladonna Alkaloids with PhenobartbitalAtropine Sulfate (.0194 mg/1) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (.1037 mg/1) + Phenobarbital (16.2 mg/1) + Scopolamine (.0065 mg/1)TabletOralLiberty Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2000-12-01Not applicableUs00143 1140 10 nlmimage10 bb045dd2
Diban CapAtropine Sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1998-02-182001-01-30Canada
Diban CapAtropine Sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralAyerst Laboratories1992-12-311999-04-12Canada
Diphenoxylate Hcl and Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.025 mg/1) + Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1)TabletOralStat Rx USA1979-10-29Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
7C0697DR9I
CAS number
51-55-8
Weight
Average: 289.3694
Monoisotopic: 289.167793607
Chemical Formula
C17H23NO3
InChI Key
RKUNBYITZUJHSG-SPUOUPEWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H23NO3/c1-18-13-7-8-14(18)10-15(9-13)21-17(20)16(11-19)12-5-3-2-4-6-12/h2-6,13-16,19H,7-11H2,1H3/t13-,14+,15+,16?
IUPAC Name
(1R,3R,5S)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
SMILES
CN1[[email protected]]2CC[[email protected]@H]1C[[email protected]@H](C2)OC(=O)C(CO)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of poisoning by susceptible organophosphorous nerve agents having anti-cholinesterase activity (cholinesterase inhibitors) as well as organophosphorous or carbamate insecticides.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Atropine, a naturally occurring belladonna alkaloid, is a racemic mixture of equal parts of d- and l-hyoscyamine, whose activity is due almost entirely to the levo isomer of the drug. Atropine is commonly classified as an anticholinergic or antiparasympathetic (parasympatholytic) drug. More precisely, however, it is termed an antimuscarinic agent since it antagonizes the muscarine-like actions of acetylcholine and other choline esters. Adequate doses of atropine abolish various types of reflex vagal cardiac slowing or asystole. The drug also prevents or abolishes bradycardia or asystole produced by injection of choline esters, anticholinesterase agents or other parasympathomimetic drugs, and cardiac arrest produced by stimulation of the vagus. Atropine may also lessen the degree of partial heart block when vagal activity is an etiologic factor. Atropine in clinical doses counteracts the peripheral dilatation and abrupt decrease in blood pressure produced by choline esters. However, when given by itself, atropine does not exert a striking or uniform effect on blood vessels or blood pressure.

Mechanism of action

Atropine binds to and inhibit muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, producing a wide range of anticholinergic effects.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
antagonist
Human
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
antagonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Atropine is rapidly and well absorbed after intramuscular administration. Atropine disappears rapidly from the blood and is distributed throughout the various body tissues and fluids.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

The protein binding of atropine is 14 to 22% in plasma.

Metabolism

Much of the drug is destroyed by enzymatic hydrolysis, particularly in the liver. From 13 to 50% is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Route of elimination

Much of the drug is destroyed by enzymatic hydrolysis, particularly in the liver; from 13 to 50% is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Half life

3.0 ± 0.9 hours in adults. The half-life of atropine is slightly shorter (approximately 20 minutes) in females than males.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 75 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose includes widespread paralysis of parasympathetically innervated organs. Dry mucous membranes, widely dilated and nonresponsive pupils, tachycardia, fever and cutaneous flush are especially prominent, as are mental and neurological symptoms. In instances of severe intoxication, respiratory depression, coma, circulatory collapse and death may occur.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Experimental
AclidiniumAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Aclidinium.Approved
AlcuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alcuronium.Experimental
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AmbenoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ambenonium.Approved
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved, Illicit
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Anisotropine Methylbromide.Approved
AtracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Atracurium.Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Atracurium besylate.Approved
BenactyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Benactyzine.Withdrawn
BendroflumethiazideThe serum concentration of Bendroflumethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
BenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Atropine.Approved
BezitramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Bezitramide.Experimental, Illicit, Withdrawn
BiperidenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Biperiden.Approved, Investigational
BornaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Bornaprine.Experimental
Botulinum Toxin Type AAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
Botulinum Toxin Type BAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Botulinum Toxin Type B.Approved
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Experimental
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Butorphanol.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ButylscopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Scopolamine butylbromide.Approved, Vet Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
ChlorothiazideThe serum concentration of Chlorothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Chlorphenoxamine.Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe serum concentration of Chlorthalidone can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
CimetropiumAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Cimetropium.Experimental, Investigational
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Codeine.Approved, Illicit
CoumaphosThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Coumaphos.Vet Approved
CyclopenthiazideThe serum concentration of Cyclopenthiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Experimental
CyclopentolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cyclopentolate.Approved
DarifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DecamethoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Decamethonium.Approved
DemecariumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Demecarium.Approved
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Desloratadine.Approved, Investigational
DexetimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dexetimide.Withdrawn
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DichlorvosThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dichlorvos.Vet Approved
DicyclomineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dicyclomine.Approved
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DistigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Distigmine.Experimental
DonepezilThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Donepezil.Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with DPDPE.Experimental
DronabinolAtropine may increase the tachycardic activities of Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
EchothiophateThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Echothiophate.Approved
EdrophoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Edrophonium.Approved
EluxadolineAtropine may increase the constipating activities of Eluxadoline.Approved
EmeproniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Emepronium.Experimental
EtanautineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Etanautine.Experimental
EthopropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethopropazine is combined with Atropine.Approved
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtybenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Etybenzatropine.Experimental
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenthionThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Fenthion.Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Fesoterodine.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GalantamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Galantamine.Approved
GallamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Gallamine.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
Glucagon recombinantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Glucagon recombinant.Approved
GlycopyrroniumAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Glycopyrronium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Experimental
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hexamethonium.Experimental
HomatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Homatropine.Approved
Huperzine AThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Huperzine A.Investigational
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideThe serum concentration of Hydrochlorothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideThe serum concentration of Hydroflumethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hydromorphone.Approved, Illicit
HyoscyamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hyoscyamine.Approved
IndapamideThe serum concentration of Indapamide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
IpidacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ipidacrine.Experimental
Ipratropium bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Atropine.Approved
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
IsoflurophateThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Isoflurophate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ItoprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Itopride can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Investigational
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Levorphanol.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
MalathionThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Malathion.Approved, Investigational
MazaticolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mazaticol.Experimental
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mecamylamine.Approved
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved
MemantineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Memantine.Approved, Investigational
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
Methanesulfonyl FluorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Methanesulfonyl Fluoride.Investigational
MethanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methantheline.Approved, Investigational
MethyclothiazideThe serum concentration of Methyclothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved, Investigational
Methylscopolamine bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methylscopolamine bromide.Approved
MetixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Metixene.Approved
MetoclopramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Metoclopramide.Approved, Investigational
MetolazoneThe serum concentration of Metolazone can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
MianserinMianserin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.Approved, Investigational
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
MirabegronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneAtropine may increase the tachycardic activities of Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nalbuphine.Approved
NeostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
NicomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nicomorphine.Experimental
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Orphenadrine.Approved
OtiloniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Otilonium.Experimental, Investigational
OxitropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxitropium.Investigational
OxybutyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxybutynin.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OxyphenoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
PancuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pancuronium.Approved
ParaoxonThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Paraoxon.Experimental
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pentazocine.Approved, Vet Approved
PentoliniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pentolinium.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
PhenglutarimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Phenglutarimide.Experimental
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
PhysostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Physostigmine.Approved
PipecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pipecuronium.Approved
PirenzepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pirenzepine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Piritramide.Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
PolythiazideThe serum concentration of Polythiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
Potassium ChlorideAtropine may increase the ulcerogenic activities of Potassium Chloride.Approved, Withdrawn
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.Approved, Investigational
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Atropine.Approved
PropanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Propantheline.Approved
PropiverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Propiverine.Approved, Investigational
PyridostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Pyridostigmine.Approved
QuinethazoneThe serum concentration of Quinethazone can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
QuinidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Quinidine.Approved
RamosetronAtropine may increase the constipating activities of Ramosetron.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RivastigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Rivastigmine.Approved, Investigational
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Withdrawn
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Scopolamine.Approved
SecretinThe therapeutic efficacy of Secretin can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SolifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Solifenacin.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
TacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.Investigational, Withdrawn
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tapentadol.Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TiotropiumAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Tiotropium.Approved
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
TolterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tolterodine.Approved, Investigational
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tramadol.Approved, Investigational
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypertensive activities of Atropine.Approved
TrichlorfonThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlorfon.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe serum concentration of Trichlormethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrihexyphenidylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trihexyphenidyl is combined with Atropine.Approved
TrimethaphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Trimethaphan.Approved, Investigational
TropatepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tropatepine.Experimental
TropicamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tropicamide.Approved
TrospiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Trospium.Approved
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tubocurarine.Approved
UmeclidiniumAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Umeclidinium.Approved
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Vecuronium.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Pei-Chang Wu, Hsi-Kung Kuo, Po-Chiung Fang, Jong-Jer Lee, Chih-Hsin Chen, "Low-concentration atropine solution for preventing myopia progression and preparing method thereof." U.S. Patent US20070254914, issued November 01, 2007.

US20070254914
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB14712
KEGG Drug
D00113
KEGG Compound
C01479
PubChem Compound
174174
PubChem Substance
46507540
ChemSpider
10194105
BindingDB
50403547
ChEBI
78734
ChEMBL
CHEMBL517712
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000377
PharmGKB
PA448505
IUPHAR
320
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
OIN
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Atropine
ATC Codes
S01FA01 — AtropineA03CB03 — Atropine and psycholepticsA03BA01 — Atropine
AHFS Codes
  • 12:08.08 — Antimuscarinics Antispasmodics
  • 52:24.00 — Mydriatics
FDA label
Download (164 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIncidence of Postoperative Residual Curarization1
0SuspendedOtherBypass, Gastric / Hypoglycemia After Gastric Bypass / Post Bariatric Surgery / Sleeve Gastrectomy1
0SuspendedOtherHypoglycemia / Post Bariatricsurgery1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic SciencePre-Diabetic1
1CompletedDiagnosticDigestive Physiology / Exendin (9-39) / Gastrointestinal Hormones / Gastrointestinal Motility / Glucagon-Like Peptide 11
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentMyopia1
1CompletedTreatmentOrganophosphorus Poisoning1
2CompletedPreventionBradycardia1
2CompletedPreventionCoagulation Defect; Bleeding1
2CompletedPreventionVentilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest1
2CompletedTreatmentPhysiology, Ocular / Regional Blood Flow1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentRhinitis, Seasonal, Allergic1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Hypoperfusion / Intubation, Endotracheal / Premedication1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIntubation, Endotracheal / Premedication1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHypospadias1
3Active Not RecruitingOtherMyopia1
3CompletedDiagnosticMalignant Lymphomas1
3CompletedDiagnosticThoracic Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia5
3CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia / Anisometropia / Strabismus1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentElective Caesarean Section Surgeries1
3CompletedTreatmentOrganophosphate Poisoning1
3CompletedTreatmentPain1
3CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyopia1
3RecruitingTreatmentMyopia1
3TerminatedTreatmentAmblyopia1
4CompletedDiagnosticIntraocular Pressure Changes During Tracheal Extubation1
4CompletedPreventionArrythmias / Respiratory Arrest1
4CompletedPreventionBradycardia1
4CompletedPreventionIntubation, Endotracheal1
4CompletedTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Belladonna or Atropine / Bradycardia / Neostigmine Adverse Reaction1
4CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
4CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Cesarean Section / Pregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentInadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentIntubations / Newborns / Preterms1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Abdominal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentReversal of Skeletal Muscle Relaxant / Underdosing of Skeletal Muscle Relaxants for Laparotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGynecology / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-operative Residual Curarization1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBradycardia / Hypoxemia1
4Unknown StatusPreventionMyopia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArrythmias / Bradycardia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDeath, Sudden,Cardiac / Heart Arrest1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntubation; Difficult1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDiastolic Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningPost Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareChildren1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSialorrhea1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthesia-induced Negative Hemodynamic Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyopia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherCatecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticBlood Coagulation Tests ( INR, APTT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceThe Focus of This Study is to Evaluete the Significances of the Vagal Cholinerg Nervuos System for the Effect of GLP-1 by Using Atropin Administration1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Catheter Site Discomfort / Complications / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMyopia Progression1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • United states army office surgeon general
  • Hospira inc
  • Mission pharmacal co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntramuscular.25 mg/.3mL
InjectionIntramuscular.5 mg/.7mL
InjectionIntramuscular1 mg/.7mL
InjectionIntramuscular2 mg/.7mL
SolutionOphthalmic1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 %
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.4 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.6 mg
OintmentOphthalmic1 %
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.4 mg/mL
InjectionParenteral.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionEndotracheal; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.05 mg/mL
Injection, solutionEndotracheal; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.05 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.4 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.4 mg/.5mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/mL
OintmentOphthalmic10 mg/g
SolutionOphthalmic1 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic10 mg/mL
LiquidIntravenous.1 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.3 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.8 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.5 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous3 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.6 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.1 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic10 mg
CapsuleOral
SolutionOral
TabletOral
LiquidOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
KitIntramuscular
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
LiquidOphthalmic1 %
ElixirOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Atropine Sulfate 1% Solution 15ml Bottle101.27USD bottle
Isopto Atropine 1% Solution 15ml Bottle34.65USD bottle
Atropine powder34.48USD g
Isopto Atropine 1% Solution 5ml Bottle26.59USD bottle
Atropine Sulfate 1% Solution 5ml Bottle16.82USD bottle
Atropine Sulfate 1% Ointment 3.5 gm Tube15.92USD tube
Atropine-Care 1% Solution 2ml Bottle7.99USD bottle
Isopto atropine 1% eye drops5.06USD ml
Atropine-ns 1 mg/2.5 ml syr4.8USD ml
Atropine-ns 0.8 mg/2 ml syr3.9USD ml
Atropine 1% eye drops2.88USD ml
Atropine sulfate powder2.06USD g
Atropine care 1% eye drops2.03USD ml
Atropine-ns 2 mg/5 ml syringe1.92USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg/ml1.6USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.6 mg/ml1.6USD ml
Atropine 1 mg/ml vial1.44USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg/ml Solution1.22USD ml
Atropine 0.4 mg/0.5 ml ampul1.2USD ampul
Atropine 1 mg/ml ampul1.2USD ml
Atropine 0.4 mg/ml vial0.96USD ml
Isopto Atropine 1 % Solution0.68USD ml
Sal-tropine 0.4 mg tablet0.36USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)118.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/L (at 25 °C)DEHN,WM (1917)
logP1.83HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.12ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.43SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.52 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.19ALOGPS
logP1.57ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.77 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity80.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.28 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9286
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9569
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6542
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8595
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7956
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7041
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6838
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5496
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9275
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9285
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.95
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9113
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7742
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9631
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5527
Rat acute toxicity2.7305 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8354
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5378
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.92 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-b8bc13dbb3c507a0f6b6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0190000000-c8603eb138fb8f0e3404
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-3940000000-da1a38da6babdc138c49
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-9700000000-2f9f7ce546a61df93bfa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-6a976c404c7b299bbdd6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9200000000-0eb0ff987d891c85a047
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-59d025c22f64675dc295
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-661bc87f4d92ae6353d7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-1960000000-dafd68e61cc5909f5dec
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-7900000000-48d355c9eef2af0979cc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-659231292b6eba371158
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2900000000-3d5f34ceb343969b3c91
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-0900000000-a216bda74712aba9b341
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-6951100000-dad9042cce0338579e31

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tropane alkaloids. These are organic compounds containing the nitrogenous bicyclic alkaloid parent N-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Alkaloids and derivatives
Class
Tropane alkaloids
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Tropane alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Piperidines / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Trialkylamines / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols
show 4 more
Substituents
Tropane alkaloid / Beta-hydroxy acid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Hydroxy acid / Piperidine / Benzenoid / N-alkylpyrrolidine / Pyrrolidine / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid ester
show 18 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
racemate (CHEBI:16684) / Tropane alkaloids, Alkaloids, Tropan alkaloids (C01479)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Roman S, Badia A, Camps P, Munoz-Torrero D, Clos MV: Nicotinic-receptor potentiator drugs, huprine X and galantamine, increase ACh release by blocking AChE activity but not acting on nicotinic receptors. Brain Res. 2005 Nov 9;1061(2):73-9. Epub 2005 Oct 24. [PubMed:16248990]
  2. Minaba M, Ichiyama S, Kojima K, Ozaki M, Kato Y: Activation of nematode G protein GOA-1 by the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype. Functional coupling of G-protein-coupled receptor and G protein originated from evolutionarily distant animals. FEBS J. 2006 Dec;273(24):5508-16. Epub 2006 Nov 3. [PubMed:17087737]
  3. May LT, Lin Y, Sexton PM, Christopoulos A: Regulation of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression and signaling by prolonged exposure to allosteric modulators. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jan;312(1):382-90. Epub 2004 Aug 27. [PubMed:15333678]
  4. Cembala TM, Forde SC, Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Allosteric interaction of the neuromuscular blockers vecuronium and pancuronium with recombinant human muscarinic M2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 13;569(1-2):37-40. Epub 2007 May 22. [PubMed:17588565]
  5. Nelson CP, Nahorski SR, Challiss RA: Constitutive activity and inverse agonism at the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan;316(1):279-88. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [PubMed:16188951]
  6. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM4
Uniprot ID
P08173
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Molecular Weight
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM5
Uniprot ID
P08912
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
Molecular Weight
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Jensen AA, Kristiansen U: Functional characterisation of the human alpha1 glycine receptor in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 May 1;67(9):1789-99. [PubMed:15081878]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Smulders CJ, Zwart R, Bermudez I, van Kleef RG, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Vijverberg HP: Cholinergic drugs potentiate human nicotinic alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptors by a competitive mechanism. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Feb 21;509(2-3):97-108. [PubMed:15733544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID
P17787
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Smulders CJ, Zwart R, Bermudez I, van Kleef RG, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Vijverberg HP: Cholinergic drugs potentiate human nicotinic alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptors by a competitive mechanism. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Feb 21;509(2-3):97-108. [PubMed:15733544]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2017 17:18