Identification

Name
Atropine
Accession Number
DB00572  (APRD00807, EXPT02427)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly solanaceae. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-Atropine
  • (+-)-Hyoscyamine
  • (+,-)-Tropyl tropate
  • (±)-atropine
  • (±)-hyoscyamine
  • (3-Endo)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
  • [(1S,5R)-8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl] 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
  • 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
  • 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl tropate
  • Atropin
  • Atropina
  • Atropine
  • Atropinum
  • dl-Hyoscyamine
  • dl-tropyltropate
  • Mydriasine
  • Tropine tropate
External IDs
NSC 61810
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Atropine HydrochlorideEUF58V826B33952-38-4OJIPQOWZZMSBGY-RIMUKSHESA-N
Atropine SulfateKAE4PSB0Z355-48-1HOBWAPHTEJGALG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection1 mg/.7mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2003-06-19Not applicableUs
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection.5 mg/.7mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2003-06-19Not applicableUs
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection2 mg/.7mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2003-06-19Not applicableUs
AtroPen Auto-InjectorInjection.25 mg/.3mLIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2004-09-17Not applicableUs
AtropineSolution1 %OphthalmicEberth Pharmaceuticals Inc1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
AtropineSolution / drops10 mg/mLOphthalmicAkorn2014-07-18Not applicableUs
AtropineSolution / drops10 mg/mLOphthalmicA S Medication Solutions2014-07-18Not applicableUs
AtropineSolution / drops10 mg/mLOphthalmicMwi2015-03-23Not applicableUs
Atropine 1%Solution / drops1 %OphthalmicNovartis Ophthalmics Novartis Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Inc1987-12-312003-12-10Canada
Atropine Injection BPSolution0.6 mgIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousTeligent Ou2016-01-28Not applicableCanada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ATNAA atropine and pralidoxime chloride Auto-InjectorAtropine + PralidoximeKitIntramuscularMeridian Medical Technologies , Inc.2002-01-17Not applicableUs
Diban CapAtropine Sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1998-02-182001-01-30Canada
Diban CapAtropine Sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Opium (12 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralAyerst Laboratories1992-12-311999-04-12Canada
Diphenoxylate Hcl and Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.025 mg/1) + Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1)TabletOralStat Rx USA1979-10-292018-02-08Us
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride and Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.025 mg/5mL) + Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (2.5 mg/5mL)SolutionOralWest Ward Pharmaceutical1982-05-03Not applicableUs
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride and Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.025 mg/1) + Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1)TabletOralA S Medication Solutions1977-11-17Not applicableUs
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride and Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.025 mg/1) + Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1)TabletOralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2010-11-30Not applicableUs
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride and Atropine SulfateAtropine (.025 mg/1) + Diphenoxylate (2.5 mg/1)TabletOralLannett Company, Inc.1978-02-21Not applicableUs
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride and Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.025 mg/1) + Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1)TabletOralPar Pharmaceutical2000-05-26Not applicableUs
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride and Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.025 mg/1) + Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (2.5 mg/1)TabletOralCardinal Health2010-11-302017-04-14Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.1 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.4 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines2010-04-012017-02-08Us
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (1 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousAmerican Regent1992-11-012017-07-20Us
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.4 mg/mL)InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousMedical Purchasing Solutions, Llc1971-01-01Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (10 mg/mL)SolutionOphthalmicBauch & Lomb Incorporated1990-09-302016-09-30Us
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.1 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousRemedy Repack2018-05-30Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.1 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; SubcutaneousCardinal Health2005-10-25Not applicableUs
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (1 mg/mL)SolutionOphthalmicFalcon Laboratory Ltd2000-06-302016-03-11Us
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.1 mg/mL)InjectionParenteralAmphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1990-01-022016-12-03Us
Atropine SulfateAtropine Sulfate (.1 mg/mL)InjectionParenteralA S Medication Solutions2000-06-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Anespin (Oriental Chemical Works) / Antol (Ying Yuan) / AtroPen (Meridian) / Atropt (Sigma) / Atrospan (Fischer) / Bellapan (Farmapol) / Dysurgal (MaxMedic) / Kintropine (Synpac-Kingdom) / Tromine (The Central)
Categories
UNII
7C0697DR9I
CAS number
51-55-8
Weight
Average: 289.3694
Monoisotopic: 289.167793607
Chemical Formula
C17H23NO3
InChI Key
RKUNBYITZUJHSG-SPUOUPEWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H23NO3/c1-18-13-7-8-14(18)10-15(9-13)21-17(20)16(11-19)12-5-3-2-4-6-12/h2-6,13-16,19H,7-11H2,1H3/t13-,14+,15+,16?
IUPAC Name
(1R,3R,5S)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
SMILES
CN1[C@H]2CC[C@@H]1C[C@@H](C2)OC(=O)C(CO)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of poisoning by susceptible organophosphorous nerve agents having anti-cholinesterase activity (cholinesterase inhibitors) as well as organophosphorous or carbamate insecticides.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Atropine, a naturally occurring belladonna alkaloid, is a racemic mixture of equal parts of d- and l-hyoscyamine, whose activity is due almost entirely to the levo isomer of the drug. Atropine is commonly classified as an anticholinergic or antiparasympathetic (parasympatholytic) drug. More precisely, however, it is termed an antimuscarinic agent since it antagonizes the muscarine-like actions of acetylcholine and other choline esters. Adequate doses of atropine abolish various types of reflex vagal cardiac slowing or asystole. The drug also prevents or abolishes bradycardia or asystole produced by injection of choline esters, anticholinesterase agents or other parasympathomimetic drugs, and cardiac arrest produced by stimulation of the vagus. Atropine may also lessen the degree of partial heart block when vagal activity is an etiologic factor. Atropine in clinical doses counteracts the peripheral dilatation and abrupt decrease in blood pressure produced by choline esters. However, when given by itself, atropine does not exert a striking or uniform effect on blood vessels or blood pressure.

Mechanism of action

Atropine binds to and inhibit muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, producing a wide range of anticholinergic effects.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
antagonist
Human
AMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
antagonist
Human
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1
antagonist
Human
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4Not AvailableHuman
UNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Atropine is rapidly and well absorbed after intramuscular administration. Atropine disappears rapidly from the blood and is distributed throughout the various body tissues and fluids.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

The protein binding of atropine is 14 to 22% in plasma.

Metabolism

Much of the drug is destroyed by enzymatic hydrolysis, particularly in the liver. From 13 to 50% is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Route of elimination

Much of the drug is destroyed by enzymatic hydrolysis, particularly in the liver; from 13 to 50% is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Half life

3.0 ± 0.9 hours in adults. The half-life of atropine is slightly shorter (approximately 20 minutes) in females than males.

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 75 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose includes widespread paralysis of parasympathetically innervated organs. Dry mucous membranes, widely dilated and nonresponsive pupils, tachycardia, fever and cutaneous flush are especially prominent, as are mental and neurological symptoms. In instances of severe intoxication, respiratory depression, coma, circulatory collapse and death may occur.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
(2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with (2-benzhydryloxyethyl)diethyl-methylammonium iodide.Experimental
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Aclidinium.Approved
AgmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Agmatine.Experimental, Investigational
Ajulemic acidThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ajulemic acid.Investigational
AlcuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alcuronium.Experimental
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alfentanil.Approved, Illicit
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AmantadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Amantadine.Approved
AmbenoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ambenonium.Approved
AmikacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Amikacin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Amitriptyline.Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Amobarbital.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Amoxapine.Approved
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Anisotropine Methylbromide.Approved
ApramycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Apramycin.Experimental, Vet Approved
AprobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Aprobarbital.Approved, Illicit
ArbekacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Arbekacin.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
AtracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Atracurium.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Atracurium besylate.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Barbital.Illicit
Barbituric acid derivativeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Barbituric acid derivative.Experimental, Illicit
BekanamycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Bekanamycin.Experimental
BenactyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Benactyzine.Withdrawn
BendroflumethiazideThe serum concentration of Bendroflumethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Benmoxin is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
BenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Atropine.Approved
BenziloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Benzilone.Experimental
BenzquinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Benzquinamide.Withdrawn
BenzthiazideThe serum concentration of Benzthiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
BevoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Bevonium.Experimental
BezitramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Bezitramide.Experimental, Illicit, Withdrawn
BiperidenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Biperiden.Approved, Investigational
BisacodylThe therapeutic efficacy of Bisacodyl can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
BisoxatinThe therapeutic efficacy of Bisoxatin can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
BornaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Bornaprine.Experimental
Botulinum Toxin Type AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Botulinum Toxin Type A.Approved, Investigational
Botulinum Toxin Type BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Botulinum Toxin Type B.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Brompheniramine.Approved
BuclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Buclizine.Approved
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Bupropion.Approved
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Butabarbital.Approved, Illicit
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Butalbital.Approved, Illicit
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Butethal.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Butorphanol.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ButylscopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Butylscopolamine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CamylofinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Camylofin.Experimental
CannabidiolThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cannabidiol.Approved, Investigational
CapreomycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Capreomycin.Approved
CarboxymethylcelluloseThe therapeutic efficacy of Carboxymethylcellulose can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Carfentanil.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Caroxazone is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
Castor oilThe therapeutic efficacy of Castor oil can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Chloroprocaine.Approved
ChlorothiazideThe serum concentration of Chlorothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Chlorphenoxamine.Withdrawn
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Chlorprothixene.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe serum concentration of Chlorthalidone can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
CimetropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cimetropium.Experimental, Investigational
CisatracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cisatracurium.Approved
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Clidinium.Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Clozapine.Approved
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Codeine.Approved, Illicit
CoumaphosThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Coumaphos.Vet Approved
CP-945598The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with CP-945598.Investigational
CyclopenthiazideThe serum concentration of Cyclopenthiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Experimental
CyclopentolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cyclopentolate.Approved
CycrimineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cycrimine.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Cyproheptadine.Approved
DanthronThe therapeutic efficacy of Danthron can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DarifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DecamethoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Decamethonium.Approved
DemecariumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Demecarium.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Desipramine.Approved, Investigational
DexetimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dexetimide.Withdrawn
DextromethorphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dextromethorphan.Approved
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dextromoramide.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dezocine.Approved, Investigational
DibekacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dibekacin.Experimental
DichlorvosThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dichlorvos.Vet Approved
DicyclomineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dicyclomine.Approved
DifemerineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Difemerine.Experimental
DihexyverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dihexyverine.Experimental
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dihydrocodeine.Approved, Illicit
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dihydroetorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dihydromorphine.Experimental, Illicit
DihydrostreptomycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Dihydrostreptomycin.Investigational, Vet Approved
DimetindeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dimetindene.Approved, Investigational
DiphemanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Diphemanil.Experimental
Diphemanil MethylsulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Diphemanil Methylsulfate.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved, Investigational
DiphenidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Diphenidol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Diphenoxylate.Approved, Illicit
DisopyramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Disopyramide.Approved
DistigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Distigmine.Experimental
DocusateThe therapeutic efficacy of Docusate can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
DonepezilThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Donepezil.Approved
DosulepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxacuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Doxacurium.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Doxepin.Approved, Investigational
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Doxylamine.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with DPDPE.Experimental
DronabinolThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Dronabinol.Approved, Illicit
EchothiophateThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Echothiophate.Approved
EdrophoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Edrophonium.Approved
EluxadolineThe risk or severity of constipation can be increased when Atropine is combined with Eluxadoline.Approved, Investigational
EmeproniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Emepronium.Experimental
EpitizideThe serum concentration of Epitizide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Experimental
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EtanautineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Etanautine.Experimental
EthopropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethopropazine is combined with Atropine.Approved
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ethylmorphine.Approved, Illicit
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Etorphine.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtybenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Etybenzatropine.Experimental
FenpiveriniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Fenpiverinium.Experimental
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Fentanyl.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FenthionThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Fenthion.Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Fesoterodine.Approved
FlavoxateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Flavoxate.Approved
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Flupentixol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FramycetinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Framycetin.Approved
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Furazolidone is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GalantamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Galantamine.Approved
GallamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Gallamine.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
Gantacurium ChlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Gantacurium Chloride.Investigational
GeneticinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Geneticin.Experimental
GentamicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Gentamicin.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with GENTAMICIN C1A.Experimental
Ginkgo bilobaThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Glucagon recombinantAtropine may increase the gastrointestinal motility reducing activities of Glucagon recombinant.Approved
GlycerinThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerin can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
GlycopyrroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Glycopyrronium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GW842166The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with GW842166.Investigational
HarmalineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Harmaline is combined with Atropine.Experimental
HeptabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Heptabarbital.Approved
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Heroin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hexamethonium.Experimental
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hexobarbital.Approved
HexocycliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hexocyclium.Approved
HomatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Homatropine.Approved
Homatropine MethylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Homatropine Methylbromide.Approved
Huperzine AThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Huperzine A.Approved, Investigational
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Hydracarbazine is combined with Atropine.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideThe serum concentration of Hydrochlorothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideThe serum concentration of Hydroflumethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hydromorphone.Approved, Illicit
Hygromycin BThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Hygromycin B.Vet Approved
HyoscyamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Hyoscyamine.Approved
IbipinabantThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ibipinabant.Investigational
ImidafenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Imidafenacin.Approved, Investigational
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndapamideThe serum concentration of Indapamide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
IpidacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ipidacrine.Experimental
IpratropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ipratropium.Approved
IproniazidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
IsepamicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Isepamicin.Experimental
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Atropine.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Isoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoflurophateThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Isoflurophate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
IsopropamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Isopropamide.Approved, Vet Approved
ItoprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Itopride.Investigational
KanamycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Kanamycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ketobemidone.Approved, Investigational
LactitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactitol can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Investigational
LactuloseThe therapeutic efficacy of Lactulose can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Levorphanol.Approved
LinaclotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Linaclotide can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
LinezolidThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Linezolid is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Lofentanil.Illicit
LubiprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Lubiprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium carbonateThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium carbonate can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium citrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
Magnesium hydroxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium hydroxide can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium oxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium oxide can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
Magnesium peroxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium peroxide can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Experimental
Magnesium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium sulfate can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MalathionThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Malathion.Approved, Investigational
MannitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Mannitol can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Maprotiline.Approved, Investigational
MazaticolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mazaticol.Experimental
MebanazineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Mebanazine is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
MebeverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mebeverine.Approved, Investigational
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mecamylamine.Approved, Investigational
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.Approved, Investigational
MepenzolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mepenzolate.Approved
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methadone.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methadyl Acetate.Approved, Illicit
Methanesulfonyl FluorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Methanesulfonyl Fluoride.Investigational
MethanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methantheline.Approved, Investigational
MetharbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Metharbital.Withdrawn
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methotrimeprazine.Approved, Investigational
MethscopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methscopolamine.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe serum concentration of Methyclothiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
Methyl celluloseThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyl cellulose can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Methylene blue is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methylphenobarbital.Approved
Methylscopolamine bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Methylscopolamine bromide.Approved
MetixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Metixene.Approved
MetoclopramideThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Metoclopramide.Approved, Investigational
MetocurineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Metocurine.Approved
Metocurine IodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Metocurine Iodide.Approved, Withdrawn
MetolazoneThe serum concentration of Metolazone can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
MianserinMianserin may increase the anticholinergic activities of Atropine.Approved, Investigational
MicronomicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Micronomicin.Experimental
MinaprineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Atropine.Approved
Mineral oilThe therapeutic efficacy of Mineral oil can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
MirabegronThe risk or severity of urinary retention can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MivacuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Mivacurium.Approved
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Moclobemide is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Morphine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nabilone.Approved, Investigational
NabiximolsThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nabiximols.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nalbuphine.Approved
NaltrexoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NeamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Neamine.Experimental
NeomycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Neomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
NeostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NetilmicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Netilmicin.Approved, Investigational
NialamideThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nicardipine.Approved, Investigational
NicomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nicomorphine.Experimental
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Nortriptyline.Approved
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Octamoxin is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Orphenadrine.Approved
OtiloniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Otilonium.Experimental, Investigational
OxitropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxitropium.Investigational
OxybutyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxybutynin.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxycodone.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxymorphone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OxyphencyclimineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxyphencyclimine.Approved
OxyphenisatinThe therapeutic efficacy of Oxyphenisatin can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Investigational, Withdrawn
OxyphenoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Oxyphenonium.Approved
PalmidrolThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Palmidrol.Experimental, Nutraceutical
PancuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pancuronium.Approved
ParaoxonThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Paraoxon.Experimental
PargylineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Pargyline is combined with Atropine.Approved
ParomomycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Paromomycin.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PentaerithritylThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentaerithrityl can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Experimental
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pentazocine.Approved, Vet Approved
PenthienateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Penthienate.Experimental
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PentoliniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pentolinium.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pethidine.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Atropine.Approved
PhenglutarimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Phenglutarimide.Experimental
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Pheniprazine is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenolphthaleinThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenolphthalein can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Withdrawn
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Phenoxypropazine is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
PhysostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Physostigmine.Approved, Investigational
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
PipecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pipecuronium.Approved
PipenzolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pipenzolate.Experimental
PiperidolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Piperidolate.Experimental
PirenzepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pirenzepine.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Piritramide.Approved, Investigational
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Pirlindole is combined with Atropine.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Pivhydrazine is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Pizotifen.Approved
Plantago seedThe therapeutic efficacy of Plantago seed can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
PlazomicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Plazomicin.Approved, Investigational
PlecanatideThe therapeutic efficacy of Plecanatide can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
PoldineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Poldine.Experimental
PolycarbophilThe therapeutic efficacy of Polycarbophil can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
Polyethylene glycolThe therapeutic efficacy of Polyethylene glycol can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
PolythiazideThe serum concentration of Polythiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
Potassium acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Potassium acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
Potassium ChlorideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal ulceration can be increased when Atropine is combined with Potassium Chloride.Approved, Withdrawn
PramlintideThe risk or severity of reduced gastrointestinal motility can be increased when Pramlintide is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
PrifiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Prifinium.Experimental
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Procaine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Atropine.Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Promethazine.Approved, Investigational
PropanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Propantheline.Approved
PropiomazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Propiomazine.Approved
PropiverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Propiverine.Approved, Investigational
PrucaloprideThe therapeutic efficacy of Prucalopride can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
PuromycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Puromycin.Experimental
PyridostigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Pyridostigmine.Approved, Investigational
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinethazoneThe serum concentration of Quinethazone can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved
QuinidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Quinidine.Approved, Investigational
RamosetronThe risk or severity of constipation can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ramosetron.Approved, Investigational
RapacuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RasagilineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Atropine.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Remifentanil.Approved
RevefenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Revefenacin.Investigational
RibostamycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Ribostamycin.Approved, Investigational
RimonabantThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Rimonabant.Approved, Investigational
RivastigmineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Rivastigmine.Approved, Investigational
RociverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Rociverine.Experimental
RocuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Rocuronium.Approved
SafinamideThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Safinamide is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
SafrazineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Atropine.Withdrawn
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Scopolamine.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
Secretin humanThe therapeutic efficacy of Secretin human can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
Secretin porcineThe therapeutic efficacy of Secretin porcine can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SennosidesThe therapeutic efficacy of Sennosides can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
SisomicinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Sisomicin.Investigational
SLV319The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with SLV319.Investigational
Sodium phosphate, monobasicThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phosphate, monobasic can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
Sodium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium sulfate can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
Sodium tartrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium tartrate can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
SolifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Solifenacin.Approved
SorbitolThe therapeutic efficacy of Sorbitol can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved
StreptomycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Streptomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Sufentanil.Approved, Investigational
SulpirideAtropine may increase the anticholinergic activities of Sulpiride.Approved, Investigational
SurinabantThe risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with Surinabant.Investigational
TacrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrine.Investigational, Withdrawn
TalbutalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Talbutal.Approved, Illicit
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tapentadol.Approved
TegaserodThe therapeutic efficacy of Tegaserod can be decreased when used in combination with Atropine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TerfenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Terfenadine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Thiopental.Approved, Vet Approved
ThonzylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Thonzylamine.Approved
Tiemonium iodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tiemonium iodide.Experimental
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TimepidiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Timepidium.Experimental
TiotropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tiotropium.Approved
TobramycinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tobramycin.Approved, Investigational
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Toloxatone is combined with Atropine.Approved
TolterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tolterodine.Approved, Investigational
TopiramateThe risk or severity of hyperthermia and oligohydrosis can be increased when Atropine is combined with Topiramate.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tramadol.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Atropine.Approved, Investigational
TrichlorfonThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlorfon.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe serum concentration of Trichlormethiazide can be increased when it is combined with Atropine.Approved, Vet Approved
TridihexethylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tridihexethyl.Withdrawn
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Triflupromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
TrihexyphenidylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trihexyphenidyl is combined with Atropine.Approved
TrimebutineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Trimebutine.Approved
TrimethaphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Trimethaphan.Approved, Investigational
TropatepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tropatepine.Experimental
TropicamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Tropicamide.Approved, Investigational
TrospiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Trospium.Approved
TubocurarineThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tubocurarine.Approved
TyrothricinThe therapeutic efficacy of Atropine can be decreased when used in combination with Tyrothricin.Approved
UmeclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Umeclidinium.Approved
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Vecuronium.Approved
VemurafenibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Vemurafenib is combined with Atropine.Approved
WIN 55212-2The risk or severity of Tachycardia and drowsiness can be increased when Atropine is combined with WIN 55212-2.Experimental
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food.

References

Synthesis Reference

Pei-Chang Wu, Hsi-Kung Kuo, Po-Chiung Fang, Jong-Jer Lee, Chih-Hsin Chen, "Low-concentration atropine solution for preventing myopia progression and preparing method thereof." U.S. Patent US20070254914, issued November 01, 2007.

US20070254914
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014712
KEGG Drug
D00113
KEGG Compound
C01479
PubChem Compound
174174
PubChem Substance
46507540
ChemSpider
10194105
BindingDB
50403547
ChEBI
78734
ChEMBL
CHEMBL517712
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000377
PharmGKB
PA448505
IUPHAR
320
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
OIN
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Atropine
ATC Codes
S01FA01 — AtropineA03BA01 — AtropineA03CB03 — Atropine and psycholeptics
AHFS Codes
  • 12:08.08 — Antimuscarinics Antispasmodics
  • 52:24.00 — Mydriatics
FDA label
Download (164 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.5 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionIncidence of Postoperative Residual Curarization1
0RecruitingOtherBypass, Gastric / Hypoglycemia After Gastric Bypass / Post Bariatric Surgery / Sleeve Gastrectomy1
0RecruitingOtherHypoglycemia / Post Bariatricsurgery1
0RecruitingPreventionMyopia, Progressive1
1CompletedBasic SciencePre-Diabetic1
1CompletedDiagnosticDigestive Physiology / Exendin (9-39) / Gastrointestinal Hormones / Gastrointestinal Motility / Glucagon-Like Peptide 11
1CompletedDiagnosticHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentMyopia1
1CompletedTreatmentOrganophosphorus Poisoning1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMyopia1
2CompletedPreventionBradycardia1
2CompletedPreventionCoagulation Defect; Bleeding1
2CompletedPreventionVentilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiac Arrest1
2CompletedTreatmentPhysiology, Ocular / Regional Blood Flow1
2RecruitingSupportive CareCancer, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentRhinitis, Seasonal, Allergic1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Hypoperfusion / Intubation, Endotracheal / Premedication1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIntubation, Endotracheal / Premedication1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHypospadias1
3CompletedDiagnosticMalignant Lymphomas1
3CompletedDiagnosticThoracic Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia5
3CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia / Anisometropia / Strabismus1
3CompletedTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
3CompletedTreatmentElective Caesarean Section Surgeries1
3CompletedTreatmentOrganophosphate Poisoning1
3CompletedTreatmentPain1
3CompletedTreatmentAdjunct to general anesthesia therapy1
3Enrolling by InvitationOtherMyopia1
3RecruitingTreatmentMyopia2
3TerminatedTreatmentAmblyopia1
4CompletedDiagnosticIntraocular Pressure Changes During Tracheal Extubation1
4CompletedPreventionArrythmias / Respiratory Arrest1
4CompletedPreventionBradycardia1
4CompletedPreventionIntubation, Endotracheal1
4CompletedTreatmentAdverse Reaction to Belladonna or Atropine / Bradycardia / Neostigmine Adverse Reaction1
4CompletedTreatmentAmblyopia1
4CompletedTreatmentArterial Hypotension / Cesarean Section / Pregnancy / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentCesarean Section / Prophylaxis against postoperative nausea and vomiting / Spinal Anaesthesia1
4CompletedTreatmentComplication of Ventilation Therapy / Observation of Neuromuscular Block / Postoperative Recovery1
4CompletedTreatmentConscious Sedation Failure During Procedure1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentInadequate or Impaired Respiratory Function / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentIntubations / Newborns / Preterms1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Abdominal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4CompletedTreatmentReversal of Skeletal Muscle Relaxant / Underdosing of Skeletal Muscle Relaxants for Laparotomy1
4CompletedTreatmentSedation, Conscious1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGynecology / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Block1
4RecruitingPreventionLower Extremity Fractures1
4RecruitingPreventionMyopia1
4RecruitingTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
4RecruitingTreatmentPost-operative Residual Curarization1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBradycardia / Hypoxemia1
4Unknown StatusPreventionMyopia1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentNeuromuscular Blockade1
4WithdrawnNot AvailableNeuromuscular Blockade1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableArrythmias / Bradycardia1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDeath, Sudden,Cardiac / Heart Arrest1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableIntubation; Difficult1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDiastolic Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningPost Operative Cognitive Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareSialorrhea1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnesthesia-induced Negative Hemodynamic Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyopia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyopia Progression1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationOtherCatecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingDiagnosticBlood Coagulation Tests ( INR, APTT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionArterial Hypotension1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMyopia1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionSpinal Anaesthesia1
Not AvailableSuspendedTreatmentPaediatric Flexible Bronchoscopy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceThe Focus of This Study is to Evaluete the Significances of the Vagal Cholinerg Nervuos System for the Effect of GLP-1 by Using Atropin Administration1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionAnaesthesia therapy / Catheter Site Discomfort / Complications / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Meridian medical technologies inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • United states army office surgeon general
  • Hospira inc
  • Mission pharmacal co
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Alcon Laboratories
  • American Regent
  • Amphastar Pharmaceuticals
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Baroli
  • Bausch & Lomb Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bioniche Pharma
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Clipper Distributing Co. LLC
  • Contract Pharm
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Hope Pharmaceuticals
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Meridian Medical Technologies Inc.
  • MWI Veterinary Supply Co.
  • Nycomed Inc.
  • Ocumed Inc.
  • OMJ Pharmaceuticals
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmedium
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prometic Pharma Inc.
  • Rx Veterinary Products
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Vedco Inc.
  • Wa Butler Co.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionIntramuscular.25 mg/.3mL
InjectionIntramuscular.5 mg/.7mL
InjectionIntramuscular1 mg/.7mL
InjectionIntramuscular2 mg/.7mL
SolutionOphthalmic1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 %
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.4 mg
OintmentOphthalmic1 %
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.4 mg/mL
InjectionParenteral.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionEndotracheal; Intramedullary; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.4 mg/mL
Injection, solutionEndotracheal; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.05 mg/mL
Injection, solutionEndotracheal; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.05 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.4 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.4 mg/.5mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous.1 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous1 mg/mL
OintmentOphthalmic10 mg/g
SolutionOphthalmic1 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic10 mg/mL
LiquidIntravenous.1 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.3 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.8 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.6 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous1 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous0.5 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous3 mg
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous.6 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic10 mg
CapsuleOral
SolutionOral
TabletOral
LiquidOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral
KitIntramuscular
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
LiquidOphthalmic1 %
ElixirOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Atropine Sulfate 1% Solution 15ml Bottle101.27USD bottle
Isopto Atropine 1% Solution 15ml Bottle34.65USD bottle
Atropine powder34.48USD g
Isopto Atropine 1% Solution 5ml Bottle26.59USD bottle
Atropine Sulfate 1% Solution 5ml Bottle16.82USD bottle
Atropine Sulfate 1% Ointment 3.5 gm Tube15.92USD tube
Atropine-Care 1% Solution 2ml Bottle7.99USD bottle
Isopto atropine 1% eye drops5.06USD ml
Atropine-ns 1 mg/2.5 ml syr4.8USD ml
Atropine-ns 0.8 mg/2 ml syr3.9USD ml
Atropine 1% eye drops2.88USD ml
Atropine sulfate powder2.06USD g
Atropine care 1% eye drops2.03USD ml
Atropine-ns 2 mg/5 ml syringe1.92USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg/ml1.6USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.6 mg/ml1.6USD ml
Atropine 1 mg/ml vial1.44USD ml
Atropine Sulfate 0.4 mg/ml Solution1.22USD ml
Atropine 0.4 mg/0.5 ml ampul1.2USD ampul
Atropine 1 mg/ml ampul1.2USD ml
Atropine 0.4 mg/ml vial0.96USD ml
Isopto Atropine 1 % Solution0.68USD ml
Sal-tropine 0.4 mg tablet0.36USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)118.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility2200 mg/L (at 25 °C)DEHN,WM (1917)
logP1.83HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.12ADME Research, USCD
pKa9.43SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.52 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.19ALOGPS
logP1.57ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.77 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity80.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.28 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9286
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9569
Caco-2 permeable+0.8866
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6542
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8595
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7956
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7041
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6838
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5496
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9275
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9285
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.95
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9113
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7742
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9631
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5527
Rat acute toxicity2.7305 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8354
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5378
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (7.92 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-b8bc13dbb3c507a0f6b6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0190000000-c8603eb138fb8f0e3404
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-3940000000-da1a38da6babdc138c49
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-9700000000-2f9f7ce546a61df93bfa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-6a976c404c7b299bbdd6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9200000000-0eb0ff987d891c85a047
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-59d025c22f64675dc295
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-0090000000-661bc87f4d92ae6353d7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-1960000000-dafd68e61cc5909f5dec
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-7900000000-48d355c9eef2af0979cc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-659231292b6eba371158
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-2900000000-3d5f34ceb343969b3c91
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00fr-0900000000-a216bda74712aba9b341
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006x-6951100000-dad9042cce0338579e31

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tropane alkaloids. These are organic compounds containing the nitrogenous bicyclic alkaloid parent N-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Alkaloids and derivatives
Class
Tropane alkaloids
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Tropane alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives / Piperidines / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Benzene and substituted derivatives / Trialkylamines / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Azacyclic compounds / Primary alcohols
show 4 more
Substituents
Tropane alkaloid / Beta-hydroxy acid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Hydroxy acid / Piperidine / Benzenoid / N-alkylpyrrolidine / Pyrrolidine / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid ester
show 18 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
racemate (CHEBI:16684) / Tropane alkaloids, Alkaloids, Tropan alkaloids (C01479)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM1
Uniprot ID
P11229
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1
Molecular Weight
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM2
Uniprot ID
P08172
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2
Molecular Weight
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Roman S, Badia A, Camps P, Munoz-Torrero D, Clos MV: Nicotinic-receptor potentiator drugs, huprine X and galantamine, increase ACh release by blocking AChE activity but not acting on nicotinic receptors. Brain Res. 2005 Nov 9;1061(2):73-9. Epub 2005 Oct 24. [PubMed:16248990]
  2. Minaba M, Ichiyama S, Kojima K, Ozaki M, Kato Y: Activation of nematode G protein GOA-1 by the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype. Functional coupling of G-protein-coupled receptor and G protein originated from evolutionarily distant animals. FEBS J. 2006 Dec;273(24):5508-16. Epub 2006 Nov 3. [PubMed:17087737]
  3. May LT, Lin Y, Sexton PM, Christopoulos A: Regulation of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression and signaling by prolonged exposure to allosteric modulators. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jan;312(1):382-90. Epub 2004 Aug 27. [PubMed:15333678]
  4. Cembala TM, Forde SC, Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Allosteric interaction of the neuromuscular blockers vecuronium and pancuronium with recombinant human muscarinic M2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 13;569(1-2):37-40. Epub 2007 May 22. [PubMed:17588565]
  5. Nelson CP, Nahorski SR, Challiss RA: Constitutive activity and inverse agonism at the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Jan;316(1):279-88. Epub 2005 Sep 27. [PubMed:16188951]
  6. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM3
Uniprot ID
P20309
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3
Molecular Weight
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM4
Uniprot ID
P08173
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4
Molecular Weight
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the...
Gene Name
CHRM5
Uniprot ID
P08912
Uniprot Name
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5
Molecular Weight
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Cusack B, Nelson A, Richelson E: Binding of antidepressants to human brain receptors: focus on newer generation compounds. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 May;114(4):559-65. [PubMed:7855217]
  2. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Antagonist
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Jensen AA, Kristiansen U: Functional characterisation of the human alpha1 glycine receptor in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 May 1;67(9):1789-99. [PubMed:15081878]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID
P43681
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4
Molecular Weight
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Smulders CJ, Zwart R, Bermudez I, van Kleef RG, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Vijverberg HP: Cholinergic drugs potentiate human nicotinic alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptors by a competitive mechanism. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Feb 21;509(2-3):97-108. [PubMed:15733544]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeabl...
Gene Name
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID
P17787
Uniprot Name
Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2
Molecular Weight
57018.575 Da
References
  1. Smulders CJ, Zwart R, Bermudez I, van Kleef RG, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Vijverberg HP: Cholinergic drugs potentiate human nicotinic alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptors by a competitive mechanism. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Feb 21;509(2-3):97-108. [PubMed:15733544]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name
ABCB11
Uniprot ID
O95342
Uniprot Name
Bile salt export pump
Molecular Weight
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Pedersen JM, Matsson P, Bergstrom CA, Hoogstraate J, Noren A, LeCluyse EL, Artursson P: Early identification of clinically relevant drug interactions with the human bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11). Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec;136(2):328-43. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft197. Epub 2013 Sep 6. [PubMed:24014644]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 15, 2018 09:41