Identification

Name
Opium
Accession Number
DB11130
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Illicit
Description

Opium is the first substance of the diverse group of the opiates. It has been known for a long time, and the first evidence of a poppy culture dates from 5 thousand years by the Sumerians. During the years, opium was used as a sedative and hypnotic, but it was determined to be addictive.[1]

Opium is extracted from Papaver somniferum, which is more known as poppies. This plant is an integrant of the Papaveraceae family, and it is characterized by solitary leaves and capsulated fruits. Therefore, opium is a sticky brown resin obtained by collecting and drying the latex that exudes from the poppy pods.[13]

Once extracted, opium contains two main groups of alkaloids; the psychoactive constituents which are in the category of phenanthrenes and alkaloids that have no central nervous system effect in the category of isoquinolines. Morphine is the most prevalent and principal alkaloid in opium, and it is responsible for most of the harmful effects of opium.[14]

Opium has gradually been superseded by a variety of synthetic opioids and general anesthetics. Some of the isolated derivatives of opium are morphine, noscapine, strychnine, veratrine, colchicine, codeine, and quinine.[2] Opium is a prohibited drug of abuse in most countries, but the illegal production of this drug and its derivatives keeps being registered. There is some legal production of opium in different countries for the obtention of alkaloids by extraction.[15]

Synonyms
  • Papaver somniferum exudate
  • Papaver somniferum resin
External IDs
IDS-NO-001
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Opium TeintureTincture200 gOralLaboratoire Atlas Inc1951-12-311996-09-09Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Camphorated Opium TinctureOpium (5 ml) + Benzoic Acid (500 mg) + Camphor (300 mg)TinctureOralD.C. Labs Limited1951-12-312003-07-11Canada
Diban CapOpium (12 mg) + Atropine Sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1998-02-182001-01-30Canada
Diban CapOpium (12 mg) + Atropine Sulfate (9.7 mcg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Hyoscyamine sulfate (0.0519 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg) + Scopolamine (3.3 mcg)CapsuleOralAyerst Laboratories1992-12-311999-04-12Canada
Donnagel-PG CapOpium (12 mg) + Attapulgite (300 mg) + Pectin (71.4 mg)CapsuleOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-312002-03-20Canada
Donnagel-PG LiqOpium (24 mg) + Kaolin (6 g) + Pectin (142.8 mg)LiquidOralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-312001-04-23Canada
Opium and Belladonna SupOpium (65 mg) + Belladonna (15 mg)SuppositoryRectalSmithkline Beecham Pharma Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc1993-12-311998-07-28Canada
Opium Camphre Tanin TabOpium (15 mg) + Camphor (60 mg) + Tannic acid (120 mg)TabletOralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc1951-12-311999-09-27Canada
ParegoriqueOpium (50 ml) + Camphor (3 g)TinctureOralLaboratoire Atlas Inc1951-12-312006-06-14Canada
PMS-opium and Belladona SupOpium (65 mg) + Belladonna (15 mg)SuppositoryRectalPharmascience Inc1991-12-312016-10-28Canada
Sandoz Opium & BelladonnaOpium (65 mg) + Belladonna (15 mg)SuppositoryRectalSandoz Canada Incorporated1991-12-31Not applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Belladonna and OpiumOpium (60 mg/1) + Belladonna (16.2 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalPaddock Laboratories, Inc.1997-04-22Not applicableUs
Belladonna and OpiumOpium (30 mg/1) + Belladonna (16.2 mg/1)SuppositoryRectalPaddock Laboratories, Inc.1994-05-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
37M3MZ001L
CAS number
8008-60-4
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Opium and its derivatives are the most commonly used medications for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Opium and its alkaloid-derivatives can also be used as tranquilizers, antitussives and in the treatment of diarrhea.[11] The direct use of opium is not common nowadays but the use of some of its derivatives such as morphine and codeine, as well as the use of a tincture of opium for severe diarrhea can be seen in medical practice.[12]

Illegal use of opium has been registered to be for both recreational and medicinal purposes.[3]

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Opioids can reduce the intensity and unpleasant feeling of pain. The unspecific effect of opium to the different opioid receptors produce the generation of various effects such as sedation, euphoria, dysphoria, respiratory depression, constipation, pruritus, nausea, and vomiting. It is reported that the secondary effects tend to be diminished as long-term use tolerance is developed. Some reports have also shown an opioid-driven impairment of the hypothalamic function that can result in a loss of libido, impotence, and infertility. Patients have reported a sensation of stress relief even in presence of pain as well as the presence of sedation, hypoventilation, cough inhibition, prolonged apnea, myosis and respiratory obstruction.[9]

In the cardiovascular system, there are reports of peripheral vasodilatation, including cutaneous causing flushing of the face, neck, and thorax, impaired sympathetic reflexes and postural hypotension. In the gastrointestinal and urogenital system, the increase in smooth muscle tone has been shown to produce reduced peristalsis, delayed gastric emptying and urinary retention.[9]

Mechanism of action

Opium produces its effects by activating specific G protein-coupled receptors in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. There are three major classes of opioid receptors being δ-opioid, κ-opioid and μ-opioid. Opium will generate an agonist activity which will later open the potassium channels and prevent the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels. This activity causes a reduction in neuronal excitability and inhibits the release of pain neurotransmitters.[9]

The addictive character of opium is related to the binding to the μ-opioid receptors, which will activate dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and thus, enhance the dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. This mechanism involves the reward activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway.[10]

TargetActionsOrganism
ADelta-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
AKappa-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
AMu-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

After oral administration, opium bioavailability is poor.[9] In the form of opioid tincture, the Cmax and AUC of opium are between 16-24 mg/ml and 3237-6727 ng/ml.h, respectively.[4]

Volume of distribution

Opium presents a large volume of distribution that exceeds the total body water.[9]

Protein binding

The protein binding of the alkaloids that form opium, such as morphine and codeine, can range from 20-60% depending on the specific alkaloid. The highest binding proteins for opium alkaloids are albumin and beta-globulin II.[5]

Metabolism

Opium contains 50 different alkaloid opiates. The most common metabolism of opiates is to be ultimately converted to morphine which is further converted to morphine-3,6-diglucuronide.[16] Opioids are metabolized vastly by the enzyme CYP 2D6 and any mutation in this kind of enzyme or coadministration with drugs that interfere with this enzyme may generate a change in the metabolism speed.[18] For years, because of this metabolism pathway, it was very hard to differentiate between illicit heroin users and involuntary exposure to poppy seeds. The original tests for this differentiations were based in the presence of morphine in urine without evidence of 6-monoacetylmorphine. Now it is known the presence of a glucuronide metabolite only in the consumption of heroin called ATM4G and this allows a clear differentiation of the consumption of illegal heroin and poppy seed ingestion.[6]

Route of elimination

Opium is a mixture of different alkaloids including morphine and codeine. After a single ingestion of opium preparations, codeine and morphine can be found excreted in urine. The presence of codeine and morphine in urine seems to be detectable 2-12 hours and 2-36 hours post administration, respectively. The urinary excretion of morphine and codeine seems to be longer as the dose of opium is increased. After multiple dosages of opium, the presence of codeine and morphine in urine could be detected even after 48 and 84 hours post administration, respectively.[7] After ingestion of poppy seeds, it is possible to collect morphine and codeine in urine 3-25 hours and 3-22 hours after administration, respectively.[8]

Half life

The half-life of opium ranges between 3-10 hours.[9]

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Some toxicity concerns from the consumption of opium are the generation of addiction, physical dependence and tolerance to the effect. Studies regarding the opioid tolerance in the treatment of chronic pain have not been systematically investigated. There are also concerns about the opioid-driven modification of endocrine function, currently reported as lower testosterone levels, loss of libido, amenorrhea and infertility.[17]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental, Illicit
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental, Illicit
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental, Illicit
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Opium.Experimental
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.Experimental
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Opium.Approved
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Acetazolamide.Approved, Vet Approved
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
AclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aclidinium is combined with Opium.Approved
AdipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adipiplon is combined with Opium.Investigational
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
AlaproclateOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Alaproclate.Experimental
AlcuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alcuronium is combined with Opium.Experimental
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Alfaxalone.Vet Approved
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
AllopregnanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Allopregnanolone.Investigational
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Opium.Experimental, Illicit
AlphaprodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Alphaprodine.Illicit
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
AlvimopanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Alvimopan.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Amiloride.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Opium.Approved
Ammonium chlorideAmmonium chloride may increase the excretion rate of Opium which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amoxapine is combined with Opium.Approved
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Opium.Experimental
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Amphetamine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
Anisotropine MethylbromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anisotropine Methylbromide is combined with Opium.Approved
ApalutamideThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Apalutamide.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Artemether.Approved
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Opium.Approved
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Opium.Approved
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atracurium is combined with Opium.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atracurium besylate is combined with Opium.Approved
AtropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atropine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Azaperone.Investigational, Vet Approved
AzelastineOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.Approved
AzosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Azosemide.Investigational
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Opium.Approved
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Opium.Illicit
BenactyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benactyzine is combined with Opium.Withdrawn
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Benmoxin.Withdrawn
BenperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Benperidol.Approved, Investigational
BenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzatropine is combined with Opium.Approved
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
BenzphetamineBenzphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Opium.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BiperidenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Biperiden is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
BL-1020BL-1020 may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Investigational
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BornaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bornaprine is combined with Opium.Experimental
BortezomibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brexpiprazole is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Brofaromine.Experimental
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
BromisovalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Bromisoval.Experimental
BromotheophyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Bromotheophylline.Approved
BromperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Bromperidol.Approved, Investigational
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Opium.Approved
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Bumetanide.Approved
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
BuprenorphineOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.Approved
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Butacaine.Vet Approved
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Butamben.Approved, Withdrawn
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
ButorphanolButorphanol may decrease the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit, Vet Approved
ButylscopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butylscopolamine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CanertinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Canertinib is combined with Opium.Investigational
Canrenoic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Canrenoic acid.Approved, Withdrawn
CanrenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Canrenone.Investigational
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Opium.Approved
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Opium.Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Opium.Approved
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Caroxazone.Withdrawn
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Opium.Approved
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Opium.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenamine is combined with Opium.Approved
ChlorphenoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenoxamine is combined with Opium.Withdrawn
ChlorphentermineChlorphentermine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Illicit, Withdrawn
ChlorproethazineChlorproethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Experimental
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Chlorthalidone.Approved
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Opium.Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CicletanineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Cicletanine.Investigational
CimetidineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved, Investigational
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
CitalopramOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clemastine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Opium.Approved
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clobazam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
ClofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Clofenamide.Experimental
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Opium.Investigational
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomipramine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Opium.Approved
ClopamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Clopamide.Experimental
ClopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Clopenthixol.Experimental
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
ClorexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Clorexolone.Experimental
ClothiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Clothiapine.Experimental
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Opium.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Conivaptan can be increased when it is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclizine is combined with Opium.Approved
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Opium.Approved
CyclopenthiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
CyclopentolateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclopentolate is combined with Opium.Approved
CyclopropaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Cyclopropane.Experimental
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Cyclothiazide.Approved
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Opium.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved, Investigational
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dantrolene is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Opium.Approved
DapoxetineOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Dapoxetine.Investigational
DarifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Darifenacin is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DeramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Deramciclane is combined with Opium.Investigational
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Opium.Approved
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desipramine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desloratadine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Desmopressin.Approved
DesvenlafaxineOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Desvenlafaxine.Approved, Investigational
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Detomidine.Vet Approved
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Opium.Approved
DexetimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexetimide is combined with Opium.Withdrawn
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
DextroamphetamineDextroamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Opium.Experimental, Illicit
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
DicyclomineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dicyclomine is combined with Opium.Approved
Diethyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Diethyl ether.Experimental
DiethylpropionDiethylpropion may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difenoxin is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved, Investigational
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Opium.Experimental, Illicit
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Opium.Experimental, Illicit
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved, Investigational
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dimenhydrinate is combined with Opium.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
DixyrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Dixyrazine.Experimental
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Doramectin.Vet Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Opium.Experimental
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
DrospirenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Drospirenone.Approved
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Opium.Experimental, Illicit
DuloxetineOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Duloxetine.Approved
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Opium.Approved
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Opium.Experimental, Illicit
EcopipamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Ecopipam.Investigational
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Efonidipine.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
EltanoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Eltanolone.Investigational
EluxadolineOpium may increase the constipating activities of Eluxadoline.Approved, Investigational
EmeproniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Emepronium is combined with Opium.Experimental
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpitizideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Epitizide.Experimental
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Eplerenone.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EscitalopramOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Escitalopram.Approved, Investigational
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Etacrynic acid.Approved, Investigational
EtanautineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etanautine is combined with Opium.Experimental
EthanolOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.Approved
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
EthopropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethopropazine is combined with Opium.Approved
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Opium.Approved
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Opium.Approved
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Ethoxzolamide.Withdrawn
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Opium.Withdrawn
Ethyl chlorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Ethyl chloride.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Opium.Approved
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Opium.Investigational, Withdrawn
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Opium.Approved
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Opium.Approved
EtoperidoneOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Etoperidone.Withdrawn
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Opium.Illicit, Vet Approved
EtybenzatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etybenzatropine is combined with Opium.Experimental
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ezogabine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbamate is combined with Opium.Approved
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
FenquizoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Fenquizone.Experimental
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet Approved
FesoterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fesoterodine is combined with Opium.Approved
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fexofenadine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
FlavoxateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flavoxate is combined with Opium.Approved
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flibanserin is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
FluanisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Fluanisone.Experimental
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved, Investigational
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunarizine is combined with Opium.Approved
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Opium.Approved
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone propionate is combined with Opium.Approved
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluvoxamine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved, Investigational
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Furazolidone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved, Investigational
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
Gabapentin EnacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin Enacarbil is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
GallamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallamine is combined with Opium.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallamine Triethiodide is combined with Opium.Approved
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
GepefrineGepefrine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental
GepironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Gepirone.Investigational
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
GlycopyrroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glycopyrronium is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Opium.Approved
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Harmaline.Experimental
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Opium.Approved
HomatropineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Homatropine is combined with Opium.Approved
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Hydracarbazine.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocodoneOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Hydrocodone.Approved, Illicit
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
HydroxyamphetamineHydroxyamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved
HyoscyamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hyoscyamine is combined with Opium.Approved
IbopamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Ibopamine.Experimental
IdelalisibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloperidone is combined with Opium.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imipramine is combined with Opium.Approved
IndalpineOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Indalpine.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Indapamide.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Indiplon.Investigational
Iofetamine I-123Iofetamine I-123 may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved
Ipratropium bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ipratropium bromide is combined with Opium.Approved
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Iproclozide.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Iproniazid.Withdrawn
IsavuconazoleThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Isavuconazole.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Isocarboxazid.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved, Investigational
IsosorbideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Isosorbide.Approved, Investigational
IsradipineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved, Investigational
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Opium.Approved
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Levocabastine.Approved, Investigational
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levocetirizine is combined with Opium.Approved
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Opium.Approved
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Levomilnacipran.Approved, Investigational
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Opium.Approved
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
LisdexamfetamineLisdexamfetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Investigational
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Opium.Approved
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Opium.Illicit
LofexidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Opium can be increased when used in combination with Lofexidine.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LoprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Loprazolam.Experimental
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Opium.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LormetazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Lormetazepam.Approved
LorpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Lorpiprazole.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Opium.Approved
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Opium can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Mannitol.Approved, Investigational
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Maprotiline is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
MazaticolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mazaticol is combined with Opium.Experimental
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Mebanazine.Withdrawn
MebicarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Mebicar.Experimental
MebutizideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Mebutizide.Experimental
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Opium.Approved
MedazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Medazepam.Experimental
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Medetomidine.Vet Approved
MefrusideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Mefruside.Experimental
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Opium.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
MephedroneMephedrone may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Investigational
MephentermineMephentermine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
MeptazinolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Meptazinol.Experimental
MersalylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Mersalyl.Approved
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Opium.Approved
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Opium.Approved
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
MethamphetamineMethamphetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit
MethanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methantheline is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Opium.Withdrawn
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Opium.Illicit, Withdrawn
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Methazolamide.Approved
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Opium.Approved
MethotrimeprazineOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.Approved, Investigational
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
MethoxyphenamineMethoxyphenamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental
MethscopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methscopolamine is combined with Opium.Approved
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methsuximide is combined with Opium.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethylecgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylecgonine is combined with Opium.Experimental
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Methylene blue.Approved, Investigational
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Opium.Approved
Methylscopolamine bromideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylscopolamine bromide is combined with Opium.Approved
MeticraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Meticrane.Experimental
MetixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metixene is combined with Opium.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineOpium may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.Approved
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
MidomafetamineMidomafetamine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental, Illicit, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved, Investigational
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Milnacipran.Approved, Investigational
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Minaprine.Approved
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved, Investigational
MirabegronThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MirtazapineOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MMDAMMDA may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Experimental, Illicit
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Moclobemide.Approved, Investigational
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Opium.Approved
MoricizineMoricizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
MuzolimineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Muzolimine.Experimental
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved, Investigational
NalbuphineNalbuphine may decrease the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved
NaltrexoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Opium can be decreased when used in combination with Naltrexone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved, Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Nialamide.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved, Investigational
NilotinibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Opium.Approved
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
NorfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Norflurane.Approved, Investigational
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Normethadone.Approved, Illicit
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Opium.Approved
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Octamoxin.Withdrawn
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olanzapine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Opium.Approved
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Opium.Approved
OrphenadrineOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.Approved
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Opium.Investigational
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
OtiloniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Otilonium is combined with Opium.Experimental, Investigational
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Opium.Approved
OxetacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Oxetacaine.Approved, Investigational
OxitropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxitropium is combined with Opium.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Opium.Approved
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
OxybutyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybutynin is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
OxyphenoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenonium is combined with Opium.Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved, Investigational
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Opium.Approved
PancuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pancuronium is combined with Opium.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
ParaldehydeOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.Approved, Investigational
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Pargyline.Approved
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PegvisomantThe therapeutic efficacy of Pegvisomant can be decreased when used in combination with Opium.Approved
PenfluridolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Penfluridol.Experimental
PentazocinePentazocine may decrease the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PentoliniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentolinium is combined with Opium.Approved
PerampanelPerampanel may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved
PerazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Perazine.Approved, Investigational
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Opium.Approved
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Opium.Approved
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Opium.Approved
PhenazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Phenazocine.Experimental
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Phenelzine.Approved
PhenglutarimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenglutarimide is combined with Opium.Experimental
PhenibutThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Phenibut.Experimental
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Pheniprazine.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved, Investigational
PhenoperidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Phenoperidine.Experimental
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Phenoxyethanol.Approved
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Phenoxypropazine.Withdrawn
PhenterminePhentermine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved, Illicit
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Opium.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
PipecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipecuronium is combined with Opium.Approved
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipotiazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
PirenzepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirenzepine is combined with Opium.Approved
PiretanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Piretanide.Approved
PiritramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Piritramide.Approved, Investigational
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Pirlindole.Approved
PitolisantThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Pivhydrazine.Withdrawn
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pizotifen is combined with Opium.Approved
PolythiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Polythiazide.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pomalidomide is combined with Opium.Approved
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PotassiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Potassium.Approved, Investigational
Potassium CitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Potassium Citrate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PramipexoleOpium may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.Approved, Investigational
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Opium.Approved
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
PregabalinThe therapeutic efficacy of Opium can be increased when used in combination with Pregabalin.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Opium.Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Procarbazine.Approved, Investigational
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcyclidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procyclidine is combined with Opium.Approved
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
PromethazinePromethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Approved, Investigational
PropanididThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Propanidid.Experimental
PropanthelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propantheline is combined with Opium.Approved
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
PropericiazinePropericiazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Approved, Investigational
PropiopromazinePropiopromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Vet Approved
PropiverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propiverine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Opium.Approved
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Opium.Approved
ProxibarbalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Proxibarbal.Experimental
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Opium.Investigational
PseudoephedrinePseudoephedrine may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Approved
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Opium.Approved
QuinethazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Quinethazone.Approved
QuinidineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved, Investigational
QuinineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
QuinisocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Quinisocaine.Experimental
RacloprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Raclopride.Investigational
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
RamosetronOpium may increase the constipating activities of Ramosetron.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Rasagiline.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Opium.Approved
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Opium.Approved, Withdrawn
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved, Investigational
RifampicinThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Opium can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved, Investigational
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Rilpivirine.Approved
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Ritanserin.Investigational
RitobegronRitobegron may increase the analgesic activities of Opium.Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved, Investigational
RolofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Rolofylline.Investigational
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Romifidine.Vet Approved
RopiniroleOpium may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Opium.Approved
RotigotineOpium may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.Approved
RucaparibThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Opium.Approved
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Safrazine.Withdrawn
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SarilumabThe therapeutic efficacy of Opium can be decreased when used in combination with Sarilumab.Approved, Investigational
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Selegiline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SepranoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Sepranolone.Investigational
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
SertralineOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Sertraline.Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved, Investigational
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved
SolifenacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Solifenacin is combined with Opium.Approved
SpiradolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Spiradoline.Investigational
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Opium can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SuccinylcholineSuccinylcholine may increase the bradycardic activities of Opium.Approved
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
SultoprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Sultopride.Experimental
SuvorexantOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Suvorexant.Approved, Investigational
TandospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tandospirone.Investigational
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Opium.Approved
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tasimelteon is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrabenazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
TetrahydropalmatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tetrahydropalmatine.Investigational
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Opium.Investigational
ThalidomideOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheobromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Theobromine.Approved, Investigational
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiazinamThiazinam may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Experimental
ThiethylperazineThiethylperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Withdrawn
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioproperazineThioproperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Opium.Approved
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Opium.Approved
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TiaprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tiapride.Approved, Investigational
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TicrynafenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Ticrynafen.Withdrawn
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tiletamine.Vet Approved
TilidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tilidine.Experimental
TiotropiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiotropium is combined with Opium.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Opium can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Opium.Approved, Withdrawn
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Toloxatone.Approved
TolterodineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolterodine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TolvaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tolvaptan.Approved
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Opium.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Torasemide.Approved
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved, Investigational
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trazodone is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Triamterene.Approved
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
Tricaine methanesulfonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Tricaine methanesulfonate.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TrichloroethyleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Trichloroethylene.Approved
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TrifluperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Trifluperidol.Experimental
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Opium.Approved, Vet Approved
TrihexyphenidylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trihexyphenidyl is combined with Opium.Approved
TrimethaphanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimethaphan is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Opium.Approved
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Opium.Approved
TropatepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropatepine is combined with Opium.Experimental
TropicamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tropicamide is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
TrospiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trospium is combined with Opium.Approved
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tubocurarine is combined with Opium.Approved
UlaritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Ularitide.Investigational
UmeclidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Umeclidinium is combined with Opium.Approved
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vecuronium is combined with Opium.Approved
VemurafenibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Vemurafenib is combined with Opium.Approved
VenlafaxineOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Venlafaxine.Approved
VeraliprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Veralipride.Experimental
VerapamilThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vigabatrin is combined with Opium.Approved
Vinyl etherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Vinyl ether.Experimental
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Opium can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vortioxetine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
XenonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Xenon.Experimental
XipamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Xipamide.Experimental
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Xylazine.Vet Approved
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Opium.Approved, Illicit, Investigational
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziconotide is combined with Opium.Approved
ZimelidineOpium may increase the serotonergic activities of Zimelidine.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Opium.Approved
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Zolazepam.Vet Approved
ZolpidemOpium may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.Approved
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Opium.Approved
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Opium.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Duarte DF: [Opium and opioids: a brief history.]. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2005 Feb;55(1):135-46. [PubMed:19471817]
  2. Huxtable RJ, Schwarz SK: The isolation of morphine--first principles in science and ethics. Mol Interv. 2001 Oct;1(4):189-91. [PubMed:14993340]
  3. Lee S, Park Y, Han E, Choi H, Chung H, Oh SM, Chung KH: Thebaine in hair as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances. Forensic Sci Int. 2011 Jan 30;204(1-3):115-8. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.05.013. Epub 2010 Jun 16. [PubMed:20558018]
  4. Somogyi AA, Larsen M, Abadi RM, Jittiwutikarn J, Ali R, White JM: Flexible dosing of tincture of opium in the management of opioid withdrawal: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Nov;66(5):640-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03277.x. [PubMed:19032172]
  5. Judis J: Binding of codeine, morphine, and methadone to human serum proteins. J Pharm Sci. 1977 Jun;66(6):802-6. [PubMed:874779]
  6. Chen P, Braithwaite RA, George C, Hylands PJ, Parkin MC, Smith NW, Kicman AT: The poppy seed defense: a novel solution. Drug Test Anal. 2014 Mar;6(3):194-201. doi: 10.1002/dta.1590. Epub 2013 Dec 12. [PubMed:24339374]
  7. Liu HC, Ho HO, Liu RH, Yeh GC, Lin DL: Urinary excretion of morphine and codeine following the administration of single and multiple doses of opium preparations prescribed in Taiwan as "brown mixture". J Anal Toxicol. 2006 May;30(4):225-31. [PubMed:16803659]
  8. Struempler RE: Excretion of codeine and morphine following ingestion of poppy seeds. J Anal Toxicol. 1987 May-Jun;11(3):97-9. [PubMed:3599922]
  9. Lee M. and Abrahams M. (2012). Clinical pharmacology (11th ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
  10. Michael-Titus A., Revest P. and Shortland P. (2010). The nervous system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
  11. Hanna M., Ouanes J. and Garcia V. (2014). Practical Management of Pain (5th ed.). Mosby.
  12. Le Coutuer P. and Burreson J. (2003). Napoleon's Buttons: 17 molecules that changed history. Tarcher.
  13. Chemical and engineering news [Link]
  14. Encyclopedia [Link]
  15. WHO [Link]
  16. NZIC [Link]
  17. FDA Reports [Link]
  18. Health partners [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911129
Wikipedia
Opium
ATC Codes
N02AA02 — OpiumA07DA02 — Opium
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.08 — Opiate Agonists
MSDS
Download (252 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioid Dependence1
4CompletedTreatmentCalcium Nephrolithiasis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TinctureOral
CapsuleOral
LiquidOral
SuppositoryRectal
TabletOral
TinctureOral200 g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)73.3ºC (Opium 2% tincture)'MSDS'
water solubilitySoluble (Opium 2% tincture)'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
OPRD1
Uniprot ID
P41143
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Lee M. and Abrahams M. (2012). Clinical pharmacology (11th ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
  2. Michael-Titus A., Revest P. and Shortland P. (2010). The nervous system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
OPRK1
Uniprot ID
P41145
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Lee M. and Abrahams M. (2012). Clinical pharmacology (11th ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
  2. Michael-Titus A., Revest P. and Shortland P. (2010). The nervous system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
OPRM1
Uniprot ID
P35372
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Lee M. and Abrahams M. (2012). Clinical pharmacology (11th ed.). Churchill Livingstone.
  2. Michael-Titus A., Revest P. and Shortland P. (2010). The nervous system (2nd ed.). Churchill Livingstone.

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Health partners [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Gesell A, Rolf M, Ziegler J, Diaz Chavez ML, Huang FC, Kutchan TM: CYP719B1 is salutaridine synthase, the C-C phenol-coupling enzyme of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 4;284(36):24432-42. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.033373. Epub 2009 Jun 30. [PubMed:19567876]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Judis J: Binding of codeine, morphine, and methadone to human serum proteins. J Pharm Sci. 1977 Jun;66(6):802-6. [PubMed:874779]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Binder
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Component of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system.
Gene Name
B2M
Uniprot ID
P61769
Uniprot Name
Beta-2-microglobulin
Molecular Weight
13714.43 Da
References
  1. Judis J: Binding of codeine, morphine, and methadone to human serum proteins. J Pharm Sci. 1977 Jun;66(6):802-6. [PubMed:874779]

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:51 / Updated on May 26, 2018 09:01