Identification

Name
Loperamide
Accession Number
DB00836  (APRD00275)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

One of the long-acting synthetic antidiarrheals; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Loperamid
  • Loperamida
  • Lopéramide
  • Loperamidum
External IDs
PJ 185 / R 18553
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Loperamide hydrochloride77TI35393C34552-83-5PGYPOBZJRVSMDS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Loperamide oxideNG66S4H2RL106900-12-3KXVSBTJVTUVNPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2012-10-12Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2017-09-20Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralCardinal Health1991-09-182015-12-29Us
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralDirectrx2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-12-12Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralMylan Institutional1997-03-10Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC1993-05-01Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralNu Care Pharmceuticals,inc.1993-05-01Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1996-06-20Not applicableUs
Loperamide HydrochlorideCapsule2 mg/1OralNucare Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1993-05-01Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
7 Select Anti DiarrhealTablet, film coated2 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2014-08-05Not applicableUs
A DTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralWestern Family Foods2003-02-252017-12-01Us
A DTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralWestern Family Foods2003-04-102017-12-01Us
Alti-loperamide - 2mg CapletTablet2 mgOralAltimed Pharma Inc.1995-12-311997-08-14Canada
Anti DiarrhealCapsule2 mg/1OralNash Finch2005-05-03Not applicableUs
Anti DiarrhealTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2015-11-20Not applicableUs
Anti DiarrhealTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralCVS Health2003-02-24Not applicableUs
Anti DiarrhealSolution1 mg/5mLOralRite Aid1992-07-132017-11-14Us
Anti DiarrhealTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralMajor2003-02-24Not applicableUs
Anti DiarrhealTablet, film coated2 mg/1OralMeijer Distribution2003-03-05Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Anti-DiarrhealTablet, coated2 mg/1OralAllegiant Health2005-05-03Not applicableUs
Gadavyt Loperamide HClLiquid1 mg/5mLOralGadal Laboratories, Inc.2013-05-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Dimor (Nordic Drugs) / Fortasec (Esteve) / Imodium (Johnson & Johnson) / Kaopectate II (Chattem, Inc.) / Lopedium (Sandoz) / Lopedium express (Sandoz) / Lopex (Orion) / Maalox Anti-Diarrheal (Novartis International AG) / Pepto Diarrhea Control (Procter & Gamble )
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Imodium Complete CapletsLoperamide hydrochloride (2 mg) + Simethicone (125 mg)TabletOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson Inc2002-06-20Not applicableCanada
Imodium Complete Chewable TabletsLoperamide hydrochloride (2 mg) + Simethicone (125 mg)Tablet, chewableOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson Inc1998-05-12Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
6X9OC3H4II
CAS number
53179-11-6
Weight
Average: 477.038
Monoisotopic: 476.223056017
Chemical Formula
C29H33ClN2O2
InChI Key
RDOIQAHITMMDAJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H33ClN2O2/c1-31(2)27(33)29(24-9-5-3-6-10-24,25-11-7-4-8-12-25)19-22-32-20-17-28(34,18-21-32)23-13-15-26(30)16-14-23/h3-16,34H,17-22H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenylbutanamide
SMILES
CN(C)C(=O)C(CCN1CCC(O)(CC1)C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1)(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the control and symptomatic relief of acute nonspecific diarrhea and of chronic diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel disease or gastroenteritis. Also used for reducing the volume of discharge from ileostomies.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Loperamide is a synthetic anti-diarrheal indicated for the control and symptomatic relief of acute nonspecific diarrhea and of chronic diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Loperamide is also indicated for reducing the volume of discharge from ileostomies. In man, Loperamide prolongs the transit time of the intestinal contents. It reduces the daily fecal volume, increases the viscosity and bulk density, and diminishes the loss of fluid and electrolytes. Tolerance to the antidiarrheal effect has not been observed. Loperamide is an opioid receptor agonist and acts on the mu opioid receptors in the myenteric plexus large intestines; it does not affect the central nervous system like other opioids. It works specifically by decreasing the activity of the myenteric plexus which decreases the motility of the circular and longitudinal smooth muscles of the intestinal wall. This increases the amount of time substances stay in the intestine, allowing for more water to be absorbed out of the fecal matter. Loperamide also decreases colonic mass movements and suppresses the gastrocolic reflex.

Mechanism of action

In vitro and animal studies show that Loperamide acts by slowing intestinal motility and by affecting water and electrolyte movement through the bowel. Loperamide inhibits peristaltic activity by a direct effect on the circular and longitudinal muscles of the intestinal wall. It is a non-selective calcium channel blocker and binds to opioid mu-receptors. Evidence also suggests that at higher concentrations it binds to calmodulin.

TargetActionsOrganism
AMu-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
ADelta-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
AKappa-type opioid receptor
agonist
Human
UVoltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A
inhibitor
Human
UPro-opiomelanocortin
modulator
Human
UCalmodulin
inhibitor
Human
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Not significantly absorbed from the gut

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

97%

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

Excretion of the unchanged loperamide and its metabolites mainly occurs through the feces.

Half life

9.1 to 14.4 hours (average 10.8 hours)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 105 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include constipation, drowsiness, lethargy, and nausea.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Artemether.Approved
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.Approved
BoceprevirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Boceprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
BortezomibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.Approved, Investigational
BosentanThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.Approved, Investigational
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.Approved
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Ceritinib.Approved
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CimetidineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClarithromycinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClopidogrelThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.Approved, Investigational
CrisaboroleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Crisaborole.Approved
CrizotinibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Crizotinib.Approved
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Loperamide.Approved
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.Approved
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DihydroergotamineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Dihydroergotamine.Approved
DiltiazemThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Diltiazem.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
DosulepinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved, Investigational
DoxorubicinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Doxorubicin.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Doxycycline.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.Approved
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.Approved, Investigational
EliglustatThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Erythromycin.Approved, Vet Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
FelodipineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.Approved
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.Approved
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.Approved
ImatinibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Imatinib.Approved
ImipramineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IrbesartanThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsavuconazoniumThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Isavuconazonium.Approved, Investigational
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
IsradipineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Isradipine.Approved
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LapatinibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Lapatinib.Approved, Investigational
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
LopinavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LosartanThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Losartan.Approved
LovastatinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Lovastatin.Approved, Investigational
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
ManidipineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MethadoneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Methadone.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MetoprololThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MirabegronThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.Approved
NevirapineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
OlaparibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Olaparib.Approved
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Osimertinib.Approved
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PentobarbitalThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenobarbitalThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Pioglitazone.Approved, Investigational
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.Approved, Illicit
QuinidineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Rabeprazole.Approved, Investigational
RamosetronLoperamide may increase the constipating activities of Ramosetron.Approved, Investigational
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved, Investigational
RifabutinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RolapitantThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
SaquinavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Loperamide can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
SertralineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
SildenafilThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Sildenafil.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.Approved
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.Approved
SorafenibThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Sorafenib.Approved, Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Investigational, Nutraceutical
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SulfamethoxazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Tamoxifen.Approved
TelaprevirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Telaprevir.Approved, Withdrawn
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TeriflunomideThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
ThiotepaThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Thiotepa.Approved
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.Approved
TopiroxostatThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Topiroxostat.Approved, Investigational
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrimethoprimThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
VerapamilThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Verapamil.Approved
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Loperamide.Approved, Investigational
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Loperamide can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals. Increase liquid intake.

References

Synthesis Reference

Tsutomu Awamura, Hisanobu Nishikawa, Toshio Inagi, "FILM PREPARATION CONTAINING LOPERAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE." U.S. Patent US20110159058, issued June 30, 2011.

US20110159058
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB04999
KEGG Drug
D08144
KEGG Compound
C07080
PubChem Compound
3955
PubChem Substance
46504591
ChemSpider
3818
BindingDB
50017698
ChEBI
6532
ChEMBL
CHEMBL841
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000425
PharmGKB
PA450262
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Loperamide
ATC Codes
A07DA53 — Loperamide, combinationsA07DA03 — LoperamideA07DA05 — Loperamide oxide
AHFS Codes
  • 56:08.00 — Antidiarrhea Agents
FDA label
Download (55.5 KB)
MSDS
Download (73.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentPain1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Interactions1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceIntestinal Obstruction2
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast / Early-Stage Breast Carcinoma / Hormone Receptor Positive Tumor1
2RecruitingTreatmentEarly Stage HER2+ Breast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentHer2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2WithdrawnTreatmentCancers1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDiarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome / Functional Diarrhea1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFemale Genital Diseases1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIncontinence, Fecal1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentClostridium Difficile Infection (CDI)1
3CompletedSupportive CareColorectal Cancers / Diarrhea1
3CompletedTreatmentDiarrhea1
3CompletedTreatmentIncontinence, Fecal1
3CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
3RecruitingPreventionDehydration, Diverting Ileostomy, Loperamide1
3RecruitingTreatmentHigh Output Stoma1
3TerminatedPreventionDiarrhea1
3TerminatedTreatmentRectal Carcinoma / Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
4CompletedTreatmentDiarrhea3
4CompletedTreatmentTravelers' Diarrhea1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpiate withdrawal symptoms1
4SuspendedTreatmentAntibiotic Associated Diarrhea / Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea / Clostridium Difficile1
4TerminatedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentIncontinence, Fecal1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIncontinence, Fecal1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIncontinence, Fecal1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentIncontinence, Fecal1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Mcneil consumer healthcare
  • Mcneil pediatrics
  • Janssen pharmaceutica products lp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOral1 mg/5mL
Capsule, liquid filledOral2 mg/1
SolutionOral.2 mg
LiquidOral1 mg/5mL
Tablet, film coatedOral2 mg/1
SolutionOral1 mg/7.5mL
Tablet, coatedOral2 mg/1
SolutionOral2 mg
TabletOral
Tablet, chewableOral
CapsuleOral2 mg
LiquidOral.2 mg
CapsuleOral2 mg/1
LiquidOral1 mg/7.5mL
SolutionOral2 mg/10mL
SuspensionOral1 mg/7.5mL
TabletOral2 mg
SolutionOral0.2 mg
TabletOral2 mg/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Loperamide hcl powder26.01USD g
Loperamide HCl 2 mg capsule0.64USD capsule
Imodium a-d 2 mg caplet0.49USD caplet
Imodium advanced caplet0.46USD caplet
Imodium ms relief caplet0.46USD caplet
Kaopectate 262 mg caplet0.37USD caplet
Loperamide 2 mg caplet0.37USD caplet
Qc anti-diarrheal adv caplet0.3USD caplet
Diamode 2 mg tablet0.28USD tablet
Kaopectate 240 mg softgel0.25USD softgel capsule
Anti-diarrheal 2 mg caplet0.18USD caplet
CVS Pharmacy anti-diarrheal 2 mg caplet0.14USD caplet
Kaopectate children's suspension0.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2134611No2002-12-242014-10-28Canada
US6814978Yes2002-02-262022-02-26Us
US6103260No1997-07-172017-07-17Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)222.1U.S. Patent 3,714,159; 3,884,916.
water solubilitySlightNot Available
logP5.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00086 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.44ALOGPS
logP4.77ChemAxon
logS-5.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.96ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.41ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area43.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity139.32 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability52.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9878
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7709
Caco-2 permeable+0.5875
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7476
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8277
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8387
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.5059
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8057
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5315
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7918
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9154
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8933
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9207
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.768
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8564
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9953
Rat acute toxicity3.6560 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9461
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.7639
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0000900000-673950710672b433271c
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-4b7b347a8b8e9dca406c
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02t9-0090000000-31f15df976e23e73330a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0000900000-d91d13c4e4665bd5fb5a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0020900000-f1be3181a6918c985ffd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-e5e41346303f41f65688
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-acd8b87c1338e5d0fe25
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-81b85f788d14641430fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-3ce1a89454d777268799
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-f101d63ad0bf8e5d2178
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0000900000-d91d13c4e4665bd5fb5a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0020900000-f1be3181a6918c985ffd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-e5e41346303f41f65688
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-acd8b87c1338e5d0fe25
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-81b85f788d14641430fd
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0090000000-1a1a49f09397ad090e82
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-016r-0090600000-794ea6214c0cd97c73fa
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-016r-0090300000-e11942e343a28799a5ab
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Diphenylmethanes
Direct Parent
Diphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Phenylpiperidines / Phenylacetamides / Aralkylamines / Chlorobenzenes / Aryl chlorides / N-acyl amines / Tertiary carboxylic acid amides / Tertiary alcohols / Trialkylamines / Amino acids and derivatives
show 6 more
Substituents
Diphenylmethane / Phenylpiperidine / Phenylacetamide / Chlorobenzene / Aralkylamine / Halobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Piperidine / N-acyl-amine
show 22 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
piperidines, tertiary alcohol, monocarboxylic acid amide, monochlorobenzenes (CHEBI:6532)

Targets

Details
1. Mu-type opioid receptor
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone...
Gene Name
OPRM1
Uniprot ID
P35372
Uniprot Name
Mu-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
44778.855 Da
References
  1. DeHaven-Hudkins DL, Burgos LC, Cassel JA, Daubert JD, DeHaven RN, Mansson E, Nagasaka H, Yu G, Yaksh T: Loperamide (ADL 2-1294), an opioid antihyperalgesic agent with peripheral selectivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr;289(1):494-502. [PubMed:10087042]
  2. Tan-No K, Niijima F, Nakagawasai O, Sato T, Satoh S, Tadano T: Development of tolerance to the inhibitory effect of loperamide on gastrointestinal transit in mice. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2003 Nov;20(3):357-63. [PubMed:14592702]
  3. Roge J, Baumer P, Berard H, Schwartz JC, Lecomte JM: The enkephalinase inhibitor, acetorphan, in acute diarrhoea. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial versus loperamide. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1993 Apr;28(4):352-4. [PubMed:8488368]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  5. Giagnoni G, Casiraghi L, Senini R, Revel L, Parolaro D, Sala M, Gori E: Loperamide: evidence of interaction with mu and delta opioid receptors. Life Sci. 1983;33 Suppl 1:315-8. [PubMed:6319884]
  6. di Bosco AM, Grieco P, Diurno MV, Campiglia P, Novellino E, Mazzoni O: Binding site of loperamide: automated docking of loperamide in human mu- and delta-opioid receptors. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2008 Apr;71(4):328-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2008.00637.x. Epub 2008 Feb 12. [PubMed:18284554]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine n...
Gene Name
OPRD1
Uniprot ID
P41143
Uniprot Name
Delta-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Giagnoni G, Casiraghi L, Senini R, Revel L, Parolaro D, Sala M, Gori E: Loperamide: evidence of interaction with mu and delta opioid receptors. Life Sci. 1983;33 Suppl 1:315-8. [PubMed:6319884]
  3. di Bosco AM, Grieco P, Diurno MV, Campiglia P, Novellino E, Mazzoni O: Binding site of loperamide: automated docking of loperamide in human mu- and delta-opioid receptors. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2008 Apr;71(4):328-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2008.00637.x. Epub 2008 Feb 12. [PubMed:18284554]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synt...
Gene Name
OPRK1
Uniprot ID
P41145
Uniprot Name
Kappa-type opioid receptor
Molecular Weight
42644.665 Da
References
  1. DeHaven-Hudkins DL, Burgos LC, Cassel JA, Daubert JD, DeHaven RN, Mansson E, Nagasaka H, Yu G, Yaksh T: Loperamide (ADL 2-1294), an opioid antihyperalgesic agent with peripheral selectivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr;289(1):494-502. [PubMed:10087042]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...
Gene Name
CACNA1A
Uniprot ID
O00555
Uniprot Name
Voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A
Molecular Weight
282362.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Church J, Fletcher EJ, Abdel-Hamid K, MacDonald JF: Loperamide blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked responses in rat and mouse cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Apr;45(4):747-57. [PubMed:8183255]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Modulator
General Function
Type 4 melanocortin receptor binding
Specific Function
ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol.MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) increases the pigmentation of skin by increasing melanin production in melanocytes.Beta-endorphin and Met...
Gene Name
POMC
Uniprot ID
P01189
Uniprot Name
Pro-opiomelanocortin
Molecular Weight
29423.72 Da
References
  1. Nomura A, Iwasaki Y, Aoki Y, Yamamori E, Mutsuga N, Yoshida M, Asai M, Oiso Y, Saito H: Effects of loperamide and other opioid-related substances on the transcriptional regulation of the rat pro-opiomelanocortin gene in AtT20 cells. Neuroendocrinology. 2001 Aug;74(2):87-94. [PubMed:11474216]
  2. Auernhammer CJ, Stalla GK, Lange M, Pfeiffer A, Muller OA: Effects of loperamide on the human hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in vivo and in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Aug;75(2):552-7. [PubMed:1322429]
  3. Ambrosi B, Bochicchio D, Ferrario R, Colombo P, Faglia G: Effects of the opiate agonist loperamide on pituitary-adrenal function in patients with suspected hypercortisolism. J Endocrinol Invest. 1989 Jan;12(1):31-5. [PubMed:2545766]
  4. Ambrosi B, Bochicchio D, Colombo P, Ferrario R, Faglia G: Loperamide modifies but does not block the corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced ACTH response in patients with Addison's disease. Horm Metab Res Suppl. 1987;16:74-5. [PubMed:2832297]
  5. Bochicchio D, Ambrosi B, Faglia G: Loperamide, an opiate analog, differently modifies the adrenocorticotropin responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone and lysine vasopressin in patients with Addison's disease. Neuroendocrinology. 1988 Dec;48(6):611-4. [PubMed:2855105]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Titin binding
Specific Function
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number...
Gene Name
CALM1
Uniprot ID
P0DP23
Uniprot Name
Calmodulin
Molecular Weight
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Daly JW, Harper J: Loperamide: novel effects on capacitative calcium influx. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000 Jan 20;57(1):149-57. [PubMed:10949586]
  2. Suzuki T, Sakai H, Ikari A, Takeguchi N: Inhibition of thromboxane A(2)-induced Cl(-) secretion by antidiarrhea drug loperamide in isolated rat colon. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):233-8. [PubMed:10991984]
  3. Mellstrand T: Loperamide--an opiate receptor agonist with gastrointestinal motility effects. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1987;130:65-6. [PubMed:2820051]
  4. Stoll R, Ruppin H, Domschke W: Calmodulin-mediated effects of loperamide on chloride transport by brush border membrane vesicles from human ileum. Gastroenterology. 1988 Jul;95(1):69-76. [PubMed:2836258]
  5. Diener M, Knobloch SF, Rummel W: Action of loperamide on neuronally mediated and Ca2+- or cAMP-mediated secretion in rat colon. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988 Aug 2;152(3):217-25. [PubMed:2851449]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital re...
Gene Name
NR1I3
Uniprot ID
Q14994
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3
Molecular Weight
39942.145 Da
References
  1. Dring AM, Anderson LE, Qamar S, Stoner MA: Rational quantitative structure-activity relationship (RQSAR) screen for PXR and CAR isoform-specific nuclear receptor ligands. Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Dec 5;188(3):512-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.09.018. Epub 2010 Oct 20. [PubMed:20869355]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Baker DE: Loperamide: a pharmacological review. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2007;7 Suppl 3:S11-8. [PubMed:18192961]
  2. Kim KA, Chung J, Jung DH, Park JY: Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of loperamide in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;60(8):575-81. Epub 2004 Sep 8. [PubMed:15365656]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Kim KA, Chung J, Jung DH, Park JY: Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of loperamide in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;60(8):575-81. Epub 2004 Sep 8. [PubMed:15365656]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID
P20813
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2B6
Molecular Weight
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Kim KA, Chung J, Jung DH, Park JY: Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of loperamide in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;60(8):575-81. Epub 2004 Sep 8. [PubMed:15365656]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Kim KA, Chung J, Jung DH, Park JY: Identification of cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the metabolism of loperamide in human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;60(8):575-81. Epub 2004 Sep 8. [PubMed:15365656]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Wandel C, Kim R, Wood M, Wood A: Interaction of morphine, fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil, and loperamide with the efflux drug transporter P-glycoprotein. Anesthesiology. 2002 Apr;96(4):913-20. [PubMed:11964599]
  2. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684]
  3. Schinkel AH, Wagenaar E, Mol CA, van Deemter L: P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier of mice influences the brain penetration and pharmacological activity of many drugs. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jun 1;97(11):2517-24. [PubMed:8647944]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2017 17:18