Identification

Name
Procainamide
Accession Number
DB01035  (APRD00509)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A derivative of procaine with less CNS action. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Biocoryl
  • p-Amino-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)benzamide
  • p-Aminobenzoic diethylaminoethylamide
  • Procainamida
  • Procainamide
  • Procainamidum
External IDs
NSC-27461
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Procainamide HydrochlorideSI4064O0LX614-39-1ABTXGJFUQRCPNH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Procainamide Hydrochloride Inj. USPSolution100 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Procainamide-250 Cap 250mgCapsule250 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1987-12-312000-07-31Canada
Procainamide-375 Cap 375mgCapsule375 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1987-12-312000-07-31Canada
Procainamide-500 Cap 500mgCapsule500 mgOralPro Doc Limitee1987-12-312000-07-31Canada
Procan SRTablet, extended release750 mgOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1985-12-312015-06-05Canada
Procan SRTablet, extended release500 mgOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1985-12-312015-06-05Canada
Procan SRTablet, extended release250 mgOralErfa Canada 2012 Inc1985-12-31Not applicableCanada
Pronestyl Cap 250mgCapsule250 mgOralSquibb Canada Inc., Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.1955-12-312002-07-30Canada
Pronestyl Cap 375mgCapsule375 mgOralSquibb Canada Inc., Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.1973-12-312002-07-30Canada
Pronestyl Cap 500mgCapsule500 mgOralSquibb Canada Inc., Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.1976-12-312002-07-30Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-procainamide Cap 250mgCapsule250 mgOralApotex Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-procainamide Cap 375mgCapsule375 gOralApotex Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Apo-procainamide Cap 500mgCapsule500 mgOralApotex Corporation1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Procainamide HydrochlorideInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health1986-02-12Not applicableUs
Procainamide HydrochlorideInjection, solution500 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-02-12Not applicableUs
Procainamide HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousMc Kesson Packaging Services A Buisness Unit Of Mc Kesson Corporation2010-02-01Not applicableUs
Procainamide HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-02-12Not applicableUs
Procainamide HydrochlorideInjection, solution100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2011-07-08Not applicableUs
Procainamide HydrochlorideInjection1000 mg/1Intramuscular; IntravenousNexus Pharmaceuticals Inc2017-10-18Not applicableUs
Procainamide HydrochlorideInjection100 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousInternational Medication Systems, Limited2016-12-21Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Biocoryl / Procan / Procanbid / Procapan / Pronestyl
Categories
UNII
L39WTC366D
CAS number
51-06-9
Weight
Average: 235.3253
Monoisotopic: 235.168462309
Chemical Formula
C13H21N3O
InChI Key
REQCZEXYDRLIBE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C13H21N3O/c1-3-16(4-2)10-9-15-13(17)11-5-7-12(14)8-6-11/h5-8H,3-4,9-10,14H2,1-2H3,(H,15,17)
IUPAC Name
4-amino-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]benzamide
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCNC(=O)C1=CC=C(N)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Procainamide is an agent indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia and in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia occurring during cardiac manipulation, such as surgery or catheterization, or which may occur during acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxicity, or other cardiac diseases. The mode of action of the antiarrhythmic effect of Procainamide appears to be similar to that of procaine and quinidine. Ventricular excitability is depressed and the stimulation threshold of the ventricle is increased during diastole. The sinoatrial node is, however, unaffected.

Mechanism of action

Procainamide is sodium channel blocker. It stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses thereby effecting local anesthetic action.

TargetActionsOrganism
USodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
inhibitor
Human
UDNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1
other
Human
UPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

75 to 95%

Volume of distribution
  • 2 L/kg
Protein binding

15 to 20%

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

Trace amounts may be excreted in the urine as free and conjugated p-aminobenzoic acid, 30 to 60 percent as unchanged PA, and 6 to 52 percent as the NAPA derivative.

Half life

~2.5-4.5 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

LD50=95 mg/kg (rat, IV); LD50=312 mg/kg (mouse, oral); LD50=103 mg/kg (mouse, IV); LD50=250 mg/kg (rabbit, IV)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.Approved
AlcuroniumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Alcuronium.Experimental
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.Approved, Investigational
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Artemether.Approved
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.Approved
AtracuriumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium.Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.Approved
BetaxololThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Betaxolol.Approved
BupropionThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.Approved
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.Approved, Vet Approved
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.Approved
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.Approved
CisatracuriumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium.Approved, Experimental
Cisatracurium besylateProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.Approved
CitalopramThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.Approved
ClemastineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.Approved
ClobazamThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.Approved, Illicit
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.Approved, Vet Approved
ClozapineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
CocaineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Cocaine.Approved, Illicit
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.Approved, Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DecamethoniumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Decamethonium.Approved
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.Approved
DesipramineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.Approved
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.Approved
Domoic AcidProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Domoic Acid.Experimental
DosulepinThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Dosulepin.Approved
Doxacurium chlorideProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Doxacurium chloride.Approved
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.Approved
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.Approved
EliglustatThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.Approved
FingolimodFingolimod may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Procainamide.Approved, Investigational
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.Approved, Vet Approved
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.Approved, Investigational
GallamineProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Gallamine.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.Approved
ImipramineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.Approved
IndinavirThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.Approved
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.Approved
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be increased when it is combined with Lamotrigine.Approved, Investigational
LopinavirThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.Approved
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.Approved
LurasidoneLurasidone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Procainamide.Approved
MacimorelinProcainamide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Macimorelin.Approved, Investigational
ManidipineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Manidipine.Approved, Investigational
MethadoneThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Methadone.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MetocurineProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Metocurine.Approved
Metocurine IodideProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Metocurine Iodide.Withdrawn
MetoprololThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MidostaurinThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Midostaurin.Approved
MirabegronThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.Approved
MivacuriumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.Approved
NeosaxitoxinProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Neosaxitoxin.Investigational
NevirapineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicardipineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.Approved
NilotinibThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
PancuroniumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.Approved
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.Approved
PipecuroniumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pipecuronium.Approved
PromazineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Promazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PropafenonePropafenone may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Procainamide.Approved
PyrantelProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pyrantel.Approved, Vet Approved
QuinidineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.Approved
QuinineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Quinine.Approved
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Procainamide can be increased when it is combined with Ranitidine.Approved
RanolazineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.Approved, Investigational
RapacuroniumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RibociclibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Ribociclib is combined with Procainamide.Approved
RitonavirThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RocuroniumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.Approved
RolapitantThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.Approved
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.Approved, Investigational
RucaparibThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Rucaparib.Approved, Investigational
SertralineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.Approved
StiripentolThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.Approved
SuccinylcholineProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Succinylcholine.Approved
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procainamide is combined with Sulpiride.Approved, Investigational
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Thioridazine.Approved, Withdrawn
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.Approved
TipranavirThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.Approved
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Procainamide can be increased when Procainamide is used in combination with Trimethoprim.Approved, Vet Approved
TubocurarineProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Tubocurarine.Approved
VecuroniumProcainamide may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.Approved
VemurafenibThe risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Vemurafenib is combined with Procainamide.Approved
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.Approved
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Procainamide can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation.

References

Synthesis Reference

Victor Chu, Zhu Teng, Steve Goss, Ronald Edwards, Kelle Garvey, Timothy Gorzynski, William Bedzyk, "Synthesis and application of procainamide analogs for use in an immunoassay." U.S. Patent US20050227288, issued October 13, 2005.

US20050227288
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015169
KEGG Compound
C07401
PubChem Compound
4913
PubChem Substance
46507313
ChemSpider
4744
BindingDB
39344
ChEBI
8428
ChEMBL
CHEMBL640
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000516
PharmGKB
PA451108
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Procainamide
ATC Codes
C01BA02 — Procainamide
AHFS Codes
  • 24:04.04.04 — Class IA Antiarrythmics
MSDS
Download (72 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3CompletedPreventionArrythmias / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Arrest / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Severe ventricular arrhythmias1
3CompletedTreatmentArrythmias / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Death, Sudden,Cardiac / Heart Diseases / Severe ventricular arrhythmias / Ventricular Arrythmias / Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)1
3CompletedTreatmentArrythmias / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3TerminatedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedTreatmentBrugada Syndrome / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentArrythmias1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral375 g
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous1000 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous500 mg/mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg
CapsuleOral250 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral250 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral750 mg
CapsuleOral375 mg
CapsuleOral500 mg
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous100 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Procainamide 500 mg/ml vial6.45USD ml
Procainamide 100 mg/ml vial1.29USD ml
Procan Sr 750 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.91USD tablet
Procan Sr 500 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.56USD tablet
Procan Sr 250 mg Sustained-Release Tablet0.4USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5656296No1994-08-122014-08-12Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)165-169 °CNot Available
water solubility5050 mg/LNot Available
logP0.88HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa9.32SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.02 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.42ALOGPS
logP0.95ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.04ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity72.25 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability27.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9561
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9675
Caco-2 permeable+0.666
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7739
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9452
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9654
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7526
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8624
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8919
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6306
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9384
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9606
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9238
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8833
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7822
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.5352
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9855
Rat acute toxicity2.1133 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9454
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.648
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03dr-1940000000-b9d8d6702d2ec39984a3

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzamides. These are organic compounds containing a benzamide moiety with an amine group attached to the benzene ring.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzoic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Aminobenzamides
Alternative Parents
Benzamides / Benzoyl derivatives / Aniline and substituted anilines / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Amino acids and derivatives / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organic oxides
show 1 more
Substituents
Aminobenzamide / Benzamide / Benzoyl / Aniline or substituted anilines / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxamide group / Tertiary aliphatic amine / Tertiary amine / Secondary carboxylic acid amide / Carboxylic acid derivative
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
benzamides (CHEBI:8428)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the pr...
Gene Name
SCN5A
Uniprot ID
Q14524
Uniprot Name
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Weiss R, Barmada MM, Nguyen T, Seibel JS, Cavlovich D, Kornblit CA, Angelilli A, Villanueva F, McNamara DM, London B: Clinical and molecular heterogeneity in the Brugada syndrome: a novel gene locus on chromosome 3. Circulation. 2002 Feb 12;105(6):707-13. [PubMed:11839626]
  2. Brugada R, Brugada J, Antzelevitch C, Kirsch GE, Potenza D, Towbin JA, Brugada P: Sodium channel blockers identify risk for sudden death in patients with ST-segment elevation and right bundle branch block but structurally normal hearts. Circulation. 2000 Feb 8;101(5):510-5. [PubMed:10662748]
  3. Chen SM, Kuo CT, Lin KH, Chiang FT: Brugada syndrome without mutation of the cardiac sodium channel gene in a Taiwanese patient. J Formos Med Assoc. 2000 Nov;99(11):860-2. [PubMed:11155778]
  4. Brugada J, Brugada R, Brugada P: [Brugada syndrome]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1999 Jul;92(7):847-50. [PubMed:10443304]
  5. Brugada J, Brugada P, Brugada R: The syndrome of right bundle branch block ST segment elevation in V1 to V3 and sudden death--the Brugada syndrome. Europace. 1999 Jul;1(3):156-66. [PubMed:11225790]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Methylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is ...
Gene Name
DNMT1
Uniprot ID
P26358
Uniprot Name
DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1
Molecular Weight
183163.635 Da
References
  1. Oelke K, Lu Q, Richardson D, Wu A, Deng C, Hanash S, Richardson B: Overexpression of CD70 and overstimulation of IgG synthesis by lupus T cells and T cells treated with DNA methylation inhibitors. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jun;50(6):1850-60. [PubMed:15188362]
  2. Januchowski R, Jagodzinski PP: Effect of 5-azacytidine and procainamide on CD3-zeta chain expression in Jurkat T cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Apr;59(3):122-6. [PubMed:15795105]
  3. Lee BH, Yegnasubramanian S, Lin X, Nelson WG: Procainamide is a specific inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1. J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 9;280(49):40749-56. Epub 2005 Oct 17. [PubMed:16230360]
  4. Scheinbart LS, Johnson MA, Gross LA, Edelstein SR, Richardson BC: Procainamide inhibits DNA methyltransferase in a human T cell line. J Rheumatol. 1991 Apr;18(4):530-4. [PubMed:2066944]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Channel properties are modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates the rapidly activating component of the ...
Gene Name
KCNH2
Uniprot ID
Q12809
Uniprot Name
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2
Molecular Weight
126653.52 Da
References
  1. Chiu PJ, Marcoe KF, Bounds SE, Lin CH, Feng JJ, Lin A, Cheng FC, Crumb WJ, Mitchell R: Validation of a [3H]astemizole binding assay in HEK293 cells expressing HERG K+ channels. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Jul;95(3):311-9. [PubMed:15272206]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Lessard E, Hamelin BA, Labbe L, O'Hara G, Belanger PM, Turgeon J: Involvement of CYP2D6 activity in the N-oxidation of procainamide in man. Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Dec;9(6):683-96. [PubMed:10634131]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
BCHE
Uniprot ID
P06276
Uniprot Name
Cholinesterase
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Bailey DN: Amitriptyline and procainamide inhibition of cocaine and cocaethylene degradation in human serum in vitro. J Anal Toxicol. 1999 Mar-Apr;23(2):99-102. [PubMed:10192412]
  2. Page JD, Wilson IB, Silman I: Butyrylcholinesterase: inhibition by arsenite, fluoride, and other ligands, cooperativity in binding. Mol Pharmacol. 1985 Apr;27(4):437-43. [PubMed:3982389]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creat...
Gene Name
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID
O15244
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 2
Molecular Weight
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365]
  2. Gorboulev V, Ulzheimer JC, Akhoundova A, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Karbach U, Quester S, Baumann C, Lang F, Busch AE, Koepsell H: Cloning and characterization of two human polyspecific organic cation transporters. DNA Cell Biol. 1997 Jul;16(7):871-81. [PubMed:9260930]
  3. Kakehi M, Koyabu N, Nakamura T, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Functional characterization of mouse cation transporter mOCT2 compared with mOCT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 23;296(3):644-50. [PubMed:12176030]
  4. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595]
  5. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515]
  6. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376]
  7. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnico...
Gene Name
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID
O15245
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 1
Molecular Weight
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755]
  2. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Gray AT, Yost SC, Terashita S, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional expression of a human liver organic cation transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;51(6):913-21. [PubMed:9187257]
  3. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880]
  4. Kakehi M, Koyabu N, Nakamura T, Uchiumi T, Kuwano M, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Functional characterization of mouse cation transporter mOCT2 compared with mOCT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Aug 23;296(3):644-50. [PubMed:12176030]
  5. Green RM, Lo K, Sterritt C, Beier DR: Cloning and functional expression of a mouse liver organic cation transporter. Hepatology. 1999 May;29(5):1556-62. [PubMed:10216142]
  6. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Chun JK, Babbitt PC, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional characterization of a rat renal organic cation transporter isoform (rOCT1A). J Biol Chem. 1997 Jun 27;272(26):16548-54. [PubMed:9195965]
  7. Goralski KB, Lou G, Prowse MT, Gorboulev V, Volk C, Koepsell H, Sitar DS: The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):959-68. [PubMed:12438515]
  8. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Akazawa M, Saito H, Inui K: Distinct characteristics of organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, in the basolateral membrane of renal tubules. Pharm Res. 2001 Nov;18(11):1528-34. [PubMed:11758759]
  9. Grundemann D, Gorboulev V, Gambaryan S, Veyhl M, Koepsell H: Drug excretion mediated by a new prototype of polyspecific transporter. Nature. 1994 Dec 8;372(6506):549-52. [PubMed:7990927]
  10. Ishiguro N, Saito A, Yokoyama K, Morikawa M, Igarashi T, Tamai I: Transport of the dopamine D2 agonist pramipexole by rat organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 in kidney. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):495-9. Epub 2005 Jan 7. [PubMed:15640376]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain.
Gene Name
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID
O75751
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 3
Molecular Weight
61279.485 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Huang W, Ganapathy ME, Wang H, Kekuda R, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structure, function, and regional distribution of the organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000 Sep;279(3):F449-58. [PubMed:10966924]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Wu X, Prasad PD, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: cDNA sequence, transport function, and genomic organization of human OCTN2, a new member of the organic cation transporter family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 29;246(3):589-95. [PubMed:9618255]
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]
  3. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873]
  4. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without...
Gene Name
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID
Q9H015
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 4
Molecular Weight
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651]
  2. Wu X, George RL, Huang W, Wang H, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structural and functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of rat OCTN1, an organic cation transporter, cloned from placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 1;1466(1-2):315-27. [PubMed:10825452]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on January 23, 2018 12:15