Identification

Name
Ketorolac
Accession Number
DB00465  (APRD01060)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to indomethacin. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-5-Benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
  • (+-)-Ketorolac
  • Ketorolac
  • Kétorolac
  • Ketorolaco
  • Ketorolacum
  • rac-Ketorolac
External IDs
BPPC
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ketorolac tromethamine4EVE5946BQ74103-07-4BWHLPLXXIDYSNW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcularSolution / drops5 mg/mLOphthalmicStat Rx USA1992-12-012018-02-08Us
AcularSolution / drops5 mg/mLOphthalmicAllergan1992-12-01Not applicableUs
AcularSolution5 mg/mLOphthalmicRebel Distributors1992-11-09Not applicableUs
Acular Liq 0.5%Solution0.5 %OphthalmicAllergan1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Acular LsSolution0.4 %OphthalmicAllergan2004-03-08Not applicableCanada
Acular LsSolution / drops4 mg/mLOphthalmicAllergan2003-08-19Not applicableUs
AcuvailSolution0.45 %OphthalmicAllergan2012-01-10Not applicableCanada
AcuvailSolution / drops4.5 mg/mLOphthalmicAllergan2009-08-01Not applicableUs
KetorolacSolution0.5 %OphthalmicAa Pharma Inc2002-12-06Not applicableCanada
Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection USPLiquid30 mgIntramuscularSandoz Canada Incorporated1999-05-21Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-ketorolacTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation1998-07-03Not applicableCanada
Apo-ketorolac InjectableSolution30 mgIntramuscularApotex Corporation2001-12-04Not applicableCanada
KetorolacTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2010-09-152018-02-08Us00378 1134 01 nlmimage10 dc3eee57
Ketorolac TromethamineInjection15 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc.2011-05-112016-04-13Us
Ketorolac TromethamineInjection, solution15 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2011-07-272017-12-22Us
Ketorolac TromethamineInjection, solution60 mg/2mLIntramuscularA S Medication Solutions1997-06-052017-06-20Us
Ketorolac TromethamineTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralDirectrx2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Ketorolac TromethamineSolution5 mg/mLOphthalmicSun Pharma Global Inc.2009-11-062017-01-05Us
Ketorolac TromethamineSolution / drops5 mg/mLOphthalmicApotex Corporation2009-12-07Not applicableUs
Ketorolac TromethamineInjection, solution30 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousHospira, Inc.1999-01-27Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Toradol Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralSyntex Inc.1991-12-311996-09-30Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OmidriaKetorolac tromethamine (2.88 mg/mL) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (10.16 mg/mL)Injection, solution, concentrateIntraocularOmeros Corporation2014-06-13Not applicableUs
ReadySharp Anesthetics plus KetorolacKetorolac tromethamine + Bupivacaine hydrochloride + Lidocaine hydrochlorideKitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; IntravenousTerrain Pharmaceuticals2015-12-29Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.3 g/100mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 g/100mL) + Poliglusam (0.1 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.09 g/30mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.09 g/30mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (50 g/30mL) + Poliglusam (0.03 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Synergy TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (1.5 g/100mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 g/100mL) + Poliglusam (0.1 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Synergy TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.45 g/30mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.09 g/30mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (1.5 g/30mL) + Poliglusam (0.03 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.09 g/30mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.09 g/30mL) + Poliglusam (0.03 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-04-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.3 g/100mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Poliglusam (0.1 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-04-01Not applicableUs
Dex-Moxi-KetorKetorolac tromethamine (.4 mg/mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/mL) + Moxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (.5 mg/mL)Injection, solutionOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
DexMoxiKetor PFKetorolac tromethamine (.4 mg/mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/mL) + Moxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (.5 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntraocularImprimis Rx Nj2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Ketorocaine L KitKetorolac tromethamine (30 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; TopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.1997-06-05Not applicableUs
Toronova II SUIKKetorolac tromethamine (30 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntramuscular; IntravenousAsclemed Usa, Inc.1997-06-05Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bedoral (Be-Tabs Pharmaceuticals) / Dolten (Pfizer) / Dolten SL (Pfizer) / Dorixina forte NF (Roemmers) / Emodol (Jayson) / Etorac (Incepta) / Ketonic (Eskayef) / Ketora (Medicon) / Lixidol (Roche) / Syndol (Roche) / Taradyl (Roche) / Tarasyn (Roche) / Toradol (Roche)
Categories
UNII
YZI5105V0L
CAS number
74103-06-3
Weight
Average: 255.2686
Monoisotopic: 255.089543287
Chemical Formula
C15H13NO3
InChI Key
OZWKMVRBQXNZKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H13NO3/c17-14(10-4-2-1-3-5-10)13-7-6-12-11(15(18)19)8-9-16(12)13/h1-7,11H,8-9H2,(H,18,19)
IUPAC Name
5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)C1CCN2C1=CC=C2C(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the short-term (~5 days) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Ketorolac, an antiinflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties, is used to treat osteoarthritis and control acute pain. It is a peripherally acting analgesic. The biological activity of ketorolac tromethamine is associated with the S-form. Ketorolac tromethamine possesses no sedative or anxiolytic properties.

Mechanism of action

Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) chemically related to indomethacin and tolmetin. Ketorolac tromethamine is a racemic mixture of [-]S- and [+]R-enantiomeric forms, with the S-form having analgesic activity. Its antiinflammatory effects are believed to be due to inhibition of both cylooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which leads to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis leading to decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. The resultant reduction in prostaglandin synthesis and activity may be at least partially responsible for many of the adverse, as well as the therapeutic, effects of these medications. Analgesia is probably produced via a peripheral action in which blockade of pain impulse generation results from decreased prostaglandin activity. However, inhibition of the synthesis or actions of other substances that sensitize pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation may also contribute to the analgesic effect. In terms of the ophthalmic applications of ketorolac - ocular administration of ketorolac reduces prostaglandin E2 levels in aqueous humor, secondary to inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Human
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration

Volume of distribution
  • 0.26 ± 0.08 L/kg [children 4 to 8 years old]
Protein binding

99%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic. Less than 50% of a dose is metabolized. The major metabolites are a glucuronide conjugate, which may also be formed in the kidney, and p-hydroxy ketorolac. Neither metabolite has significant analgesic activity.

Route of elimination

The principal route of elimination of ketorolac and its metabolites is renal. Approximately 6% of a dose is excreted in the feces.

Half life

2.5 hours for the S-enantiomer compared with 5 hours for the R-enantiomer

Clearance
  • 0.042 +/- 0.01 L/hr/kg [Pediatric Patients]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Normal Subjects IM]
  • 0.03 L/h/kg [Normal Subjects oral]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Healthy Elderly Subjects IM]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Healthy Elderly Subjects oral]
  • 0.03 L/h/kg [Patients with Hepatic Dysfunction IM]
  • 0.03 L/h/kg [Patients with Hepatic Dysfunction oral]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Patients with Renal Impairment IM]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Patients with Renal Impairment oral]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Renal Dialysis Patients IM]
Toxicity

LD50 = 189 mg/kg (rat, oral).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
(4R)-limoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with (4R)-limonene.Investigational
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with 16-Bromoepiandrosterone.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with 19-norandrostenedione.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with 5-androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcebutololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Aceclofenac.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Acemetacin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
AcenocoumarolKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved, Investigational
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AclarubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Aclarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Adapalene.Approved
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alclofenac.Approved, Withdrawn
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alclometasone.Approved
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental, Investigational
AldoxorubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Aldoxorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alendronic acid.Approved
AliskirenKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlminoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alminoprofen.Experimental
AlprenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprostadilThe therapeutic efficacy of Alprostadil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
AmcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Amcinonide.Approved
AmikacinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Amikacin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
AmilorideKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amiloride.Approved
AmrubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Amrubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
AncrodKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Approved, Investigational
AndrographolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Andrographolide.Investigational
AndrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Anecortave.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with anecortave acetate.Investigational
AnisodamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Anisodamine.Investigational
AnnamycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Annamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Antipyrine.Approved, Investigational
Antithrombin III humanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.Approved
ApocyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Apocynin.Investigational
ApramycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Apramycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental, Vet Approved
ApremilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Apremilast.Approved, Investigational
ArbekacinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Arbekacin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
ArdeparinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Arotinolol.Investigational
AtamestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Atamestane.Investigational
AtenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Azapropazone.Withdrawn
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Azelastine.Approved
Azficel-TThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Azficel-T.Approved, Investigational
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
AzosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Azosemide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BecaplerminKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Beclomethasone dipropionate.Approved, Investigational
BefunololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BekanamycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Bekanamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bendazac.Experimental
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bendroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BenorilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benorilate.Experimental
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benoxaprofen.Withdrawn
BenzydamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benzydamine.Approved
BeraprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Beraprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BetrixabanThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Betrixaban is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
BevantololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BevoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bevonium.Experimental
BimatoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Bimatoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BivalirudinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BopindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bromfenac.Approved
BucillamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bucillamine.Investigational
BucindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BudesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Budesonide.Approved
BufexamacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bufexamac.Approved, Experimental
BufuralolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumadizoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bumadizone.Experimental
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bumetanide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BupranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan cilexetil is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CandoxatrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Captopril.Approved
Carbaspirin calciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
Carboprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Carboprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Carprofen.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarteololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Castanospermine.Experimental
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CertoparinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Chloroquine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorthalidone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ketorolac resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Choline magnesium trisalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Choline magnesium trisalicylate.Approved
CiclesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ciclesonide.Approved, Investigational
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CinoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Cinoxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Citric AcidKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clobetasol.Approved, Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clobetasol propionate.Approved
ClobetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clobetasone.Approved
ClocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clocortolone.Approved
Clodronic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clodronic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clonixin.Approved
CloprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
CloranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ketorolac resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ketorolac resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cortexolone 17α-propionate.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Corticosterone.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cortisone acetate.Approved, Investigational
CurcuminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Curcumin.Approved, Investigational
CyclopenthiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopenthiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
CyclosporineKetorolac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dabigatran etexilateKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DaunorubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Deflazacort.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Delapril.Experimental
DesirudinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desmopressin.Approved
DesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desonide.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desoximetasone.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desoxycorticosterone acetate.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dexamethasone isonicotinate.Vet Approved
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexketoprofen is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
DextranKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DibekacinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Dibekacin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
Dibotermin alfaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dibotermin alfa.Approved, Investigational
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DifenpiramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Difenpiramide.Experimental
DiflorasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Diflorasone.Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Diflunisal.Approved, Investigational
DifluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Difluocortolone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
DihydrostreptomycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Dihydrostreptomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational, Vet Approved
DinoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
Dinoprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
DinoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
DoxorubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
DrospirenoneKetorolac may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Drospirenone.Approved
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Droxicam.Withdrawn
DuvelisibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Duvelisib.Investigational
E-6201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with E-6201.Investigational
Edetic AcidKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Enoxacin.Approved, Investigational
EnoxaparinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EnprostilThe therapeutic efficacy of Enprostil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
EpanololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Epirizole.Approved
EpirubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Epirubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
EpitizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Epitizide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
EplerenoneKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Epoprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
EquileninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Equilenin.Experimental
EquilinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Equilin.Approved
EsmololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.Approved
EstroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Estrone.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Estrone sulfate.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Etacrynic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
EtanerceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etanercept.Approved, Investigational
EthenzamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ethenzamide.Experimental
Ethyl biscoumacetateKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
Etidronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etidronic acid.Approved
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etodolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etofenamate.Approved, Investigational
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etoricoxib.Approved, Investigational
Evening primrose oilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational, Nutraceutical
ExisulindThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Exisulind.Investigational
FelbinacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Felbinac.Experimental
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fenbufen.Approved
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fenoprofen.Approved
FenprostaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenprostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
FentiazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fentiazac.Experimental
FeprazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Feprazone.Experimental
Ferulic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ferulic acid.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FleroxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Fleroxacin.Approved
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
FluasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluasterone.Investigational
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fludrocortisone.Approved, Investigational
FluindioneKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Approved, Investigational
FlumequineKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Flumequine.Withdrawn
FlumethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flumethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flunisolide.Approved, Investigational
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flunixin.Vet Approved
FlunoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flunoxaprofen.Experimental
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluocinolone Acetonide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluocinonide.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluocortolone.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluorometholone.Approved, Investigational
FluprednideneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluprednidene.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluprednisolone.Approved
FluprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
FlurandrenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flurandrenolide.Approved
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flurbiprofen.Approved, Investigational
Fluticasone furoateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluticasone furoate.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
Folic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Folic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
FondaparinuxKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Approved, Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
ForasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Forasartan is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
FormestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Formestane.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FramycetinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Framycetin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Furosemide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
GabexateKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GarenoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Garenoxacin.Investigational
GatifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gatifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GemeprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Gemeprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
GemifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GeneticinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Geneticin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
GentamicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Gentamicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of GENTAMICIN C1A which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
GPX-150Ketorolac may decrease the excretion rate of GPX-150 which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
GrepafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Grepafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Guacetisal.Experimental
HalcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Halcinonide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HE3286The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with HE3286.Investigational
HeparinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HigenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Higenamine.Investigational
HydralazineKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Hygromycin BKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Hygromycin B which could result in a higher serum level.Vet Approved
IbandronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ibandronate.Approved, Investigational
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ibuprofen.Approved
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ibuproxam.Withdrawn
IcatibantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Icatibant.Approved, Investigational
IdarubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Idarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
IdraparinuxKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IloprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Iloprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
Imidazole salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Imidazole salicylate.Experimental
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Indapamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
IndenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Indobufen.Investigational
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Indomethacin.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Indoprofen.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
IsepamicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Isepamicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Isoxicam.Withdrawn
IstaroximeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Istaroxime.Investigational
KanamycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Kanamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Kebuzone.Experimental
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ketoprofen.Approved, Vet Approved
LabetalolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LandiololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LatanoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Latanoprostene BunodThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprostene Bunod can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LevobunololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.Approved
LevofloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LimaprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Limaprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lisofylline.Investigational
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
LonazolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lonazolac.Experimental
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lornoxicam.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
LoteprednolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Loteprednol.Approved
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Loxoprofen.Approved, Investigational
LubiprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Lubiprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lumiracoxib.Approved, Investigational
LuprostiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Luprostiol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Magnesium salicylate.Approved
MasoprocolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Masoprocol.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with ME-609.Investigational
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Meclofenamic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MedrysoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Medrysone.Approved
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mefenamic acid.Approved
MelagatranKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MelengestrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Melengestrol.Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Meloxicam.Approved, Vet Approved
MepindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Metamizole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyclothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MetipranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metolazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
MetoprololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetrizamideKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Metrizamide which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
MicronomicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Micronomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
MifamurtideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mifamurtide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Experimental
MisoprostolThe therapeutic efficacy of Misoprostol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
MivacuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mivacurium.Approved
MizoribineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mizoribine.Investigational
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MofebutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mofebutazone.Experimental
MometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mometasone.Approved, Vet Approved
MorniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morniflumate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Mycophenolate mofetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mycophenolate mofetil.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mycophenolic acid.Approved
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nabumetone.Approved
NadololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NadroparinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved, Investigational
NafamostatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Naftifine.Approved
Nalidixic AcidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nalidixic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Naproxen.Approved, Vet Approved
NCX 1022The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with NCX 1022.Investigational
NeamineKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Neamine which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
NebivololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NemonoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nemonoxacin.Investigational
NeomycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Neomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nepafenac.Approved, Investigational
NetilmicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Netilmicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
NifenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nifenazone.Experimental
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Niflumic Acid.Approved
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nimesulide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NorfloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.Approved
Oleoyl-estroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Oleoyl-estrone.Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Olopatadine.Approved
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Olsalazine.Approved
Omacetaxine mepesuccinateThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Omacetaxine mepesuccinate.Approved, Investigational
OmapatrilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OrgoteinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Orgotein.Vet Approved
OtamixabanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Oxaprozin.Approved
Oxolinic acidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Oxolinic acid.Experimental
OxprenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Oxyphenbutazone.Approved, Withdrawn
PamidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pamidronate.Approved
ParamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Paramethasone.Approved
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Parecoxib.Approved
ParomomycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Paromomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
ParthenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Parthenolide.Approved, Investigational
PazufloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pazufloxacin.Investigational
PefloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pefloxacin.Approved
PenbutololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Pentaerythritol TetranitrateKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PentoxifyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenindioneKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenprocoumonKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Phenylbutazone.Approved, Vet Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pimecrolimus.Approved, Investigational
PindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
Pipemidic acidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pipemidic acid.Experimental
PirarubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Pirarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
PiretanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Piretanide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
PirfenidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pirfenidone.Approved, Investigational
Piromidic acidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Piromidic acid.Experimental
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Piroxicam.Approved, Investigational
PirprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pirprofen.Experimental
PitolisantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
Platelet Activating FactorKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PlazomicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Plazomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
PlicamycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Plicamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Polythiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
PractololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Practolol.Approved
PralatrexateThe serum concentration of Pralatrexate can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
PranoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pranoprofen.Experimental, Investigational
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Prasterone.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Prasterone sulfate.Investigational
PrednicarbateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Prednicarbate.Approved, Investigational
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pregnenolone.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Ketorolac can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved, Investigational
ProglumetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Proglumetacin.Experimental
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Propacetamol.Approved, Investigational
PropranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
PropyphenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Propyphenazone.Experimental
ProquazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Proquazone.Experimental
Prostaglandin B2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin B2 can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
Prostaglandin G2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin G2 can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
ProstaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Prostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
Protein CKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
PrulifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Prulifloxacin.Investigational
PTC299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with PTC299.Investigational
PuromycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Puromycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinethazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RapacuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RescinnamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rescinnamine.Approved
ResveratrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Resveratrol.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ReviparinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RibostamycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Ribostamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rimexolone.Approved
RisedronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Risedronate.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rofecoxib.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
RosoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rosoxacin.Approved, Investigational
RufloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rufloxacin.Experimental
SabarubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Sabarubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Salicylamide.Approved
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Salsalate.Approved
SaprisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saprisartan is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
SaralasinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saralasin is combined with Ketorolac.Investigational
SarilumabSarilumab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
SemapimodThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Semapimod.Investigational
SeratrodastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Seratrodast.Approved
SerrapeptaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Serrapeptase.Investigational
SisomicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Sisomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
SitafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sitafloxacin.Experimental, Investigational
Sodium phosphateSodium phosphate may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Ketorolac.Approved
SotalolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Sotalol.Approved
SP1049CKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of SP1049C which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
SparfloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sparfloxacin.Approved, Investigational
SpectinomycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Spectinomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SpiraprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Spironolactone.Approved
SRT501The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with SRT501.Investigational
StreptomycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Streptomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
StreptozocinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Streptozocin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Sulfasalazine.Approved
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Sulindac.Approved, Investigational
SulodexideKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
SulprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Suprofen.Approved, Withdrawn
SuxibuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Suxibuzone.Experimental
TacrolimusKetorolac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TafluprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Tafluprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
TalinololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TalniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Talniflumate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
TarenflurbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tarenflurbil.Investigational
TasosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tasosartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Technetium Tc-99m etidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Technetium Tc-99m etidronate.Approved
Technetium Tc-99m medronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Technetium Tc-99m medronate.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
TemafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Temafloxacin.Withdrawn
TemocaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenidapThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tenidap.Experimental
Tenofovir disoproxilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tenoxicam.Approved
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tepoxalin.Vet Approved
TeriflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Teriflunomide.Approved
TertatololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tiaprofenic acid.Approved
Tiludronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tiludronic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TimololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TinoridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tinoridine.Investigational
TixocortolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tixocortol.Approved, Withdrawn
TobramycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tolfenamic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tolmetin.Approved
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Torasemide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
TranilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TravoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TriamtereneKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Triamterene.Approved
TribenosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tribenoside.Experimental
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Trichlormethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
TriptolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Triptolide.Investigational
TrovafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Trovafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TroxerutinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
UlobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ulobetasol.Approved
UnoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Unoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Valdecoxib.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ValrubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Valrubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
VancomycinThe serum concentration of Vancomycin can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
WarfarinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zaltoprofen.Approved, Investigational
ZileutonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zileuton.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZofenoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zofenopril.Experimental
Zoledronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zoledronic acid.Approved
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zomepirac.Withdrawn
Zoptarelin doxorubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Zoptarelin doxorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
ZorubicinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Zorubicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce GI irritation

References

Synthesis Reference

Peter J. Harrington, Hiralal N. Khatri, George C. Schloemer, "Preparation of ketorolac." U.S. Patent US6323344, issued October, 1989.

US6323344
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014608
KEGG Compound
C07062
PubChem Compound
3826
PubChem Substance
46507019
ChemSpider
3694
BindingDB
85511
ChEBI
76223
ChEMBL
CHEMBL469
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000618
PharmGKB
PA450150
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ketorolac
ATC Codes
M01AB15 — KetorolacS01BC05 — Ketorolac
AHFS Codes
  • 52:08.20 — Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents
  • 28:08.04.92 — Other Nonsteroidal Antiimflammatory Agents
FDA label
Download (138 KB)
MSDS
Download (76.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingOtherCancer of the Ovary / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceBlood Pressures1
0RecruitingTreatmentUrologic Diseases1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR)1
1CompletedTreatmentAssess Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac Tromethamine Intranasal and Assess Effects of a Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride on the PK of Ketorolac Tromethamine / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers6
1CompletedTreatmentInflammatory Reaction1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceArterial hypoxia / Hypercapnia1
1RecruitingSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1RecruitingTreatmentEvaluating Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Ketorolac / Pain1
1TerminatedPreventionPostoperative pain1
1WithdrawnDiagnosticInflammatory Reaction1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
2CompletedPreventionIrreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedTreatmentBunionectomy / Orthopedic Procedures1
2CompletedTreatmentDental Impaction / Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentFailed Mechanical Induction1
2CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedTreatmentMacular Edema (ME) / Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR)1
2CompletedTreatmentMacular Edema (ME) / Retinopathy, Diabetic1
2CompletedTreatmentMacular Edema After Cataract Surgery in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentMigraines1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionIrreversible Pulpitis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders / Opioids Use / Rib Fractures1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSymptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis1
2RecruitingPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
2RecruitingTreatmentElective Cesarean Delivery / Valve Heart Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentKidney Diseases / Postoperative pain / Renal Stones / Urinary Lithiasis1
2TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
2TerminatedTreatmentHip Arthroplasty1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Pain Control in Surgical Neonates1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticCancer, Breast1
2, 3CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Viral1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain / Surgical Abortion1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPost-surgical Cystoid Macular Edema (PSCME)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCurative Breast Cancer Surgery / Inflammatory Positive/Negative Status / Pre Surgical Incision Administration1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPilon Fracture1
3CompletedSupportive CareMyopes Who Have Undergone PRK1
3CompletedTreatmentCataract Extraction / Inflammatory Reaction / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentCataracts2
3CompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Intranasal Ketamine1
3CompletedTreatmentPain3
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Intensity / Rescue Pain Requirements1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain in Infants1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain5
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute nonspecific tenosynovitis / DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis / Inflammatory Diseases / Lateral Epicondylitis / Trigger Finger1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
3TerminatedTreatmentSurgery, Laparoscopic1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBack Pain2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Obstetrical1
4CompletedNot AvailableCataracts1
4CompletedNot AvailableEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Lung Cancers1
4CompletedNot AvailableMacula Thickening1
4CompletedBasic ScienceInflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedBasic ScienceSecondary Hyperalgesia1
4CompletedPreventionCataracts / Inflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section1
4CompletedPreventionCystoid Macular Edema Following Cataract Surgery, Bilateral1
4CompletedPreventionCystoid Macular Edema, Postoperative / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedPreventionMacular Edema (ME)1
4CompletedPreventionPain1
4CompletedPreventionThroat Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCataracts / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain2
4CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasties, Hip Replacement1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Knee Replacement / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroscopic Knee Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Release / Distal Radius Fractures / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCataract Extraction1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts3
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentContraception1
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES) / Ocular Comfort1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentGonarthrosis / Low Back Pain (LBP)1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
4CompletedTreatmentHernia1
4CompletedTreatmentHypermetropia / Myopia1
4CompletedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Injuries1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy / Nephrectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine With Aura / Migraine Without Aura / Probable Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraines1
4CompletedTreatmentPain4
4CompletedTreatmentPain Management Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Anterior Chamber Inflammation (Flare)1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain4
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentWet Macular Degeneration1
4Enrolling by InvitationOtherCataracts1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHeadaches1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNonspecific Pain Post Traumatic Injury1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPancreatitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Rotator Cuff Injury / Rotator Cuff Syndrome / Rotator Cuff Tendinitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGynecology / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement, Total1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRenal Colic1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pancreatitis (AP)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Urolithiasis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesic Adverse Reaction1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeQuervain Tendinopathy1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpiate withdrawal symptoms1
4RecruitingTreatmentOtitis Media (OM) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentThoracolumbar Spinal Fusions1
4TerminatedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Management / Urolithiasis1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHematologic Diseases / Sickle Cell Disorders1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBlindness / Retinal Detachment / Retinopathy of Prematurity1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareChronic Pelvic Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCataracts1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMigraine, Acute1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Vasectomy Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRenal Colic1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthritic Knee Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
4WithdrawnTreatmentMigraines1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnesthesia Intubation Complications / Tracheal Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMacular Edema (ME)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMacular Edema, Cystoid1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRenal Cell Adenocarcinoma1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePerforated Appendicitis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareUreteroneocystostomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Renal Colic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCataracts2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception / Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFebrile Morbidity / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGynecologic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpen Heart Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOther Acute Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Control With IUD Insertion1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Liver1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDegeneration / Ectasia / Keratoconus2
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableHealthy Controls1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCancer of the Ovary / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Malignant Peritoneal Neoplasm1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAnesthesia Complication1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Osteoarthritis / Spinal Stenosis / Spondylosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMeniscectomy1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBunions1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentOpen Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableRecurrent Acute Tonsillitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGlaucoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentSubacromial Bursitis / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Akorn strides llc
  • Amphastar pharmaceutical inc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Claris lifesciences ltd
  • Gland pharma ltd
  • Hospira inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Sun pharma global inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Roche palo alto llc
  • Allergan inc
  • Allergan
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon inc
  • Roxro pharma inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Allergan Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Apothecary Shop Wholesale
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Cura Pharmaceutical Co. Inc.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Ethex Corp.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Strides Arcolab Limited
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Syntex SA
  • Taylor Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 %
SolutionOphthalmic0.4 %
SolutionOphthalmic0.45 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic4.5 mg/mL
Spray, meteredTopical
Injection, solutionOphthalmic
Injection, solutionIntraocular
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
InjectionIntramuscular30 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular60 mg/2mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous15 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous30 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular15 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular30 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular60 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous15 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous30 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous60 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous30 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic4 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/1
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic4 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
LiquidIntramuscular30 mg
SolutionIntramuscular30 mg
Injection, solution, concentrateIntraocular
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
Spray, meteredNasal15.75 mg/1
SolutionIntramuscular10 mg
LiquidIntramuscular10 mg
TabletOral10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Acular 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle254.39USD bottle
Acular 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle122.36USD bottle
Ketorolac Tromethamine 0.4% Solution 5ml Bottle109.72USD bottle
Ketorolac tromethamine powder71.05USD g
Acular 0.5% Solution 3ml Bottle59.34USD bottle
Acular ls 0.4% ophth sol24.46USD ml
Acular 0.5% eye drops18.68USD ml
Ketorolac 30 mg/ml syringe8.77USD ml
Ketorolac 15 mg/ml syringe8.39USD ml
Acuvail 0.45% ophth solution4.17USD each
Ketorolac Tromethamine 30 mg/ml3.9USD ml
Acular 0.5 % Solution3.78USD ml
Toradol 10 mg/ml2.52USD ml
Ketorolac im 30 mg/ml syring2.11USD ml
Apo-Ketorolac 0.5 % Solution2.11USD ml
Ratio-Ketorolac 0.5 % Solution2.11USD ml
Toradol 10 mg tablet1.53USD tablet
Ketorolac Tromethamine 10 mg tablet1.06USD tablet
Ketorolac 10 mg tablet0.93USD tablet
Toradol 10 mg Tablet0.76USD tablet
Apo-Ketorolac 10 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Novo-Ketorolac 10 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Nu-Ketorolac 10 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5110493No1992-11-052009-11-05Us
CA1328614No1994-04-192011-04-19Canada
US9216127No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US8008338Yes2007-11-242027-11-24Us
US8207215Yes2004-11-282024-11-28Us
US8377982Yes2004-11-282024-11-28Us
US8541463Yes2004-11-282024-11-28Us
US8906950No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US9216167No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US8946281No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US8648107No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US6333044No1998-12-252018-12-25Us
US7842714No2009-08-152029-08-15Us
US9192571No2008-03-072028-03-07Us
US8512717No2008-03-072028-03-07Us
US8992952No2004-08-052024-08-05Us
US8173707Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US9278101Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US8586633Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US9066856Yes2014-04-232034-04-23Us
US9399040Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US9486406Yes2014-04-232034-04-23Us
US9855246No2013-10-232033-10-23Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)165-167 °C (tromethamine salt)Not Available
water solubility25 mg/mL (tromethamine salt)Not Available
logP2.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.513 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.66ALOGPS
logP2.28ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area59.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity70.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9919
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7918
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7127
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9624
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8684
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6042
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7845
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7046
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6338
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5483
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9081
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9333
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9225
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9621
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9467
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7615
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9592
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5254
Rat acute toxicity2.5902 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9478
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9298
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-cc495a56f46ce2f38f4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-49260d5fd66684718972
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-3900000000-cf3a2eedecd98f879db6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-9500000000-a993ea029f81823db36e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9200000000-238f6cde2fac6b0ba421
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1590000000-070501bbf446e4fc9fea

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aryl-phenylketones. These are aromatic compounds containing a ketone substituted by one aryl group, and a phenyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbonyl compounds
Direct Parent
Aryl-phenylketones
Alternative Parents
Pyrrolizines / Benzoyl derivatives / Substituted pyrroles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides
show 1 more
Substituents
Aryl-phenylketone / Benzoyl / Pyrrolizine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Substituted pyrrole / Benzenoid / Pyrrole / Heteroaromatic compound / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid
show 9 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid, aromatic ketone, amino acid, pyrrolizines (CHEBI:76223)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Hocherl K, Kammerl MC, Schumacher K, Endemann D, Grobecker HF, Kurtz A: Role of prostanoids in regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by salt intake. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Aug;283(2):F294-301. [PubMed:12110513]
  2. Blais V, Zhang J, Rivest S: In altering the release of glucocorticoids, ketorolac exacerbates the effects of systemic immune stimuli on expression of proinflammatory genes in the brain. Endocrinology. 2002 Dec;143(12):4820-7. [PubMed:12446609]
  3. Ma W, Eisenach JC: Intraplantar injection of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac reduces immunoreactivities of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and dynorphin in the dorsal horn of rats with nerve injury or inflammation. Neuroscience. 2003;121(3):681-90. [PubMed:14568028]
  4. Ma W, Eisenach JC: Cyclooxygenase 2 in infiltrating inflammatory cells in injured nerve is universally up-regulated following various types of peripheral nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2003;121(3):691-704. [PubMed:14568029]
  5. Padi SS, Jain NK, Singh S, Kulkarni SK: Pharmacological profile of parecoxib: a novel, potent injectable selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Apr 26;491(1):69-76. [PubMed:15102535]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Bosch-Marce M, Claria J, Titos E, Masferrer JL, Altuna R, Poo JL, Jimenez W, Arroyo V, Rivera F, Rodes J: Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 spares renal function and prostaglandin synthesis in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Gastroenterology. 1999 May;116(5):1167-75. [PubMed:10220509]
  2. Lashbrook JM, Ossipov MH, Hunter JC, Raffa RB, Tallarida RJ, Porreca F: Synergistic antiallodynic effects of spinal morphine with ketorolac and selective COX1- and COX2-inhibitors in nerve-injured rats. Pain. 1999 Jul;82(1):65-72. [PubMed:10422661]
  3. Dionne RA, Khan AA, Gordon SM: Analgesia and COX-2 inhibition. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001 Nov-Dec;19(6 Suppl 25):S63-70. [PubMed:11695255]
  4. Uzan A: The unexpected side effects of new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2005 Nov;10(4):687-8. [PubMed:16262557]
  5. Blais V, Turrin NP, Rivest S: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition increases the inflammatory response in the brain during systemic immune stimuli. J Neurochem. 2005 Dec;95(6):1563-74. Epub 2005 Nov 8. [PubMed:16277613]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 26, 2018 08:46