Identification

Name
Ketorolac
Accession Number
DB00465  (APRD01060)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to indomethacin. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-5-Benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
  • (+-)-Ketorolac
  • Ketorolac
  • Kétorolac
  • Ketorolaco
  • Ketorolacum
  • rac-Ketorolac
External IDs
BPPC
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ketorolac tromethamine4EVE5946BQ74103-07-4BWHLPLXXIDYSNW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcularSolution / drops5 mg/mLOphthalmicStat Rx USA1992-12-012018-02-08Us
AcularSolution / drops5 mg/mLOphthalmicAllergan1992-12-01Not applicableUs
AcularSolution5 mg/mLOphthalmicRebel Distributors1992-11-09Not applicableUs
Acular Liq 0.5%Solution0.5 %OphthalmicAllergan1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Acular LsSolution0.4 %OphthalmicAllergan2004-03-08Not applicableCanada
Acular LsSolution / drops4 mg/mLOphthalmicAllergan2003-08-19Not applicableUs
AcuvailSolution0.45 %OphthalmicAllergan2012-01-10Not applicableCanada
AcuvailSolution / drops4.5 mg/mLOphthalmicAllergan2009-08-01Not applicableUs
KetorolacSolution0.5 %OphthalmicAa Pharma Inc2002-12-06Not applicableCanada
Ketorolac Tromethamine Injection USPLiquid30 mgIntramuscularSandoz Canada Incorporated1999-05-21Not applicableCanada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acunivive 30Injection, solution30 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousIt3 Medical Llc2017-03-01Not applicableUs
Acunivive 60Injection, solution30 mg/mLIntramuscularIt3 Medical Llc2017-03-01Not applicableUs
Acunivive 90KitIt3 Medical Llc2017-03-01Not applicableUs
Apo-ketorolacTablet10 mgOralApotex Corporation1998-07-03Not applicableCanada
Apo-ketorolac InjectableSolution30 mgIntramuscularApotex Corporation2001-12-04Not applicableCanada
KetorolacTablet, film coated10 mg/1OralStat Rx USA2010-09-152018-02-08Us00378 1134 01 nlmimage10 dc3eee57
Ketorolac TromethamineInjection30 mg/mLIntramuscularRemedy Repack2013-06-122017-11-07Us
Ketorolac TromethamineInjection, solution15 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousCardinal Health2011-07-272017-12-22Us
Ketorolac TromethamineInjection, solution15 mg/mLIntramuscular; IntravenousAmerican Regent2008-05-30Not applicableUs
Ketorolac TromethamineSolution / drops5 mg/mLOphthalmicA S Medication Solutions2009-12-072017-06-20Us
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Toradol Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralSyntex Inc.1991-12-311996-09-30Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OmidriaKetorolac tromethamine (2.88 mg/mL) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (10.16 mg/mL)Injection, solution, concentrateIntraocularOmeros Corporation2014-06-13Not applicableUs
ReadySharp Anesthetics plus KetorolacKetorolac tromethamine + Bupivacaine hydrochloride + Lidocaine hydrochlorideKitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; IntravenousTerrain Pharmaceuticals2015-12-29Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.3 g/100mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 g/100mL) + Poliglusam (0.1 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Resolve TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.09 g/30mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.09 g/30mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (50 g/30mL) + Poliglusam (0.03 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Synergy TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (1.5 g/100mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (5 g/100mL) + Poliglusam (0.1 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst Synergy TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.45 g/30mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.09 g/30mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (1.5 g/30mL) + Poliglusam (0.03 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-06-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.09 g/30mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.09 g/30mL) + Poliglusam (0.03 g/30mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-04-01Not applicableUs
Chi-Myst TopicalKetorolac tromethamine (0.3 g/100mL) + Bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.3 g/100mL) + Poliglusam (0.1 g/100mL)Spray, meteredTopicalPrescription Care Llc2016-04-01Not applicableUs
Dex-Moxi-KetorKetorolac tromethamine (.4 mg/mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/mL) + Moxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (.5 mg/mL)Injection, solutionOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
DexMoxiKetor PFKetorolac tromethamine (.4 mg/mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/mL) + Moxifloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate (.5 mg/mL)Injection, solutionIntraocularImprimis Rx Nj2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Ketorocaine L KitKetorolac tromethamine (30 mg/1mL) + Isopropyl Alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Povidone-iodine (10 mg/1mL)KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; TopicalAsclemed Usa, Inc.1997-06-05Not applicableUs
Mydriatic-4Ketorolac tromethamine (5 mg/mL) + Phenylephrine hydrochloride (25 mg/mL) + Proparacaine hydrochloride (5 mg/mL) + Tropicamide (10 mg/mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-05-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Bedoral (Be-Tabs Pharmaceuticals) / Dolten (Pfizer) / Dolten SL (Pfizer) / Dorixina forte NF (Roemmers) / Emodol (Jayson) / Etorac (Incepta) / Ketonic (Eskayef) / Ketora (Medicon) / Lixidol (Roche) / Syndol (Roche) / Taradyl (Roche) / Tarasyn (Roche) / Toradol (Roche)
Categories
UNII
YZI5105V0L
CAS number
74103-06-3
Weight
Average: 255.2686
Monoisotopic: 255.089543287
Chemical Formula
C15H13NO3
InChI Key
OZWKMVRBQXNZKK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H13NO3/c17-14(10-4-2-1-3-5-10)13-7-6-12-11(15(18)19)8-9-16(12)13/h1-7,11H,8-9H2,(H,18,19)
IUPAC Name
5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)C1CCN2C1=CC=C2C(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the short-term (~5 days) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Ketorolac, an antiinflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties, is used to treat osteoarthritis and control acute pain. It is a peripherally acting analgesic. The biological activity of ketorolac tromethamine is associated with the S-form. Ketorolac tromethamine possesses no sedative or anxiolytic properties.

Mechanism of action

Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) chemically related to indomethacin and tolmetin. Ketorolac tromethamine is a racemic mixture of [-]S- and [+]R-enantiomeric forms, with the S-form having analgesic activity. Its antiinflammatory effects are believed to be due to inhibition of both cylooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which leads to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis leading to decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. The resultant reduction in prostaglandin synthesis and activity may be at least partially responsible for many of the adverse, as well as the therapeutic, effects of these medications. Analgesia is probably produced via a peripheral action in which blockade of pain impulse generation results from decreased prostaglandin activity. However, inhibition of the synthesis or actions of other substances that sensitize pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation may also contribute to the analgesic effect. In terms of the ophthalmic applications of ketorolac - ocular administration of ketorolac reduces prostaglandin E2 levels in aqueous humor, secondary to inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

TargetActionsOrganism
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Human
UProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration

Volume of distribution
  • 0.26 ± 0.08 L/kg [children 4 to 8 years old]
Protein binding

99%

Metabolism

Primarily hepatic. Less than 50% of a dose is metabolized. The major metabolites are a glucuronide conjugate, which may also be formed in the kidney, and p-hydroxy ketorolac. Neither metabolite has significant analgesic activity.

Route of elimination

The principal route of elimination of ketorolac and its metabolites is renal. Approximately 6% of a dose is excreted in the feces.

Half life

2.5 hours for the S-enantiomer compared with 5 hours for the R-enantiomer

Clearance
  • 0.042 +/- 0.01 L/hr/kg [Pediatric Patients]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Normal Subjects IM]
  • 0.03 L/h/kg [Normal Subjects oral]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Healthy Elderly Subjects IM]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Healthy Elderly Subjects oral]
  • 0.03 L/h/kg [Patients with Hepatic Dysfunction IM]
  • 0.03 L/h/kg [Patients with Hepatic Dysfunction oral]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Patients with Renal Impairment IM]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Patients with Renal Impairment oral]
  • 0.02 L/h/kg [Renal Dialysis Patients IM]
Toxicity

LD50 = 189 mg/kg (rat, oral).

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Ketorolac Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
(R)-warfarinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of (R)-warfarin.Experimental
(S)-WarfarinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of (S)-Warfarin.Experimental, Investigational
4-hydroxycoumarinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of 4-hydroxycoumarin.Experimental
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Abciximab.Approved
AcebutololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Aceclofenac.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Acemetacin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
AcenocoumarolKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved, Investigational
AcetohexamideThe protein binding of Acetohexamide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AlaproclateAlaproclate may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Experimental
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alclofenac.Approved, Withdrawn
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Alclometasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
AlcuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alcuronium.Experimental
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Aldosterone is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental, Investigational
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alendronic acid.Approved
AliskirenThe risk or severity of renal failure and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlminoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alminoprofen.Experimental
AloxiprinThe therapeutic efficacy of Aloxiprin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
AlprenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprostadilThe therapeutic efficacy of Alprostadil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
AlteplaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Alteplase.Approved
AmbrisentanThe therapeutic efficacy of Ambrisentan can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
AmcinonideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Amcinonide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
AmediplaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Amediplase.Investigational
AmikacinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Amikacin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
AmilorideThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Amiloride.Approved
AminophenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Aminophenazone.Approved, Withdrawn
Aminosalicylic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Aminosalicylic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
AmlodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amlodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
AnagrelideThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Anagrelide.Approved
AncrodThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ancrod.Approved, Investigational
AnisodamineKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Anisodamine.Investigational
AnistreplaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Anistreplase.Approved
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Antipyrine.Approved, Investigational
Antithrombin III humanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Antithrombin III human.Approved
AntrafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Antrafenine.Approved
ApixabanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Apixaban.Approved
ApramycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Apramycin.Experimental, Vet Approved
ArbekacinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Arbekacin.Approved, Investigational
ArdeparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Arotinolol.Investigational
AstaxanthinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Astaxanthin.Investigational
AtenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
AtracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Atracurium.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Atracurium besylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Atracurium besylate.Approved
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Azapropazone.Withdrawn
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
AzosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Azosemide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
BacitracinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bacitracin.Approved, Vet Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Beclomethasone dipropionate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
BefunololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BekanamycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bekanamycin.Experimental
BemiparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bemiparin.Approved, Investigational
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BenazeprilatThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benazeprilat.Experimental
BendazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bendazac.Experimental
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bendroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BenorilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benorilate.Experimental
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benoxaprofen.Withdrawn
BenzthiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzthiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BenzydamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Benzydamine.Approved
BepridilThe therapeutic efficacy of Bepridil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
BeraprostThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Beraprost.Investigational
BesifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Besifloxacin.Approved
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Betamethasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BethanidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Bethanidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BetrixabanThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Betrixaban is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
BevantololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BietaserpineThe therapeutic efficacy of Bietaserpine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
BimatoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Bimatoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BivalirudinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BopindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BosentanThe therapeutic efficacy of Bosentan can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
BQ-123The therapeutic efficacy of BQ-123 can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
BretyliumThe therapeutic efficacy of Bretylium can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BrimonidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Brimonidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BrinaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Brinase.Experimental
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bromfenac.Approved
BucindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BudesonideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Budesonide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
BufexamacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bufexamac.Approved, Experimental
BufuralolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumadizoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Bumadizone.Experimental
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bumetanide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
BupranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CadralazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cadralazine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
CandesartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Candesartan cilexetil is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CandoxatrilThe therapeutic efficacy of Candoxatril can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
CangrelorThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cangrelor.Approved
CapreomycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Capreomycin.Approved
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Captopril.Approved
Carbaspirin calciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
CarboplatinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Carboplatin.Approved
Carboprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Carboprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
CarbutamideThe protein binding of Carbutamide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Carprofen.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarteololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CefacetrileThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefacetrile.Approved
CefaclorThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefaclor is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefadroxilThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefadroxil.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CefalotinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefalotin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CefamandoleThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefamandole is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CefapirinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefapirin.Approved, Vet Approved
CefatrizineThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefatrizine.Experimental
CefazedoneThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefazedone.Experimental
CefazolinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefazolin.Approved
CefbuperazoneThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefbuperazone is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
CefcapeneThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefcapene is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
CefditorenThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefditoren is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CefepimeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefepime is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CefetametThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefetamet is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
CefmenoximeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefmenoxime is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefmetazoleThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefmetazole is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CefminoxThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefminox is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefodizimeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefodizime is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
CefonicidThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefonicid is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CefoperazoneThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefoperazone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CeforanideThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ceforanide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefotaximeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefotaxime is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefotetanThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefotetan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefotiamThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefotiam is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CefoxitinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefoxitin is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefozopranThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefozopran is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
CefpiramideThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefpiramide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefpiromeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefpirome is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefpodoximeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefpodoxime is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
CefprozilThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefprozil is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefradineThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefradine.Approved
CefroxadineThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cefroxadine.Withdrawn
CefsulodinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefsulodin is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
Ceftaroline fosamilThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ceftaroline fosamil.Approved, Investigational
CeftazidimeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ceftazidime is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CeftezoleThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ceftezole.Experimental
CeftibutenThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ceftibuten is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CeftizoximeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ceftizoxime is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CeftobiproleThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ceftobiprole.Approved, Investigational
CeftriaxoneThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ceftriaxone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CefuroximeThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cefuroxime is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CephalexinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cephalexin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CephaloglycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cephaloglycin.Approved
CephaloridineThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cephaloridine.Approved, Withdrawn
Cephalothin GroupThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cephalothin Group.Experimental
CertoparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideThe protein binding of Chlorpropamide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorthalidone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ketorolac resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Choline magnesium trisalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Choline magnesium trisalicylate.Approved
CiclesonideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Ciclesonide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CicletanineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cicletanine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimicoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cimicoxib.Investigational
CinoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Cinoxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CiprofloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisatracuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cisatracurium.Approved
CisplatinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Cisplatin is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved
ClobetasolThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Clobetasol is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Clobetasol propionate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
ClobetasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Clobetasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
ClocortoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Clocortolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Clodronic AcidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clodronic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Clonidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Clonixin.Approved
CloprednolThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Cloprednol is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
CloprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
CloranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ClorindioneKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Clorindione.Experimental
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ketorolac resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ketorolac resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColistimethateThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Colistimethate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
CorticotropinThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Corticotropin is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Cortisone acetate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
CortivazolThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Cortivazol is combined with Ketorolac.Investigational
CryptenamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Cryptenamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
CyclopenthiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopenthiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
CyclosporineThe risk or severity of renal failure and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Investigational
DarexabanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Darexaban.Investigational
DebrisoquinThe therapeutic efficacy of Debrisoquin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding and peptic ulcer can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DefibrotideThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Defibrotide.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Deflazacort is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Delapril.Investigational
DersalazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dersalazine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
DeserpidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Deserpidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
DesirudinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desirudin.Approved
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of hypertension, hyponatremia, and water intoxication can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desmopressin.Approved
DesmoteplaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Desmoteplase.Investigational
DesonideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Desonide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Desoximetasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Dexamethasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Dexamethasone isonicotinate is combined with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
DexibuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dexibuprofen.Approved, Investigational
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dexketoprofen.Approved, Investigational
DexniguldipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dexniguldipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
DextranThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dextran.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Diazoxide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
DibekacinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dibekacin.Experimental
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Diclofenac.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiethylnorspermineThe therapeutic efficacy of Diethylnorspermine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
DifenpiramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Difenpiramide.Experimental
DiflorasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Diflorasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
DifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Difloxacin.Vet Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Diflunisal.Approved, Investigational
DifluocortoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Difluocortolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
DigoxinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Digoxin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
DihydralazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dihydralazine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
DihydrostreptomycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dihydrostreptomycin.Investigational, Vet Approved
DiltiazemThe therapeutic efficacy of Diltiazem can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
DinoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
Dinoprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
DinoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
DiphenadioneKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Diphenadione.Experimental
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DitazoleThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ditazole.Approved, Withdrawn
DorzolamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Dorzolamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
DoxacuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Doxacurium.Approved
DoxazosinThe therapeutic efficacy of Doxazosin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
DrospirenoneThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Drospirenone.Approved
Drotrecogin alfaThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Drotrecogin alfa.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Droxicam.Withdrawn
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved
Edetic AcidThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Edoxaban.Approved
EfonidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Efonidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EndralazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Endralazine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
EnoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Enoxacin.Approved, Investigational
EnoxaparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Enoxaparin.Approved
EnprostilThe therapeutic efficacy of Enprostil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
EpanololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Epirizole.Approved
EpitizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Epitizide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Epoprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
EsatenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esatenolol.Experimental
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
EsmololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Etacrynic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
EthenzamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ethenzamide.Experimental
Ethyl biscoumacetateKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
Etidronic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etidronic acid.Approved
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etodolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etofenamate.Approved, Investigational
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Etoricoxib.Approved, Investigational
FelbinacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Felbinac.Experimental
FelodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Felodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fenbufen.Approved
FenoldopamThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenoldopam can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fenoprofen.Approved
FenprostaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenprostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
FentiazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fentiazac.Experimental
FeprazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Feprazone.Experimental
Ferulic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ferulic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
FibrinolysinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fibrinolysin.Investigational
FimasartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FirocoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Firocoxib.Experimental, Vet Approved
FleroxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Fleroxacin.Approved
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Floctafenine.Approved, Withdrawn
FlomoxefThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Flomoxef is combined with Ketorolac.Investigational
FlucloroloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluclorolone is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fludrocortisone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FluindioneKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Approved, Investigational
FlumequineKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Flumequine.Withdrawn
FlumethasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Flumethasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Flunisolide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flunixin.Vet Approved
FlunoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flunoxaprofen.Experimental
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluocinolone Acetonide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluocinonide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FluocortinThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluocortin is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
FluocortoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluocortolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluorometholone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
FluperoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluperolone is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
FluprednideneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluprednidene is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluprednisolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
FluprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
FlurandrenolideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Flurandrenolide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Flurbiprofen.Approved, Investigational
FluticasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluticasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Fluticasone furoateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluticasone furoate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Fluticasone propionate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
FondaparinuxThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fondaparinux.Approved, Investigational
ForasartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Forasartan is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
FormocortalThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Formocortal is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
FoscarnetThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Foscarnet.Approved
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FosinoprilatThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Fosinoprilat.Experimental
FramycetinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Framycetin.Approved
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Furosemide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
GabexateThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Gabexate.Investigational
GallamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Gallamine.Experimental
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
GarenoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Garenoxacin.Investigational
GatifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gatifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GemeprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Gemeprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
GemifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GeneticinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Geneticin.Experimental
GentamicinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Gentamicin.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with GENTAMICIN C1A.Experimental
GliclazideThe protein binding of Gliclazide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Approved
GlipizideThe protein binding of Glipizide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
GlyburideThe protein binding of Glyburide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Approved
GrepafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Grepafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Guacetisal.Experimental
GuanabenzThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanabenz can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
GuanadrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanadrel can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
GuanazodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanazodine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
GuanethidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanethidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
GuanfacineThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanfacine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
GuanoclorThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanoclor can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
GuanoxabenzThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanoxabenz can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
GuanoxanThe therapeutic efficacy of Guanoxan can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
HalcinonideThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Halcinonide is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HalometasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Halometasone is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Haloperidol can be increased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
HeparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HexamethoniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Hexamethonium can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
HydralazineKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Hydrocortisone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
Hydrocortisone aceponateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Hydrocortisone aceponate is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental, Vet Approved
Hydrocortisone acetateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Hydrocortisone acetate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
Hydrocortisone butyrateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Hydrocortisone butyrate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
Hydrocortisone probutateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Hydrocortisone probutate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
Hydrocortisone succinateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Hydrocortisone succinate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Hydrocortisone valerateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Hydrocortisone valerate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Hydrolyzed CephalothinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Hydrolyzed Cephalothin.Experimental
Hygromycin BThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Hygromycin B.Vet Approved
IbandronateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ibandronate.Approved, Investigational
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ibuprofen.Approved
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ibuproxam.Withdrawn
IcosapentThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Icosapent.Approved, Nutraceutical
IdraparinuxThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Idraparinux.Investigational
IloprostThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
Imidazole salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Imidazole salicylate.Experimental
Incadronic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Incadronic acid.Approved, Investigational
IndalpineIndalpine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Indapamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
IndenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Indobufen.Investigational
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Indomethacin.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Indoprofen.Withdrawn
IndoraminThe therapeutic efficacy of Indoramin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
IsepamicinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Isepamicin.Experimental
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Isoxicam.Withdrawn
IsradipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Isradipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
KanamycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Kanamycin.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Kebuzone.Experimental
KetanserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Ketanserin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ketoprofen.Approved, Vet Approved
LabetalolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LacidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Lacidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LandiololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LatamoxefThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Latamoxef is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LatanoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Latanoprostene BunodThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprostene Bunod can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lepirudin.Approved
LercanidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Lercanidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LetaxabanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Letaxaban.Investigational
LevobetaxololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobetaxolol.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.Approved
LevofloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LimaprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Limaprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LinsidomineThe therapeutic efficacy of Linsidomine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
Lithium cationKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Lithium cation which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
LofexidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Lofexidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
LomefloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Lomefloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LonazolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lonazolac.Experimental
LoracarbefThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Loracarbef is combined with Ketorolac.Investigational, Withdrawn
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lornoxicam.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Losartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
LoteprednolThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Loteprednol is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Loxoprofen.Approved, Investigational
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Lumiracoxib.Approved, Investigational
LuprostiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Luprostiol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
MacitentanThe therapeutic efficacy of Macitentan can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Magnesium salicylate.Approved
ManidipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Manidipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
MannitolThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
MecamylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Mecamylamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Meclofenamic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MedrysoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Medrysone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mefenamic acid.Approved
MelagatranThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Melagatran.Experimental
MelengestrolThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Melengestrol is combined with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Meloxicam.Approved, Vet Approved
MepindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MeprednisoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Meprednisone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Metamizole.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
MethoserpidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Methoserpidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyclothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Methyl salicylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyl salicylate can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyldopaThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyldopa can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Methylprednisolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
MetipranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetocurineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Metocurine.Approved
Metocurine IodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Metocurine Iodide.Approved, Withdrawn
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metolazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
MetoprololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MetyrosineThe therapeutic efficacy of Metyrosine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
MibefradilThe therapeutic efficacy of Mibefradil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational, Withdrawn
MicronomicinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Micronomicin.Experimental
MifamurtideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mifamurtide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Experimental
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
MinoxidilThe therapeutic efficacy of Minoxidil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
MisoprostolThe therapeutic efficacy of Misoprostol can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
MivacuriumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mivacurium.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MofebutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Mofebutazone.Experimental
MometasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Mometasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
Mometasone furoateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Mometasone furoate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
MorniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Morniflumate.Approved
MoxifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Moxonidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
MuzolimineThe therapeutic efficacy of Muzolimine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nabumetone.Approved
NadololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NadroparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nadroparin.Approved, Investigational
NafamostatThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftopidilThe therapeutic efficacy of Naftopidil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
Nalidixic AcidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nalidixic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Naproxen.Approved, Vet Approved
NeamineThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Neamine.Experimental
NebivololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneNefazodone may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
NemonoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nemonoxacin.Investigational
NeomycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Neomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nepafenac.Approved, Investigational
NetilmicinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Netilmicin.Approved, Investigational
NicardipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Nicardipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
NicorandilThe therapeutic efficacy of Nicorandil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
NifenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nifenazone.Experimental
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Niflumic Acid.Approved
NiguldipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Niguldipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
NilvadipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Nilvadipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nimesulide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NimodipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Nimodipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
NisoldipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Nisoldipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
NitrendipineThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitrendipine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NitroprussideThe therapeutic efficacy of Nitroprusside can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
NorfloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.Approved
NS-398The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with NS-398.Experimental
OfloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Olsalazine.Approved
Omacetaxine mepesuccinateThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Omacetaxine mepesuccinate.Approved, Investigational
OmapatrilatThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OrbifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Orbifloxacin.Vet Approved
OtamixabanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Otamixaban.Investigational
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Oxaprozin.Approved
Oxolinic acidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Oxolinic acid.Experimental
OxprenololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Oxyphenbutazone.Approved, Withdrawn
PamidronateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pamidronate.Approved
PancuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pancuronium.Approved
ParamethasoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Paramethasone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Parecoxib.Approved
PargylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Pargyline can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
ParnaparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Parnaparin.Approved, Investigational
ParomomycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Paromomycin.Approved, Investigational
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
PazufloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pazufloxacin.Investigational
PefloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pefloxacin.Approved
PemetrexedThe serum concentration of Pemetrexed can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
PenbutololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentamidineThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentamidine.Approved, Investigational
PentoliniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Pentolinium can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PentoxifyllineThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PerindoprilatThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Perindoprilat.Experimental
PhenindioneKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenoxybenzamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenoxybenzamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
PhenprocoumonKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhentolamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Phentolamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Phenyl aminosalicylateThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenyl aminosalicylate can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Phenylbutazone.Approved, Vet Approved
PinacidilThe therapeutic efficacy of Pinacidil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
PindololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
PipecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pipecuronium.Approved
Pipemidic acidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pipemidic acid.Experimental
PiretanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Piretanide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Piromidic acidKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Piromidic acid.Experimental
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Piroxicam.Approved, Investigational
PirprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pirprofen.Experimental
PitolisantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
PlazomicinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Plazomicin.Approved, Investigational
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Polythiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
Potassium CitrateThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Potassium Citrate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PractololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Practolol.Approved
PralatrexateKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Pralatrexate which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
PranoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Pranoprofen.Experimental, Investigational
PrasugrelThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Prasugrel.Approved
PrazosinThe therapeutic efficacy of Prazosin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
PrednicarbateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Prednicarbate is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Prednisolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Prednisone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednylideneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Prednylidene is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Ketorolac can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved, Investigational
ProglumetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Proglumetacin.Experimental
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Propacetamol.Approved, Investigational
PropafenoneKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propafenone.Approved
PropranololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
PropyphenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Propyphenazone.Experimental
ProquazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Proquazone.Experimental
Prostaglandin B2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin B2 can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
Prostaglandin G2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin G2 can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
ProstaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Prostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Vet Approved
Protein CThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
PrulifloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Prulifloxacin.Investigational
PuromycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Puromycin.Experimental
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinaprilatThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Quinaprilat.Experimental
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinethazone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RamiprilatThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ramiprilat.Experimental
RapacuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rapacuronium.Withdrawn
RemikirenThe therapeutic efficacy of Remikiren can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
RescinnamineThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rescinnamine.Approved
ReserpineThe therapeutic efficacy of Reserpine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
ReteplaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Reteplase.Approved, Investigational
ReviparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RibostamycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ribostamycin.Approved, Investigational
RilmenidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rilmenidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Rimexolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
RiociguatThe therapeutic efficacy of Riociguat can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
RisedronateThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Risedronate.Approved, Investigational
RitanserinRitanserin may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Investigational
RivaroxabanThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rivaroxaban.Approved
RobenacoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Robenacoxib.Experimental, Vet Approved
RocuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rocuronium.Approved
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Rofecoxib.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
RosoxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rosoxacin.Approved, Investigational
RufloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rufloxacin.Experimental
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Salicylamide.Approved
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Salsalate.Approved
SaprisartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Saprisartan is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental
SarafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sarafloxacin.Vet Approved, Withdrawn
SaralasinThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Saralasin is combined with Ketorolac.Investigational
SaruplaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Saruplase.Experimental
SC-236The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with SC-236.Experimental, Investigational
SelexipagThe therapeutic efficacy of Selexipag can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
SertralineSertraline may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved
SibutramineSibutramine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Withdrawn
SisomicinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Sisomicin.Investigational
SitafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sitafloxacin.Experimental, Investigational
SitaxentanThe therapeutic efficacy of Sitaxentan can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Sodium CitrateThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Sodium Citrate.Approved, Investigational
Sodium phosphate, monobasicThe risk or severity of renal failure can be increased when Sodium phosphate, monobasic is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
SotalolKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Sotalol.Approved
SparfloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sparfloxacin.Approved, Investigational
SpiraprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Spironolactone.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Streptokinase.Approved, Investigational
StreptomycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Streptomycin.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Sulfasalazine.Approved
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Sulindac.Approved, Investigational
SulodexideThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
SulprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Suprofen.Approved, Withdrawn
SuxibuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Suxibuzone.Experimental
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of renal failure can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TafluprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Tafluprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
TalinololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TalniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Talniflumate.Approved
TasosartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Tasosartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Technetium Tc-99m ciprofloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Technetium Tc-99m ciprofloxacin.Investigational
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
TemafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Temafloxacin.Withdrawn
TemocaprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenecteplaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tenecteplase.Approved
TenidapThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tenidap.Experimental
TenofovirThe serum concentration of Tenofovir can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Experimental, Investigational
Tenofovir alafenamideThe serum concentration of Tenofovir alafenamide can be increased when it is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
Tenofovir disoproxilKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Tenofovir disoproxil which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tenoxicam.Approved
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tepoxalin.Vet Approved
TerazosinThe therapeutic efficacy of Terazosin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
TertatololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
TetrahydropalmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tetrahydropalmatine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tiaprofenic acid.Approved
TicagrelorThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ticagrelor.Approved
TicrynafenThe therapeutic efficacy of Ticrynafen can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Withdrawn
Tiludronic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tiludronic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TimololKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TinoridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tinoridine.Investigational
TinzaparinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tinzaparin.Approved
TioclomarolKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tioclomarol.Experimental
TixocortolThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Tixocortol is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Withdrawn
TobramycinThe risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tobramycin.Approved, Investigational
TocopherylquinoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Tocopherylquinone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental, Investigational
TolazamideThe protein binding of Tolazamide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
TolazolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolazoline can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
TolbutamideThe protein binding of Tolbutamide can be decreased when combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tolfenamic Acid.Approved, Investigational
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tolmetin.Approved
TolonidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Tolonidine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Torasemide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
TravoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved
TrazodoneTrazodone may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Triamcinolone is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Triamterene.Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Trichlormethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Vet Approved
TriflusalThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Triflusal.Approved, Investigational
TrilostaneThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Trilostane is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
TrimazosinThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimazosin can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
TrimethaphanThe therapeutic efficacy of Trimethaphan can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
Trolamine salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Trolamine salicylate.Approved
TrovafloxacinKetorolac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Trovafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TroxerutinThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Troxerutin.Investigational
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Tubocurarine.Approved
UlobetasolThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal irritation can be increased when Ulobetasol is combined with Ketorolac.Approved
UnoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Unoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
UrapidilThe therapeutic efficacy of Urapidil can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Investigational
UrokinaseThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Urokinase.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Valdecoxib.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ValsartanThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Ketorolac.Approved, Investigational
VancomycinKetorolac may decrease the excretion rate of Vancomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
VecuroniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Vecuronium.Approved
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Approved
VincamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Vincamine can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
VorapaxarThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Vorapaxar.Approved
WarfarinKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranThe risk or severity of bleeding and hemorrhage can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
XipamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Xipamide can be decreased when used in combination with Ketorolac.Experimental
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zaltoprofen.Approved, Investigational
ZimelidineZimelidine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketorolac.Withdrawn
ZofenoprilThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zofenopril.Experimental
Zoledronic acidThe risk or severity of gastrointestinal bleeding can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zoledronic acid.Approved
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Zomepirac.Withdrawn
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce GI irritation

References

Synthesis Reference

Peter J. Harrington, Hiralal N. Khatri, George C. Schloemer, "Preparation of ketorolac." U.S. Patent US6323344, issued October, 1989.

US6323344
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014608
KEGG Compound
C07062
PubChem Compound
3826
PubChem Substance
46507019
ChemSpider
3694
BindingDB
85511
ChEBI
76223
ChEMBL
CHEMBL469
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000618
PharmGKB
PA450150
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ketorolac
ATC Codes
M01AB15 — KetorolacS01BC05 — Ketorolac
AHFS Codes
  • 52:08.20 — Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents
  • 28:08.04.92 — Other Nonsteroidal Antiimflammatory Agents
FDA label
Download (138 KB)
MSDS
Download (76.4 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingOtherCancer of the Ovary / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceBlood Pressures1
0RecruitingTreatmentUrologic Diseases1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedSupportive CareBalanitis / Paraphimosis / Phimosis / Postoperative pain1
1CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR)1
1CompletedTreatmentAssess Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac Tromethamine Intranasal and Assess Effects of a Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride on the PK of Ketorolac Tromethamine / Healthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers6
1CompletedTreatmentInflammatory Reaction1
1CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
1Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceArterial hypoxia / Hypercapnia1
1RecruitingTreatmentEvaluating Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Ketorolac / Pain1
1TerminatedPreventionPostoperative pain1
1WithdrawnDiagnosticInflammatory Reaction1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
2CompletedPreventionIrreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedSupportive CareCesarean Section1
2CompletedTreatmentBunionectomy / Orthopedic Procedures1
2CompletedTreatmentDental Impaction / Pain1
2CompletedTreatmentFailed Mechanical Induction1
2CompletedTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
2CompletedTreatmentMacular Edema (ME) / Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR)1
2CompletedTreatmentMacular Edema (ME) / Retinopathy, Diabetic1
2CompletedTreatmentMacular Edema After Cataract Surgery in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentMigraines1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain3
2Enrolling by InvitationPreventionIrreversible Pulpitis1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOpioid-Related Disorders / Opioids Use / Rib Fractures1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSymptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis1
2RecruitingTreatmentElective Cesarean Delivery / Valve Heart Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentKidney Diseases / Postoperative pain / Renal Stones / Urinary Lithiasis1
2RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
2TerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
2TerminatedTreatmentHip Arthroplasty1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Pain Control in Surgical Neonates1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPain1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticCancer, Breast1
2, 3CompletedPreventionGeneral Surgery1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Viral1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPain / Surgical Abortion1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPost-surgical Cystoid Macular Edema (PSCME)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCurative Breast Cancer Surgery / Inflammatory Positive/Negative Status / Pre Surgical Incision Administration1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Pain1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPilon Fracture1
3CompletedSupportive CareMyopes Who Have Undergone PRK1
3CompletedTreatmentCataract Extraction / Inflammatory Reaction / Pain1
3CompletedTreatmentCataracts2
3CompletedTreatmentHeadaches / Intranasal Ketamine1
3CompletedTreatmentPain3
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain Intensity / Rescue Pain Requirements1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Pain in Infants1
3CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain5
3RecruitingSupportive CarePreoperative Sedation1
3RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Pain (AP)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute nonspecific tenosynovitis / DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis / Inflammatory Diseases / Lateral Epicondylitis / Trigger Finger1
3RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement Surgery / Osteoarthritis (OA) / Pain Management1
3RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
3RecruitingTreatmentOpioids Use / Shoulder Pain1
3TerminatedTreatmentSurgery, Laparoscopic1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBack Pain2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnaesthesia therapy1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia, Obstetrical1
4CompletedNot AvailableCataracts1
4CompletedNot AvailableEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Lung Cancers1
4CompletedNot AvailableMacula Thickening1
4CompletedBasic ScienceInflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedBasic ScienceSecondary Hyperalgesia1
4CompletedPreventionCataracts / Inflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedPreventionCesarean Section1
4CompletedPreventionCystoid Macular Edema Following Cataract Surgery, Bilateral1
4CompletedPreventionCystoid Macular Edema, Postoperative / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedPreventionMacular Edema (ME)1
4CompletedPreventionPain1
4CompletedPreventionThroat Pain1
4CompletedSupportive CareCataracts / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedSupportive CarePain2
4CompletedSupportive CarePostoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasties, Hip Replacement1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Knee Replacement / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Hip1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroplasty / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4CompletedTreatmentArthroscopic Knee Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentCarpal Tunnel Release / Distal Radius Fractures / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCataract Extraction1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts3
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Cystoid Macular Edema1
4CompletedTreatmentContraception1
4CompletedTreatmentDry Eye Syndrome (DES) / Ocular Comfort1
4CompletedTreatmentFracture Bone / Pain1
4CompletedTreatmentGall Stone Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
4CompletedTreatmentGonarthrosis / Low Back Pain (LBP)1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadaches1
4CompletedTreatmentHernia1
4CompletedTreatmentHypermetropia / Myopia1
4CompletedTreatmentInterstitial Cystitis1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Injuries1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
4CompletedTreatmentLaparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy / Nephrectomy1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine With Aura / Migraine Without Aura / Probable Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraine, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraines1
4CompletedTreatmentPain4
4CompletedTreatmentPain Management Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Acute1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Peripheral Nerve Blocks1
4CompletedTreatmentPain / Postoperative pain1
4CompletedTreatmentCaudal epidural block therapy / Pain / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4CompletedTreatmentPost Operative Anterior Chamber Inflammation (Flare)1
4CompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain5
4CompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
4CompletedTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4CompletedTreatmentWet Macular Degeneration1
4Enrolling by InvitationOtherCataracts1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHeadaches1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNonspecific Pain Post Traumatic Injury1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPain1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentTotal Hip Arthroplasty (THA)1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPancreatitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareHematoma Postoperative1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Rotator Cuff Injury / Rotator Cuff Syndrome / Rotator Cuff Tendinitis1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentGynecology / Surgery, Laparoscopic1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentKnee Replacement, Total1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLow Back Pain (LBP)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPain, Acute1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRenal Colic1
4RecruitingSupportive CareColon Diverticulosis / Colonic Neoplasms / Constipation Drug Induced / Diverticulitis, Colonic / Ileus / Ileus paralytic / Ileus; Mechanical / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon / Occasional Constipation / Postoperative pain / Rectum Cancer / Rectum Neoplasm1
4RecruitingSupportive CareObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Pancreatitis (AP)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesia / Urolithiasis1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnalgesic Adverse Reaction1
4RecruitingTreatmentDeQuervain Tendinopathy1
4RecruitingTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4RecruitingTreatmentMigraines1
4RecruitingTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyofascial Pain Syndrome1
4RecruitingTreatmentOpiate withdrawal symptoms1
4RecruitingTreatmentOtitis Media (OM) / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain1
4RecruitingTreatmentRib Fracture Multiple / Rib Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentThoracolumbar Spinal Fusions1
4TerminatedSupportive CarePostoperative Pain Management / Urolithiasis1
4TerminatedTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee1
4TerminatedTreatmentDegenerative Joint Disease / Osteoarthritis (OA)1
4TerminatedTreatmentHematologic Diseases / Sickle Cell Disorders1
4Unknown StatusPreventionBlindness / Retinal Detachment / Retinopathy of Prematurity1
4Unknown StatusSupportive CareChronic Pelvic Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCataracts1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPost Vasectomy Pain1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentRenal Colic1
4WithdrawnSupportive CarePain Management / Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthritic Knee Pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentArthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / Knee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
4WithdrawnTreatmentMigraines1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPostoperative pain1
4WithdrawnTreatmentTotal Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherHealthy Controls1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnesthesia Complication1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnesthesia Intubation Complications / Tracheal Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMacular Edema (ME)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMacular Edema, Cystoid1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRenal Cell Adenocarcinoma1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CarePerforated Appendicitis1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareUreteroneocystostomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Renal Colic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAge-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCataracts2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCongenital Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentContraception / Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentFebrile Morbidity / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma, Primary Open Angle (POAG) / Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGynecologic Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Pain, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMeniscectomy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOpen Heart Surgery / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOther Acute Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain Control With IUD Insertion1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostcesarean Analgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPostoperative pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Colic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Stones1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentIrreversible Pulpitis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Liver1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableDegeneration / Ectasia / Keratoconus2
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceCancer of the Ovary / Fallopian Tube Cancer / Malignant Peritoneal Neoplasm1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareInguinal Hernias / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CarePostoperative pain / Undescended Testis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLumbar Disc Disease / Lumbar Osteoarthritis / Spinal Stenosis / Spondylosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMigrainous Headache1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentBunions1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentOpen Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableRecurrent Acute Tonsillitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGlaucoma1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPain / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentSubacromial Bursitis / Subacromial Impingement Syndrome1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Akorn strides llc
  • Amphastar pharmaceutical inc
  • Apotex inc richmond hill
  • Apothecon inc div bristol myers squibb
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia and critical care
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Claris lifesciences ltd
  • Gland pharma ltd
  • Hospira inc
  • Luitpold pharmaceuticals inc
  • Sandoz canada inc
  • Sun pharma global inc
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Roche palo alto llc
  • Allergan inc
  • Allergan
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon inc
  • Roxro pharma inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
Packagers
  • Akorn Inc.
  • Allergan Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • Apothecary Shop Wholesale
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Cura Pharmaceutical Co. Inc.
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Ethex Corp.
  • F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.
  • Falcon Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • General Injectables and Vaccines Inc.
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Novex Pharma
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Pliva Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prescript Pharmaceuticals
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Strides Arcolab Limited
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Syntex SA
  • Taylor Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic0.5 %
SolutionOphthalmic0.4 %
Kit
SolutionOphthalmic0.45 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic4.5 mg/mL
Spray, meteredTopical
Injection, solutionOphthalmic
Injection, solutionIntraocular
KitInfiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous; Topical
InjectionIntramuscular30 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular60 mg/2mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous15 mg/mL
InjectionIntramuscular; Intravenous30 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular15 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular30 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular60 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous15 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous30 mg/mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous60 mg/2mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous30 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic4 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/1
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic4 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/mL
TabletOral10 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral10 mg/1
LiquidIntramuscular30 mg
SolutionIntramuscular30 mg
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
Injection, solution, concentrateIntraocular
KitEpidural; Infiltration; Intramuscular; Intravenous
Spray, meteredNasal15.75 mg/1
SolutionIntramuscular10 mg
LiquidIntramuscular10 mg
TabletOral10 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Acular 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle254.39USD bottle
Acular 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle122.36USD bottle
Ketorolac Tromethamine 0.4% Solution 5ml Bottle109.72USD bottle
Ketorolac tromethamine powder71.05USD g
Acular 0.5% Solution 3ml Bottle59.34USD bottle
Acular ls 0.4% ophth sol24.46USD ml
Acular 0.5% eye drops18.68USD ml
Ketorolac 30 mg/ml syringe8.77USD ml
Ketorolac 15 mg/ml syringe8.39USD ml
Acuvail 0.45% ophth solution4.17USD each
Ketorolac Tromethamine 30 mg/ml3.9USD ml
Acular 0.5 % Solution3.78USD ml
Toradol 10 mg/ml2.52USD ml
Ketorolac im 30 mg/ml syring2.11USD ml
Apo-Ketorolac 0.5 % Solution2.11USD ml
Ratio-Ketorolac 0.5 % Solution2.11USD ml
Toradol 10 mg tablet1.53USD tablet
Ketorolac Tromethamine 10 mg tablet1.06USD tablet
Ketorolac 10 mg tablet0.93USD tablet
Toradol 10 mg Tablet0.76USD tablet
Apo-Ketorolac 10 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Novo-Ketorolac 10 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
Nu-Ketorolac 10 mg Tablet0.43USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5110493No1992-11-052009-11-05Us
CA1328614No1994-04-192011-04-19Canada
US9216127No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US8008338Yes2007-11-242027-11-24Us
US8207215Yes2004-11-282024-11-28Us
US8377982Yes2004-11-282024-11-28Us
US8541463Yes2004-11-282024-11-28Us
US8906950No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US9216167No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US8946281No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US8648107No2004-05-282024-05-28Us
US6333044No1998-12-252018-12-25Us
US7842714No2009-08-152029-08-15Us
US9192571No2008-03-072028-03-07Us
US8512717No2008-03-072028-03-07Us
US8992952No2004-08-052024-08-05Us
US8173707Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US9278101Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US8586633Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US9066856Yes2014-04-232034-04-23Us
US9399040Yes2004-01-302024-01-30Us
US9486406Yes2014-04-232034-04-23Us
US9855246No2013-10-232033-10-23Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)165-167 °C (tromethamine salt)Not Available
water solubility25 mg/mL (tromethamine salt)Not Available
logP2.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.513 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.66ALOGPS
logP2.28ChemAxon
logS-2.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area59.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity70.19 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9919
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7918
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7127
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9624
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8684
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6042
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7845
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7046
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6338
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.5483
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9081
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9333
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9225
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9621
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9467
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7615
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9592
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5254
Rat acute toxicity2.5902 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9478
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9298
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-cc495a56f46ce2f38f4c
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-49260d5fd66684718972
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-3900000000-cf3a2eedecd98f879db6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-056r-9500000000-a993ea029f81823db36e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-9200000000-238f6cde2fac6b0ba421
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-1590000000-070501bbf446e4fc9fea

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aryl-phenylketones. These are aromatic compounds containing a ketone substituted by one aryl group, and a phenyl group.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbonyl compounds
Direct Parent
Aryl-phenylketones
Alternative Parents
Pyrrolizines / Benzoyl derivatives / Substituted pyrroles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Azacyclic compounds / Organopnictogen compounds / Organonitrogen compounds / Organic oxides
show 1 more
Substituents
Aryl-phenylketone / Benzoyl / Pyrrolizine / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Substituted pyrrole / Benzenoid / Pyrrole / Heteroaromatic compound / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid
show 9 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid, aromatic ketone, amino acid, pyrrolizines (CHEBI:76223)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Hocherl K, Kammerl MC, Schumacher K, Endemann D, Grobecker HF, Kurtz A: Role of prostanoids in regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by salt intake. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Aug;283(2):F294-301. [PubMed:12110513]
  2. Blais V, Zhang J, Rivest S: In altering the release of glucocorticoids, ketorolac exacerbates the effects of systemic immune stimuli on expression of proinflammatory genes in the brain. Endocrinology. 2002 Dec;143(12):4820-7. [PubMed:12446609]
  3. Ma W, Eisenach JC: Intraplantar injection of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac reduces immunoreactivities of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and dynorphin in the dorsal horn of rats with nerve injury or inflammation. Neuroscience. 2003;121(3):681-90. [PubMed:14568028]
  4. Ma W, Eisenach JC: Cyclooxygenase 2 in infiltrating inflammatory cells in injured nerve is universally up-regulated following various types of peripheral nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2003;121(3):691-704. [PubMed:14568029]
  5. Padi SS, Jain NK, Singh S, Kulkarni SK: Pharmacological profile of parecoxib: a novel, potent injectable selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Apr 26;491(1):69-76. [PubMed:15102535]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
PTGS1
Uniprot ID
P23219
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Bosch-Marce M, Claria J, Titos E, Masferrer JL, Altuna R, Poo JL, Jimenez W, Arroyo V, Rivera F, Rodes J: Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 spares renal function and prostaglandin synthesis in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Gastroenterology. 1999 May;116(5):1167-75. [PubMed:10220509]
  2. Lashbrook JM, Ossipov MH, Hunter JC, Raffa RB, Tallarida RJ, Porreca F: Synergistic antiallodynic effects of spinal morphine with ketorolac and selective COX1- and COX2-inhibitors in nerve-injured rats. Pain. 1999 Jul;82(1):65-72. [PubMed:10422661]
  3. Dionne RA, Khan AA, Gordon SM: Analgesia and COX-2 inhibition. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001 Nov-Dec;19(6 Suppl 25):S63-70. [PubMed:11695255]
  4. Uzan A: The unexpected side effects of new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2005 Nov;10(4):687-8. [PubMed:16262557]
  5. Blais V, Turrin NP, Rivest S: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition increases the inflammatory response in the brain during systemic immune stimuli. J Neurochem. 2005 Dec;95(6):1563-74. Epub 2005 Nov 8. [PubMed:16277613]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 15, 2018 09:40