Ferric pyrophosphate

Identification

Name
Ferric pyrophosphate
Accession Number
DB09147
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description

Ferric pyrophosphate is an iron replacement product. Free iron presents several side effects as it can catalyze free radical formation and lipid peroxidation as well as the presence of interactions of iron in plasma. The ferric ion is strongly complexed by pyrophosphate.[1] It presents an increasing interest as this insoluble form can be milder in the gastrointestinal tract and present higher bioavailability.[10]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Iron pyrophosphate
  • Iron(III) pyrophosphate
Categories
UNII
QK8899250F
CAS number
10058-44-3
Weight
Average: 745.21
Monoisotopic: 745.475544666
Chemical Formula
Fe4O21P6
InChI Key
CADNYOZXMIKYPR-UHFFFAOYSA-B
InChI
InChI=1S/4Fe.3H4O7P2/c;;;;3*1-8(2,3)7-9(4,5)6/h;;;;3*(H2,1,2,3)(H2,4,5,6)/q4*+3;;;/p-12
IUPAC Name
tetrairon(3+) ion tri(phosphonatooxy)phosphonate
SMILES
[Fe+3].[Fe+3].[Fe+3].[Fe+3].[O-]P([O-])(=O)OP([O-])([O-])=O.[O-]P([O-])(=O)OP([O-])([O-])=O.[O-]P([O-])(=O)OP([O-])([O-])=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Ferric pyrophosphate is intended to be indicated for the treatment of iron loss or iron deficiency as a formulation with a milder gastrointestinal effect.[9, 10]

Iron deficiency appears when the dietary intake does not meet the body's requirement or when there is chronic external blood loss. During acute blood loss, body iron stores are sufficient for accelerated erythropoiesis and restoration of iron homeostasis. But when the altered homeostasis remains for weeks to months then some supplement is needed. Some causes of iron deficiency include ectoparasitism, endoparasitism, hematuria, epistaxis, hemorrhagic skin, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathia and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.[2]

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Iron supplementation typically results in increases in serum iron, transferrin-bound iron, and iron-stored in the form of ferritin in hepatocytes and macrophages. The available iron is usually used in bone marrow for the synthesis of hemoglobin.[9]

Mechanism of action

The usage of ferric pyrophosphate is based on the strong complex formation between these two species. Besides, the capacity of pyrophosphate to trigger iron removal from transferrin, enhance iron transfer from transferrin to ferritin and promote iron exchange between transferrin molecules. These properties make it a very suitable compound for parenteral administration, iron delivery into circulation and incorporation into hemoglobin.[1]

TargetActionsOrganism
AFerritin light chain
binder
Human
AHemoglobin subunit alpha
binder
Human
AHemoglobin subunit beta
binder
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AlmasilateAlmasilate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Experimental
AloglutamolAloglutamol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
AluminiumAluminium can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Aluminium acetoacetateAluminium acetoacetate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Experimental
Aluminium glycinateAluminium glycinate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Experimental
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
AsenapineAsenapine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Bismuth SubcitrateBismuth Subcitrate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Bismuth subnitrateBismuth subnitrate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Calcium CarbonateCalcium Carbonate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Calcium silicateCalcium silicate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Experimental
CefdinirThe serum concentration of Cefdinir can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
ChlortetracyclineChlortetracycline can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
CimetidineCimetidine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
CinoxacinThe serum concentration of Cinoxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DeferiproneThe serum concentration of Deferiprone can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
DemeclocyclineDemeclocycline can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
DexlansoprazoleDexlansoprazole can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
DexrabeprazoleDexrabeprazole can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Experimental
DimercaprolDimercaprol may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
Dipotassium phosphateFerric pyrophosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Dipotassium phosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
DolutegravirThe serum concentration of Dolutegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
DoxepinDoxepin can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
DoxycyclineDoxycycline can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EltrombopagThe serum concentration of Eltrombopag can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
EnoxacinThe serum concentration of Enoxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational
EpinastineEpinastine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
EsomeprazoleEsomeprazole can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
FamotidineFamotidine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
FleroxacinThe serum concentration of Fleroxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
FlumequineThe serum concentration of Flumequine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Withdrawn
GarenoxacinThe serum concentration of Garenoxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Investigational
GatifloxacinThe serum concentration of Gatifloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational
GemifloxacinThe serum concentration of Gemifloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HydrotalciteHydrotalcite can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
LansoprazoleLansoprazole can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Levothyroxine can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
Lipoic AcidFerric pyrophosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Lipoic Acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
MagaldrateMagaldrate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Withdrawn
Magnesium hydroxideMagnesium hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Magnesium oxideMagnesium oxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Magnesium peroxideMagnesium peroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Experimental
Magnesium silicateMagnesium silicate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Magnesium TrisilicateMagnesium Trisilicate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
MethanthelineMethantheline can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
MethyldopaThe serum concentration of Methyldopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
MetiamideMetiamide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Experimental
MinocyclineMinocycline can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Nalidixic AcidThe serum concentration of Nalidixic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational
NemonoxacinThe serum concentration of Nemonoxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Investigational
NizatidineNizatidine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
NorfloxacinThe serum concentration of Norfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
OlanzapineOlanzapine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
OmeprazoleOmeprazole can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Oxolinic acidThe serum concentration of Oxolinic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Experimental
PancrelipasePancrelipase can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
PantoprazolePantoprazole can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
PazufloxacinThe serum concentration of Pazufloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Investigational
PefloxacinThe serum concentration of Pefloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved
PenicillamineFerric pyrophosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Penicillamine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Pipemidic acidThe serum concentration of Pipemidic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Experimental
Piromidic acidThe serum concentration of Piromidic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Experimental
PromethazinePromethazine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
PrulifloxacinThe serum concentration of Prulifloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Investigational
RabeprazoleRabeprazole can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
RanitidineRanitidine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
RosoxacinThe serum concentration of Rosoxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational
Roxatidine acetateRoxatidine acetate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
RufloxacinThe serum concentration of Rufloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Experimental
SitafloxacinThe serum concentration of Sitafloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Experimental, Investigational
Sodium bicarbonateSodium bicarbonate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Sodium glycerophosphateFerric pyrophosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Sodium glycerophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Sodium phosphateFerric pyrophosphate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Sodium phosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational
TemafloxacinThe serum concentration of Temafloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Withdrawn
TriethylenetetramineThe serum concentration of Ferric pyrophosphate can be decreased when it is combined with Triethylenetetramine.Approved, Investigational
TromethamineTromethamine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ferric pyrophosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
TrovafloxacinThe serum concentration of Trovafloxacin can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]
  2. Naigamwalla DZ, Webb JA, Giger U: Iron deficiency anemia. Can Vet J. 2012 Mar;53(3):250-6. [PubMed:22942439]
  3. Fidler MC, Walczyk T, Davidsson L, Zeder C, Sakaguchi N, Juneja LR, Hurrell RF: A micronised, dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with high relative bioavailability in man. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jan;91(1):107-12. [PubMed:14748943]
  4. Pratt RD, Swinkels DW, Ikizler TA, Gupta A: Pharmacokinetics of Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate, a Novel Iron Salt, Administered Intravenously to Healthy Volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Mar;57(3):312-320. doi: 10.1002/jcph.819. Epub 2016 Oct 3. [PubMed:27557937]
  5. Underwood E. (1977). Trace elements in human and animal nutrition (4th ed.). Academic press.
  6. Pubchem [Link]
  7. Nippon [Link]
  8. KEGG [Link]
  9. FDA Reports [Link]
  10. Sunactive [Link]
External Links
PubChem Compound
24877
PubChem Substance
310265060
ChemSpider
23258
ChEBI
132767
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
MSDS
Download (47 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedPreventionBacterial Infection Due to Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) / Healthy Participants / Non-anemic Children1
1CompletedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)2
1CompletedTreatmentIron-refractory, Iron-deficiency Anemia (IRIDA)1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Peritoneal dialysis therapy1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)2
2CompletedTreatmentIron-Refractory Iron-Deficiency Anemia1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Bowel Diseases, Inflammatory1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6779468No1996-12-312016-12-31Us
US7816404No2009-04-172029-04-17Us
US6689275No1996-12-312016-12-31Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)Decomposes'MSDS'
water solubilitySoluble after treatment with citric acid and sodium hydroxydeGupta, et al. (1999). Kidney International. Vol. 55
logP3.4'MSDS'
pKa22.2Gupta, et al. (1999). Kidney International. Vol. 55
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area135.61 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity21.04 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.03 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal pyrophosphates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is pyrophosphate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Transition metal pyrophosphates
Direct Parent
Transition metal pyrophosphates
Alternative Parents
Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides
Substituents
Transition metal pyrophosphate / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after oxidation. Also plays a ro...
Gene Name
FTL
Uniprot ID
P02792
Uniprot Name
Ferritin light chain
Molecular Weight
20019.49 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an...
Gene Name
HBB
Uniprot ID
P68871
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit beta
Molecular Weight
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Gupta A, Amin NB, Besarab A, Vogel SE, Divine GW, Yee J, Anandan JV: Dialysate iron therapy: infusion of soluble ferric pyrophosphate via the dialysate during hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 May;55(5):1891-8. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1999.00436.x. [PubMed:10231452]

Drug created on October 01, 2015 10:55 / Updated on May 01, 2018 23:56