alpha-Tocopherol succinate

Identification

Logo pink
Are you a
new drug developer?
Contact us to learn more about our customized products and solutions.
Name
alpha-Tocopherol succinate
Accession Number
DB14001  (DBSALT001494)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Description

Alpha-tocopherol is the primary form of vitamin E that is preferentially used by the human body to meet appropriate dietary requirements. In particular, the RRR-alpha-tocopherol (or sometimes called the d-alpha-tocopherol stereoisomer) stereoisomer is considered the natural formation of alpha-tocopherol and generally exhibits the greatest bioavailability out of all of the alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers. Moreover, manufacturers typically convert the phenol component of the vitamin to esters using acetic or succinic acid, making a compound such as alpha-tocopherol succinate more stable and easier to use in vitamin supplements 6,7.

Alpha-tocopherol succinate is subsequently most commonly indicated for dietary supplementation in individuals who may demonstrate a genuine deficiency in vitamin E. Vitamin E itself is naturally found in various foods, added to others, or used in commercially available products as a dietary supplement. The recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for vitamin E alpha-tocopherol are: males = 4 mg (6 IU) females = 4 mg (6 IU) in ages 0-6 months, males = 5 mg (7.5 IU) females = 5 mg (7.5 IU) in ages 7-12 months, males = 6 mg (9 IU) females = 6 mg (9 IU) in ages 1-3 years, males = 7 mg (10.4 IU) females = 7 mg (10.4 IU) in ages 4-8 years, males = 11 mg (16.4 IU) females = 11 mg (16.4 IU) in ages 9-13 years, males = 15 mg (22.4 IU) females = 15 mg (22.4 IU) pregnancy = 15 mg (22.4 IU) lactation = 19 mg (28.4 IU) in ages 14+ years 15. Most individuals obtain adequate vitamin E intake from their diets; genuine vitamin E deficiency is considered to be rare.

Nevertheless, vitamin E is known to be a fat-soluble antioxidant that has the capability to neutralize endogenous free radicals. This biologic action of vitamin E consequently continues to generate ongoing interest and study in whether or not its antioxidant abilities may be used to help assist in preventing or treating a number of different conditions like cardiovascular disease, ocular conditions, diabetes, cancer and more. At the moment, however, there exists a lack of formal data and evidence to support any such additional indications for vitamin E use.

Moreover, although it is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate would naturally demonstrate such general vitamin E-tocopherol pharmacodynamics after undergoing a logical de-esterification in the gut 6,7, there is ongoing research that proposes that the alpha-tocopherol succinate compound itself is capable of eliciting anti-cancer 14,9 and inflammation mediation 8 activities that are unique from the alpha-tocopherol form and other alpha-tocopherol esters 14,8,9.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-alpha-Tocopheryl succinate
  • alpha-Tocopheryl acid succinate
  • alpha-Tocopheryl succinate
  • alpha-Vitamin E succinate
  • d-alpha-Tocopherol acid succinate
  • Tocopheryl acid succinate,D-alpha
  • Vitamin E hemisuccinate
  • Vitamin E succinate
External IDs
CV 104
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Vitamin EunknownN9PR3490H959-02-9GVJHHUAWPYXKBD-IEOSBIPESA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acti-succinate Caplet 400unitTablet400 unitOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Chewable Vitamin E 200 I.U.Tablet200 unitOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2000-01-282005-08-05Canada
Chewable Vitamin E 400 I.U.Tablet400 unitOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2000-01-282005-08-05Canada
M-Vegmax22Tablet, chewable0.033 g/100gOralMbg Inc (Korea Institute of Science Development)2018-02-022019-02-02Us
Vitamin E 400 IuCapsule400 unitOralAmco Pharmaceuticals Inc.1999-09-242003-12-03Canada
Vitamin E Cap 400iuCapsule400 unitOralBionatal Drug Co1977-12-311999-07-14Canada
Vitamin E Dietary SupplementTablet400 unitOralGarden State Nutritionals1998-08-312000-06-07Canada
Webber Vitamin E Liq 77unit/ml Water SolLiquid77 unitOralCiba Self Medication1992-12-311997-08-13Canada
Webber Vitamin E Succ Cap 400unit(dri Caps)Capsule400 unitOralCiba Self Medication1992-12-311997-08-13Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Body Roxalpha-Tocopherol succinate (66.7 unit) + Beta carotene (3000.0 unit) + Biotin (100.0 mcg) + Calcium (75.0 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (167.0 mg) + Cholecalciferol (133.0 unit) + Choline bitartrate (15.0 mg) + Chromium (50.0 mcg) + Copper (0.33 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20.0 mcg) + Folic acid (0.267 mg) + Inositol (10.0 mg) + Magnesium (37.5 mg) + Manganese (1.0 mg) + Molybdenum (15.0 mcg) + Niacin (1.66 mg) + Nicotinamide (3.3 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10.0 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.05 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3.0 mg) + Riboflavin (3.0 mg) + Selenium (40.0 mcg) + Silicon (1.0 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (3.0 mg) + Vanadium (10.0 mcg) + Zinc (4.0 mg)TabletOralUsana Health Sciences, Inc.2003-09-022008-06-27Canada
C.H.V. Formulaalpha-Tocopherol succinate (15 unit) + Ascorbic acid (30 mg) + Calcium (250 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (1 mg)CapsuleOralNihon Kenko Zoushin Kenkyukai Canada Inc., Subsidery Of Nikken Usa Inc.1999-09-252005-07-15Canada
C.R.D.-forcealpha-Tocopherol succinate (100 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (400 mcg) + Folic acid (1 mg) + Potassium (20 mg) + Pyridoxine (50 mg)CapsuleOralPrairie Naturals2001-09-192006-09-20Canada
Children Choice Multivit Chewable Tabalpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 unit) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit)TabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1990-12-312009-08-04Canada
Children Choice Multivitamin W Iron Chew Tabalpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 unit) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (4 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit)TabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1991-12-312009-08-04Canada
Children's Chewable Tabalpha-Tocopherol succinate (15 unit) + Ascorbic acid (33.33 mg) + Beta carotene (333.3 unit) + Biotin (33 mcg) + Chromic chloride (2.2 mcg) + Cyanocobalamin (7.33 mcg) + Folic acid (.1 mg) + Magnesium (23.33 mg) + Manganese sulfate (1.82 mg) + Molybdenum (.7 mcg) + Niacin (.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (2.66 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Potassium (9.44 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.016 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1.66 mg) + Racemethionine (2.66 mg) + Riboflavin (1 mg) + Sodium selenite (2.6 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.66 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (333.3 unit) + Zinc (.95 mg)TabletOralNf Formulas Inc.1988-12-312000-06-21Canada
Co-q10 and Vitamin Ealpha-Tocopherol succinate (300 unit) + Ubidecarenone (100 mg)CapsuleOralBiomed International Products Corp.2003-10-012006-06-29Canada
Defense Capletsalpha-Tocopherol succinate (200 unit) + Beta carotene (5000 unit) + Calcium ascorbate (350 mg) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Copper (.5 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1997-08-152000-03-03Canada
Derma-forcealpha-Tocopherol succinate (33.3 unit) + Ascorbic acid (117 mg) + Beta carotene (3333.3 unit) + Biotin (300 mcg) + Calcium (42 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Choline (25 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (33.3 mcg) + Folic acid (0.333 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (17 mg) + Methionine (25 mg) + Nicotinamide (7 mg) + Octasulfur (8.33 mg) + Pantothenic acid (33.3 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (10 mg) + Riboflavin (10 mg) + Thiamine (10 mg) + Zinc (8.33 mg)CapsuleOralPrairie Naturals1997-04-012006-09-20Canada
E Plex 1000 Mega Strengthalpha-Tocopherol succinate (1000 unit) + Racemethionine (4 mg) + Selenium (50 mcg)TabletOralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cavan Heme OBalpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (28 mg/1) + Niacin (17 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (175 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Sodium selenate (65 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1)TabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-08-032012-06-10Us
Dialyvite 3000alpha-Tocopherol succinate (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Cobalamin (1 mg/1) + Folic acid (3 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Selenocysteine (70 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc citrate (15 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa2004-02-01Not applicableUs
Dialyvite 5000alpha-Tocopherol succinate (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Cobalamin (2 mg/1) + Folic acid (5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Selenocysteine (70 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc citrate (25 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa2008-05-01Not applicableUs
Dialyvite Supreme Dalpha-Tocopherol succinate (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (2000 [iU]/1) + Cobalamin (1 mg/1) + Folic acid (3 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Selenocysteine (70 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc citrate (15 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa2010-09-08Not applicableUs
HemeNatal OBalpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Heme iron polypeptide (6 mg/1) + Iron saccharate (28 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (17 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (250 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Sodium selenate (65 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (4.5 mg/1)TabletOralWh Nutritionals, Llc2012-03-08Not applicableUs
HemeNatal OB plus DHAalpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1) + Alpha-Linolenic Acid (0.5 mg/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Doconexent (200 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Heme iron polypeptide (6 mg/1) + Iron saccharate (28 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (17 mg/1) + Osbond acid (2.5 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (250 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Sodium selenate (65 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (4.5 mg/1)KitWh Nutritionals, Llc2012-03-082019-04-30Us
M-Vegmax22alpha-Tocopherol succinate (0.033 g/100g)Tablet, chewableOralMbg Inc (Korea Institute of Science Development)2018-02-022019-02-02Us
Multi Vitamin Drops with Fluoridealpha-Tocopherol succinate (5 [iU]/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Cyanocobalamin (2 ug/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)Solution / dropsOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2014-04-182016-07-21Us
Multi Vitamin Drops with Fluoridealpha-Tocopherol succinate (5 [iU]/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Cyanocobalamin (2 ug/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)Solution / dropsOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2014-04-182017-09-30Us
Multi Vitamin Drops with Fluoride and Ironalpha-Tocopherol succinate (5 [iU]/1mL) + Ascorbic acid (35 mg/1mL) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1mL) + Ferrous sulfate (10 mg/1mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (0.6 mg/1mL) + Nicotinamide (8 mg/1mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.4 mg/1mL) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1mL) + Thiamine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/1mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (1500 [iU]/1mL)Solution / dropsOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2014-04-182016-07-29Us
Categories
UNII
LU4B53JYVE
CAS number
4345-03-3
Weight
Average: 530.79
Monoisotopic: 530.397124839
Chemical Formula
C33H54O5
InChI Key
IELOKBJPULMYRW-NJQVLOCASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C33H54O5/c1-22(2)12-9-13-23(3)14-10-15-24(4)16-11-20-33(8)21-19-28-27(7)31(25(5)26(6)32(28)38-33)37-30(36)18-17-29(34)35/h22-24H,9-21H2,1-8H3,(H,34,35)/t23-,24-,33-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
4-oxo-4-{[(2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl]oxy}butanoic acid
SMILES
[H][C@@](C)(CCCC(C)C)CCC[C@@]([H])(C)CCC[C@]1(C)CCC2=C(C)C(OC(=O)CCC(O)=O)=C(C)C(C)=C2O1

Pharmacology

Indication

The primary health-related use for which alpha-tocopherol succinate is formally indicated is as a dietary supplement for patients who demonstrate a genuine vitamin E deficiency. At the same time, vitamin E deficiency is generally quite rare but may occur in premature babies of very low birth weight (< 1500 grams), individuals with fat-malabsorption disorders (as fat is required for the digestive tract to absorb vitamin E), or individuals with abetalipoproteinemia - a rare, inherited disorder that causes poor absorption of dietary fat - who require extremely large doses of supplemental vitamin E daily (around 100 mg/kg or 5-10 g/day) 15. In all such cases, alpha-tocopherol is largely the preferred form of vitamin E to be administered.

Elsewhere, vitamin E's chemical profile as a fat-soluble antioxidant that is capable of neutralizing free radicals in the body continues to generate ongoing interest and study regarding how and whether or not the vitamin can help prevent or delay various chronic diseases associated with free radicals or other potential biological effects that vitamin E possesses like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, ocular conditions, immune illnesses, cancer, and more 12. None of these ongoing studies have yet to elucidate any formally significant evidence, however 12.

Similarly, more effective clinical trials are necessary to confirm what has only been accrued as preliminary data when it comes to studies proposing the demonstration of alpha-tocopherol succinate's capability to act as an anti-cancer therapy or as a regulator of inflammation 14,8,9.

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Of the eight separate variants of vitamin E, alpha-tocopherol is the predominant form of vitamin E in human and animal tissues, and it has the highest bioavailability 16. This is because the liver preferentially resecretes only alpha-tocopherol by way of the hepatic alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP); the liver metabolizes and excretes all the other vitamin E variants, which is why blood and cellular concentrations of other forms of vitamin E other than alpha-tocopherol are ultimately lower 15.

Furthermore, the term alpha-tocopherol generally refers to a group of eight possible stereoisomers which is often called all-rac-tocopherol for being a racemic mixture of all eight stereoisomers 12,16. Of the eight stereoisomers, the RRR-alpha-tocopherol - or sometimes referred to as the d-alpha-tocopherol - stereoisomer is the naturally occurring form of alpha-tocopherol that is perhaps best recognized by the alpha-TTP 12,16 and has been reported to demonstrate approximately twice the systemic availability of all-rac-tocopherol 16.

As a result, often times (but certainly not always) the discussion of vitamin E - at least within the context of using the vitamin for health-related indications - is generally in reference to the use of RRR- or d-alpha-tocopherol.

Subsequently, without further evidence to suggest otherwise, alpha-tocpherol succinate is generally believed to undergo a logical de-esterification in the gastrointestinal tract before being subsequently absorbed as free tocopherol 6,7.

Mechanism of action

Without further evidence to suggest otherwise, alpha-tocpherol succinate is generally believed to undergo a logical de-esterification in the gastrointestinal tract before being subsequently absorbed as free tocopherol 6,7. The free alpha-tocopherol is therefore available and capable of the following activities.

Vitamin E's antioxidant capabilities are perhaps the primary biological action associated with alpha-tocopherol. In general, antioxidants protect cells from the damaging effects of free radicals, which are molecules that consist of an unshared electron 15. These unshared electrons are highly energetic and react rapidly with oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) 15. In doing so, free radicals are capable of damaging cells, which may facilitate their contribution to the development of various diseases 15. Moreover, the human body naturally forms ROS when it converts food into energy and is also exposed to environmental free radicals contained in cigarette smoke, air pollution, or ultraviolet radiation from the sun 15. It is believed that perhaps vitamin E antioxidants might be able to protect body cells from the damaging effects of such frequent free radical and ROS exposure 15.

Specifically, vitamin E is a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents the propagation of free radical reactions 12. The vitamin E molecule is specifically a peroxyl radical scavenger and especially protects polyunsaturated fatty acids within endogenous cell membrane phospholipids and plasma lipoproteins 12. Peroxyl free radicals react with vitamin E a thousand times more rapidly than they do with the aforementioned polyunsaturated fatty acids 12. Furthermore, the phenolic hydroxyl group of tocopherol reacts with an organic peroxyl radical to form an organic hydroperoxide and tocopheroxyl radical 12. This tocopheroxyl radical can then undergo various possible reactions: it could (a) be reduced by other antioxidants to tocopherol, (b) react with another tocopheroxyl radical to form non-reactive products like tocopherol dimers, (c) undergo further oxidation to tocopheryl quinone, or (d) even act as a prooxidant and oxidize other lipids 12.

In addition to the antioxidant actions of vitamin E, there have been a number of studies that report various other specific molecular functions associated with vitamin E 12. For example, alpha-tocopherol is capable of inhibiting protein kinase C activity, which is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation in smooth muscle cells, human platelets, and monocytes 12. In particular, protein kinase C inhibition by alpha-tocopherol is partially attributable to its attenuating effect on the generation of membrane-derived dialglycerol, a lipid that facilitates protein kinase C translocation, thereby increasing its activity 12.

In addition, vitamin E enrichment of endothelial cells downregulates the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), thereby decreasing the adhesion of blood cell components to the endothelium 12.

Vitamin E also upregulates the expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-1 12. The increased expression of these two rate-limiting enzymes in the arachidonic acid cascade explains the observation that vitamin E, in a dose-dependent fashion, enhanced the release of prostacyclin, a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation in humans 12.

Furthermore, vitamin E can inhibit platelet adhesion, aggregation, and platelet release reactions 12. The vitamin can also evidently inhibit the plasma generation of thrombin, a potent endogenous hormone that binds to platelet receptors and induces aggregation of platelets 12. Moreover, vitamin E may also be able to decrease monocyte adhesion to the endothellium by downregulating expression of adhesion molecules and decreasing monocyte superoxide production 12.

Given these proposed biological activities of vitamin E, the substance continues to generate ongoing interest and studies in whether or not vitamin E can assist in delaying or preventing various diseases with any one or more of its biologic actions. For instance, studies continue to see whether vitamin E's ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation can aid in preventing the development of cardiovascular disease or atherogenesis 12.

Similarly, it is also believed that if vitamin E can decrease the chance of cardiovascular disease then it can also decrease the chance of related diabetic disease and complications 12. In much the same way, it is also believed that perhaps the antioxidant abilities of vitamin E can neutralize free radicals that are constantly reacting and damaging cellular DNA 12. Furthermore, it is also believed that free radical damage does contribute to protein damage in the ocular lens - another free radical-mediated condition that may potentially be prevented by vitamin E use 12. Where it is also suggested that various central nervous system disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, and Tardive Dyskinesia possess some form of oxidative stress component, it is also proposed that perhaps vitamin E use could assist with its antioxidant action 12.

There have also been studies that report the possibility of vitamin E supplementation can improve or reverse the natural decline in cellular immune function in healthy, elderly individuals 12.

As of this time, however, there is either only insufficient data or even contradicting data (where certain doses of vitamin E supplementation could even potentially increase all-cause mortality) 2 on which to suggest the use of vitamin E could formally benefit in any of these proposed indications.

Furthermore, there are ongoing studies that demonstrate alpha-tocopherol succinate's unique possession of capabilities that allow it to induce differentiation, inhibit proliferation and apoptosis in cancer cells, enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation, hyperthermia, and some chemotherapeutic agents and biological response modifiers on tumor cells, all the while protecting normal cells against any adverse effects 9. Despite being able to demonstrate such effects on animal and human cells in culture, the value of these effects has not drawn significant attention from researchers and clinicians and nor has the specific mechanisms of action been elucidated 9. Additionally, other studies have also shown that alpha-tocopherol succinate seemingly possesses an ability exclusive from other tocopherol esters to inhibit and minimize prostaglandin E2 production in human lung epithelial cells 8. Considering increased prostaglandin E2 production has been observed frequently in lung cancer patients, there may be another avenue in which alpha-tocopherol succinate may be able to treat lung cancer 8. Nevertheless, the possibility of such activity requires further elucidation.

TargetActionsOrganism
USEC14-like protein 4Not AvailableHumans
USEC14-like protein 3Not AvailableHumans
USEC14-like protein 2Not AvailableHumans
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHumans
UProtein kinase C beta typeNot AvailableHumans
UArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseNot AvailableHumans
UProtein kinase C alpha typeNot AvailableHumans
UDiacylglycerol kinase alphaNot AvailableHumans
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoformNot AvailableHumans
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoformNot AvailableHumans
ULung epithelial cellsNot AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

Learn more
Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

Learn more
Absorption

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

50 to 80% absorbed from gastrointestinal tract.

Volume of distribution

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

Protein binding

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

Bound to beta-lipoproteins in blood.

Metabolism

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

Hepatic.

Route of elimination

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

Half life

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

Clearance

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

Toxicity

In addition to any following information, owing to alpha-Tocopherol succinate's closely related chemical nature with alpha-Tocopherol acetate, please also refer to the drug information page for alpha-Tocopherol acetate for further data.

It is generally believed that alpha-tocopherol succinate is ultimately de-esterified or cleaved to provide alpha-tocopherol once administered to the human body 18. It is consequently expected that pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics similar to that of alpha-tocopherol to be followed 18.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
OrlistatOrlistat can cause a decrease in the absorption of alpha-Tocopherol succinate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

    Learn more
  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

    Learn more
  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

    Learn more
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Iuliano L, Micheletta F, Maranghi M, Frati G, Diczfalusy U, Violi F: Bioavailability of vitamin E as function of food intake in healthy subjects: effects on plasma peroxide-scavenging activity and cholesterol-oxidation products. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Oct;21(10):E34-7. [PubMed:11597949]
  2. Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E: Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37-46. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537682]
  3. Horwitt MK, Elliott WH, Kanjananggulpan P, Fitch CD: Serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol after ingestion of various vitamin E preparations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Aug;40(2):240-5. [PubMed:6465056]
  4. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1796-806. [PubMed:16641396]
  5. Poston L, Briley AL, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Shennan AH: Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Apr 8;367(9517):1145-54. [PubMed:16616557]
  6. Mathias PM, Harries JT, Peters TJ, Muller DP: Studies on the in vivo absorption of micellar solutions of tocopherol and tocopheryl acetate in the rat: demonstration and partial characterization of a mucosal esterase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of the enterocyte. J Lipid Res. 1981 Jul;22(5):829-37. [PubMed:7288289]
  7. Ajandouz el H, Castan S, Jakob S, Puigserver A: A fast, sensitive HPLC method for the determination of esterase activity on alpha-tocopheryl acetate. J Chromatogr Sci. 2006 Nov-Dec;44(10):631-3. [PubMed:17254374]
  8. Lee E, Choi MK, Lee YJ, Ku JL, Kim KH, Choi JS, Lim SJ: Alpha-tocopheryl succinate, in contrast to alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl acetate, inhibits prostaglandin E2 production in human lung epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Nov;27(11):2308-15. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgl073. Epub 2006 May 19. [PubMed:16714329]
  9. Prasad KN, Kumar B, Yan XD, Hanson AJ, Cole WC: Alpha-tocopheryl succinate, the most effective form of vitamin E for adjuvant cancer treatment: a review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Apr;22(2):108-17. [PubMed:12672706]
  10. Schmolz L, Birringer M, Lorkowski S, Wallert M: Complexity of vitamin E metabolism. World J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 26;7(1):14-43. doi: 10.4331/wjbc.v7.i1.14. [PubMed:26981194]
  11. Zondlo Fiume M: Final report on the safety assessment of Tocopherol, Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopheryl Linoleate, Tocopheryl Linoleate/Oleate, Tocopheryl Nicotinate, Tocopheryl Succinate, Dioleyl Tocopheryl Methylsilanol, Potassium Ascorbyl Tocopheryl Phosphate, and Tocophersolan. Int J Toxicol. 2002;21 Suppl 3:51-116. doi: 10.1080/10915810290169819. [PubMed:12537931]
  12. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academies Press (US). [ISBN:0309069491]
  13. Link [Link]
  14. Natural Medicine Journal: Alpha Tocopherol Succinate in Cancer Care [Link]
  15. National Institute for Health [Link]
  16. Cosmetic Ingredient Review: Safety Assessment of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols as Used in Cosmetics [Link]
  17. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology: Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Annatto δ-tocotrienol in Healthy Fed Subjects [Link]
  18. EMEA CHMP Assessment Report for Vedrop (polymeric mixture consisting of esterification of d- alpha tocopherol succinate with polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG)) [File]
External Links
ChemSpider
19171
ChEBI
135821
ChEMBL
CHEMBL81421
AHFS Codes
  • 88:20.00 — Vitamin E
MSDS
Download (355 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral400 unit
TabletOral200 unit
TabletOral
Tablet, coatedOral
CapsuleOral
Tablet, chewableOral0.033 g/100g
SolutionOral
LiquidOral
Solution / dropsOral
KitOral
Kit
Tablet, chewableOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
LiquidOral77 unit
CapsuleOral400 unit
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.18e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.96ALOGPS
logP10.24ChemAxon
logS-7.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.83 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count17ChemAxon
Refractivity155.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability65.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as vitamin e compounds. These are a group of fat-soluble compounds containing or derived either from a tocopherol or a tocotrienol skeleton.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Quinone and hydroquinone lipids
Direct Parent
Vitamin E compounds
Alternative Parents
Diterpenoids / 1-benzopyrans / Fatty acid esters / Alkyl aryl ethers / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Benzenoids / Carboxylic acid esters / Oxacyclic compounds / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides
show 2 more
Substituents
Diterpenoid / Chromane / Benzopyran / 1-benzopyran / Alkyl aryl ether / Fatty acid ester / Fatty acyl / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Benzenoid / Carboxylic acid ester
show 11 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L4
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX3
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 4
Molecular Weight
46643.385 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L3
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX4
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 3
Molecular Weight
46047.835 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ye X, Ji C, Yin G, Tang R, Zeng L, Gu S, Ying K, Xie Y, Zhao RC, Mao Y: Characterization of a human Sec14-like protein cDNA SEC14L3 highly homologous to human SPF/TAP. Mol Biol Rep. 2004 Mar;31(1):59-63. [PubMed:15040456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Carrier protein. Binds to some hydrophobic molecules and promotes their transfer between the different cellular sites. Binds with high affinity to alpha-tocopherol. Also binds with a weaker affinit...
Gene Name
SEC14L2
Uniprot ID
O76054
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
46144.9 Da
References
  1. Neuzil J, Dong LF, Wang XF, Zingg JM: Tocopherol-associated protein-1 accelerates apoptosis induced by alpha-tocopheryl succinate in mesothelioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 19;343(4):1113-7. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16579965]
  2. Ni J, Pang ST, Yeh S: Differential retention of alpha-vitamin E is correlated with its transporter gene expression and growth inhibition efficacy in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007 Apr 1;67(5):463-71. [PubMed:17252538]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Rabovsky A, Cuomo J, Eich N: Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):55-60. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [PubMed:16603143]
  2. Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist. 2006 Jul-Aug;11(7):742-52. [PubMed:16880233]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosom...
Gene Name
PRKCB
Uniprot ID
P05771
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C beta type
Molecular Weight
76868.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Wigg SJ, Tare M, Forbes J, Cooper ME, Thomas MC, Coleman HA, Parkington HC, O'Brien RC: Early vitamin E supplementation attenuates diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction and the rise in protein kinase C-beta in mesenteric artery and ameliorates wall stiffness in femoral artery of Wistar rats. Diabetologia. 2004 Jun;47(6):1038-46. Epub 2004 Jun 8. [PubMed:15184978]
  4. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093]
  5. Ganz MB, Seftel A: Glucose-induced changes in protein kinase C and nitric oxide are prevented by vitamin E. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;278(1):E146-52. [PubMed:10644549]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [PubMed:16531984]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differenti...
Gene Name
PRKCA
Uniprot ID
P17252
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C alpha type
Molecular Weight
76749.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Clement S, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Ricciarelli R, Tasinato A: Alpha-tocopherol as a modulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):507-14. [PubMed:9430404]
  4. Sylvester PW, McIntyre BS, Gapor A, Briski KP: Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation. Cell Prolif. 2001 Dec;34(6):347-57. [PubMed:11736999]
  5. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Upon cell stimulation converts the second messenger diacylglycerol into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity.
Gene Name
DGKA
Uniprot ID
P23743
Uniprot Name
Diacylglycerol kinase alpha
Molecular Weight
82629.55 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function
PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase.
Gene Name
PPP2CB
Uniprot ID
P62714
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform
Molecular Weight
35574.85 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
PP2A is the major phosphatase for microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. Cooperates with SGO2 to protect centromeric cohesin from separase-mediated cleavage in oocytes specifically during meiosis I (By similarity). Can dephosphorylate SV40 large T antigen and p53/TP53. Activates RAF1 by dephosphorylating it at 'Ser-259'.
Specific Function
Gaba receptor binding
Gene Name
PPP2CA
Uniprot ID
P67775
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform
Molecular Weight
35593.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
11. Lung epithelial cells
Kind
Group
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
References
  1. Lee E, Choi MK, Lee YJ, Ku JL, Kim KH, Choi JS, Lim SJ: Alpha-tocopheryl succinate, in contrast to alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl acetate, inhibits prostaglandin E2 production in human lung epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Nov;27(11):2308-15. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgl073. Epub 2006 May 19. [PubMed:16714329]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA2
Uniprot ID
P09210
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A2
Molecular Weight
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Ralat LA, Colman RF: Identification of tyrosine 79 in the tocopherol binding site of glutathione S-transferase pi. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 17;45(41):12491-9. [PubMed:17029404]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates...
Gene Name
GSTO1
Uniprot ID
P78417
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1
Molecular Weight
27565.6 Da
References
  1. Sampayo-Reyes A, Zakharyan RA: Tocopherol esters inhibit human glutathione S-transferase omega. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(3):547-52. Epub 2006 Oct 1. [PubMed:17019444]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the t...
Gene Name
GSTM3
Uniprot ID
P21266
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3
Molecular Weight
26559.32 Da
References
  1. Mustacich DJ, Gohil K, Bruno RS, Yan M, Leonard SW, Ho E, Cross CE, Traber MG: Alpha-tocopherol modulates genes involved in hepatic xenobiotic pathways in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Jun;20(6):469-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18789671]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GCLC
Uniprot ID
P48506
Uniprot Name
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Superoxide dismutase activity
Specific Function
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vit...
Gene Name
NQO1
Uniprot ID
P15559
Uniprot Name
NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1
Molecular Weight
30867.405 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the a...
Gene Name
HMOX1
Uniprot ID
P09601
Uniprot Name
Heme oxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
32818.345 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Binds alpha-tocopherol, enhances its transfer between separate membranes, and stimulates its release from liver cells (PubMed:7887897). Binds both phosphatidylinol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidyl...
Gene Name
TTPA
Uniprot ID
P49638
Uniprot Name
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
Molecular Weight
31749.305 Da

Drug created on March 25, 2018 13:15 / Updated on July 21, 2019 06:39