Identification

Name
Zinc
Accession Number
DB01593
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. It is identified by the symbol Zn [15].

A newer study suggests implies that an imbalance of zinc is associated with the neuronal damage associated with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and seizures [6].

Understanding the mechanisms that control brain zinc homeostasis is, therefore, imperative to the development of preventive and treatment regimens for these and other neurological disorders [6].

In addition to the above, recent review articles have already demonstrated the important role of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of affective disorders, plus discussed the potential value of zinc as a marker of these diseases [14]. Most recently, research has shown that polymorphism of the common polymorphism in zinc transporter SLC30A8/ZnT8 may increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes provided novel insights into the role of zinc in diabetes [2].

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Zinc, chelated
  • Zinc, elemental
  • Zincum metallicum
  • Zn
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Zinc oxideunknownSOI2LOH54Z1314-13-2XLOMVQKBTHCTTD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Zinc cationionic13S1S8SF3723713-49-7PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Male AdvantageCapsule5 mgOralBody Wise International LlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Micro ZnSolution5 mgIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Micro ZnSolution1 mgIntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Zin Pro Tab 90mgTablet90 mgOralProfessional Health Products1991-12-311997-08-22Canada
Zinc LozengesLozenge10 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acti-ZN 25 CapletTablet25.0 mgOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Chelated Mega Zinc Tab 75mgTablet75 mgOralRheingold Food International Ltd.1985-12-312001-07-06Canada
Chelated Zinc Hvp Chelate 50mg - TabTablet50 mgOralInternational Nutrition Ltd.1996-07-262001-08-17Canada
Chelated Zinc Tab 10mgTablet10 mgOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1975-12-312006-07-25Canada
Chelated Zinc Tab 25mgTablet25 mgOralPharmavite1991-12-311998-09-08Canada
Chelated Zinc TabletsTablet15 mgOralAlbion1996-09-062002-09-30Canada
Chewable Zinc Wafers 10mgTablet10 mgOralShaklee Corporation1986-12-312003-07-25Canada
Fisherman's Friend Zinc LozengesLozenge5 mgOralLofthouse Of Fleetwood Ltd.1999-08-152003-06-20Canada
Halls Zinc DefenseLozenge5.5 mgOralWarner Lambert Canada Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Herbon Zinc LozengesLozenge5 mgOralHerbon Naturals Inc.1997-09-232005-09-29Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsZinc (10 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic Acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (50 unit)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 Plus Multiple Vitamins & MineralsZinc (15 mg) + Ascorbic acid (90 mg) + Biotin (45 mcg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Chromium (10 mcg) + Copper (2 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (5 mg) + Molybdenum (25 mcg) + Nicotinamide (40 mg) + Pantothenic acid (10 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.15 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (3 mg) + Riboflavin (3.2 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (2.25 mg) + Vanadium (10 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (6000 unit)TabletOralGfr Pharma Ltd.2002-10-202004-06-15Canada
A + ZincZinc (15 mg) + Vitamin A (10000 unit)TabletOralNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc2000-09-012007-07-06Canada
A.B.C. Formula #1Zinc (4 mg) + Beta carotene (1000 unit)TabletOralVallee Import/Export1997-01-011999-06-28Canada
A.R.T.H. Away FormulaZinc (0.63 mg) + Calcium (24 mg) + Cholecalciferol (45 unit) + Copper (0.232 mg) + Folic Acid (0.025 mg) + Manganese (0.58 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (0.5 mg) + Selenium (1.54 mcg)CapsuleOralAbundance Marketing Ltd.1999-02-012006-06-16Canada
A/o-26 - CapletZinc (7.5 mg) + Beta carotene (7500 unit) + Calcium (75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (250 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (100 unit) + Folic Acid (.4 mg) + Manganese (2.5 mg) + Racemethionine (50 mg) + Selenium (100 mcg)TabletOralEnviro Tech International Canada1996-12-191999-07-26Canada
Aces TabZinc (25 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (350 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Vitamin E (200 unit)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
Acetabolan III Vitamin and Mineral SupplementZinc (7.5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (250.0 mg) + Magnesium (112.5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.63 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2003-12-052007-07-18Canada
Acetabolan-II Vitamin and Mineral SupplementZinc (6 mg) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Magnesium (90 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2.1 mg)CapsuleOralIovate Health Sciences International Inc.2000-11-202005-06-21Canada
Acti-cal/mag 2:1 + Zinc and D CapletZinc (6.0 mg) + Calcium (350.0 mg) + Cholecalciferol (100 unit) + Magnesium (175.0 mg)TabletOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cavan-EC SOD DHAZinc (26 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-01-102014-07-15Us
ChromagenZinc (12 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (10 ug/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (25 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (250 ug/1) + Gastric intrinsic factor (100 mg/1) + Levomefolic acid (750 ug/1)CapsuleOralAvion Pharmaceuticals, Llc2017-01-23Not applicableUs
CitraNatal AssureZinc (25 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (124 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1)KitMission Pharmacal Company2014-04-30Not applicableUs
CitraNatal AssureZinc (25 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1)KitMission Pharmacal2008-11-19Not applicableUs
EscaviteZinc (7.4 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (45 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (9 ug/1) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg/1) + Iron (7.5 mg/1) + Magnesium (60 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (2 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.7 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)Tablet, chewableOralGm Pharmaceuticals2012-02-01Not applicableUs
Folcaps Care OneZinc (5 mg/1) + Alpha-Linolenic Acid (50 mg/1) + Biotin (300 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (24 mg/1) + Calcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (100 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (15 [iU]/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMayne Pharma2009-05-012016-12-31Us
Folet OneZinc (20 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (18 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (250 [iU]/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Doconexent (225 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (25 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (38 mg/1) + Magnesium (15 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (30 mg/1) + Vitamin E (15 [iU]/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralPronova Corporation2014-06-01Not applicableUs
M-Natal PlusZinc (25 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium (200 mg/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (10 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.84 mg/1) + Vitamin A (4000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (22 [iU]/1)TabletOralMethod Pharmaceuticals, LLC2018-10-01Not applicableUs
MaxFeZinc (12 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Biotin (150 ug/1) + Cyanocobalamin (60 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (160 mg/1) + Magnesium (6.5 mg/1)TabletOralPronova Corporation2014-06-01Not applicableUs
Nata KompleteZinc (15 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Calcium (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (25 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Pantothenic acid (8 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (30 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.5 mg/1) + Selenium (50 ug/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin A (2700 [iU]/1) + Vitamin E (20 [iU]/1)TabletOralWh Nutritionals, Llc2011-06-252014-05-31Us
Categories
UNII
J41CSQ7QDS
CAS number
7440-66-6
Weight
Average: 65.409
Monoisotopic: 63.929146578
Chemical Formula
Zn
InChI Key
HCHKCACWOHOZIP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Zn
IUPAC Name
zinc
SMILES
[Zn]

Pharmacology

Indication

Zinc can be used for the treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency/its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slowed wound healing. It is also utilized for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, as well as preventing lower respiratory tract infections [25].

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

Zinc is involved in various aspects of cellular metabolism. It has been estimated that approximately 10% of human proteins may bind zinc, in addition to hundreds of proteins that transport and traffic zinc. It is required for the catalytic activity of more than 200 enzymes, and it plays a role in immune function wound healing, protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, and cell division. Zinc is an essential element for a proper sense of taste and smell and supports normal growth and development during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. It is thought to have antioxidant properties, which may be protective against accelerated aging and helps to speed up the healing process after an injury; however, studies differ as to its effectiveness. Zinc ions are effective antimicrobial agents even if administered in low concentrations [29].

Studies on oral zinc for specific conditions shows the following evidence in various conditions [12]:

Colds: Evidence suggests that if zinc lozenges or syrup are taken within 24 hours after cold symptoms start, the supplement may shorten the length of colds. The use intranasal zinc has been associated with the loss of the sense of smell, in some cases long-term or permanently [12].

Wound healing: Patients with skin ulcers and decreased levels of zinc may benefit from oral zinc supplements [12].

Diahrrea: Oral zinc supplements can reduce the symptoms of diarrhea in children with low levels of zinc, especially in cases of malnutrition [12].

Mechanism of action

Zinc has three primary biological roles: catalytic, structural, and regulatory. The catalytic and structural role of zinc is well established, and there are various noteworthy reviews on these functions. For example, zinc is a structural constituent in numerous proteins, inclusive of growth factors, cytokines, receptors, enzymes, and transcription factors for different cellular signaling pathways. It is implicated in numerous cellular processes as a cofactor for approximately 3000 human proteins including enzymes, nuclear factors, and hormones [13].

Zinc promotes resistance to epithelial apoptosis through cell protection (cytoprotection) against reactive oxygen species and bacterial toxins, likely through the antioxidant activity of the cysteine-rich metallothioneins [5].

In HL-60 cells (promyelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc enhances the up-regulation of A20 mRNA, which, via TRAF pathway, decreases NF-kappaB activation, leading to decreased gene expression and generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta, and IL-8 [4].

There are several mechanisms of action of zinc on acute diarrhea. Various mechanisms are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016 [23].

Zinc deficiency in humans decreases the activity of serum thymulin (a hormone of the thymus), which is necessary for the maturation of T-helper cells. T-helper 1 (Th(1)) cytokines are decreased but T-helper 2 (Th(2)) cytokines are not affected by zinc deficiency in humans [A342417].

The change of Th(1) to Th(2) function leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunction. Because IL-2 production (Th(1) cytokine) is decreased, this causes decreased activity of natural-killer-cell (NK cell) and T cytolytic cells, normally involved in killing viruses, bacteria, and malignant cells [A3424].

In humans, zinc deficiency may lead to the generation of new CD4+ T cells, produced in the thymus. In cell culture studies (HUT-78, a Th(0) human malignant lymphoblastoid cell line), as a result of zinc deficiency, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, phosphorylation of IkappaB, and binding of NF-kappaB to DNA are decreased and this results in decreased Th(1) cytokine production [3].

In another study, zinc supplementation in human subjects suppressed the gene expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased oxidative stress markers [A3424]. In HL-60 cells (a human pro-myelocytic leukemia cell line), zinc deficiency increased the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-8 cytokines and mRNA. In such cells, zinc was found to induce A20, a zinc finger protein that inhibited NF-kappaB activation by the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor pathway. This process decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers [3].

The exact mechanism of zinc in acne treatment is poorly understood. However, zinc is considered to act directly on microbial inflammatory equilibrium and facilitate antibiotic absorption when used in combination with other agents. Topical zinc alone as well as in combination with other agents may be efficacious because of its anti-inflammatory activity and ability to reduce P. acnes bacteria by the inhibition of P. acnes lipases and free fatty acid levels [20].

TargetActionsOrganism
UB1 bradykinin receptorNot AvailableHuman
UMethylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferaseNot AvailableHuman
UFructose-bisphosphate aldolase ANot AvailableHuman
UElongation factor 1-alpha 1Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-enolaseNot AvailableHuman
UGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specificNot AvailableHuman
UNucleoside diphosphate kinase ANot AvailableHuman
UProtein disulfide-isomeraseNot AvailableHuman
UProtein disulfide-isomerase A3Not AvailableHuman
UPeroxiredoxin-1Not AvailableHuman
UPhosphoserine phosphataseNot AvailableHuman
UTriosephosphate isomeraseNot AvailableHuman
UElongation factor Tu, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UEstrogen receptor alpha
cofactor
Human
UInterleukin-3Not AvailableHuman
UMetallothionein-2Not AvailableHuman
UCopper chaperone for superoxide dismutaseNot AvailableHuman
UHistone deacetylase 1
cofactor
Human
UHistone deacetylase 4
cofactor
Human
UDNA-3-methyladenine glycosylaseNot AvailableHuman
USemenogelin-1Not AvailableHuman
USuperoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]Not AvailableHuman
UHistone deacetylase 8
cofactor
Human
UApoptosis regulatory protein SivaNot AvailableHuman
UGlycine receptor subunit alpha-1Not AvailableHuman
UE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2Not AvailableHuman
UInsulinNot AvailableHuman
UUtrophinNot AvailableHuman
UAspartoacylase
cofactor
Human
UProtein S100-A8Not AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A9Not AvailableHuman
UMatrix metalloproteinase-9Not AvailableHuman
UTumor protein p73
cofactor
Human
UProtein S100-A2Not AvailableHuman
UCellular tumor antigen p53Not AvailableHuman
UMetallothionein-3Not AvailableHuman
UProgrammed cell death protein 6Not AvailableHuman
UDAN domain family member 5
cofactor
Human
UMetallothionein-1ANot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1B-glycoproteinNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-2-macroglobulinNot AvailableHuman
UAngiotensinogenNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-2-HS-glycoproteinNot AvailableHuman
USerum amyloid P-componentNot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein A-INot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein A-IINot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein A-IVNot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein B receptorNot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein ENot AvailableHuman
UApolipoprotein L1Not AvailableHuman
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit BNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit CNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1r subcomponentNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1s subcomponentNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C3Not AvailableHuman
UComplement C4-BNot AvailableHuman
UC4b-binding protein alpha chainNot AvailableHuman
UC4b-binding protein beta chainNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C5Not AvailableHuman
ULys-63-specific deubiquitinase BRCC36Not AvailableHuman
UComplement component C8 alpha chainNot AvailableHuman
UComplement component C8 beta chainNot AvailableHuman
UComplement component C8 gamma chainNot AvailableHuman
UComplement factor BNot AvailableHuman
UComplement factor HNot AvailableHuman
UComplement factor INot AvailableHuman
UClusterinNot AvailableHuman
UCeruloplasminNot AvailableHuman
UCarboxypeptidase N catalytic chainNot AvailableHuman
UCarboxypeptidase N subunit 2Not AvailableHuman
UDermcidinNot AvailableHuman
UDesmoplakinNot AvailableHuman
UCoagulation factor XIINot AvailableHuman
UCoagulation factor XIII B chainNot AvailableHuman
UProthrombinNot AvailableHuman
UFicolin-3Not AvailableHuman
UFibrinogen alpha chainNot AvailableHuman
UFibronectinNot AvailableHuman
UGelsolinNot AvailableHuman
UHemoglobin subunit alphaNot AvailableHuman
UHemoglobin subunit betaNot AvailableHuman
UHaptoglobin-related proteinNot AvailableHuman
UHornerinNot AvailableHuman
UInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunitNot AvailableHuman
UIg alpha-1 chain C regionNot AvailableHuman
UIg mu chain C regionNot AvailableHuman
UImmunoglobulin kappa variable 1-17Not AvailableHuman
UIg kappa chain V-III region GOLNot AvailableHuman
UImmunoglobulin lambda variable 3-21Not AvailableHuman
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1Not AvailableHuman
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2Not AvailableHuman
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3Not AvailableHuman
UInter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4Not AvailableHuman
UImmunoglobulin J chainNot AvailableHuman
UJunction plakoglobinNot AvailableHuman
UPlasma kallikreinNot AvailableHuman
UKininogen-1Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 1Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 10Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 14Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 16Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 2 epidermalNot AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 5Not AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type II cytoskeletal 6ANot AvailableHuman
UKeratin, type I cytoskeletal 9Not AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2Not AvailableHuman
UN-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidaseNot AvailableHuman
USerum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1Not AvailableHuman
UPregnancy zone proteinNot AvailableHuman
UProtein S100-A7Not AvailableHuman
USelenoprotein PNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1-antitrypsinNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-1-antichymotrypsinNot AvailableHuman
UKallistatinNot AvailableHuman
UCorticosteroid-binding globulinNot AvailableHuman
UHeparin cofactor 2Not AvailableHuman
USex hormone-binding globulinNot AvailableHuman
USerotransferrinNot AvailableHuman
UTransthyretinNot AvailableHuman
UVitronectinNot AvailableHuman
UAmyloid-like protein 1
cofactor
Human
UAmyloid-like protein 2
cofactor
Human
UAmyloid beta A4 protein
cofactor
Human
UPoly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Zinc is absorbed in the small intestine by a carrier-mediated mechanism [9]. Under regular physiologic conditions, transport processes of uptake do not saturate. The exact amount of zinc absorbed is difficult to determine because zinc is secreted into the gut. Zinc administered in aqueous solutions to fasting subjects is absorbed quite efficiently (at a rate of 60-70%), however, absorption from solid diets is less efficient and varies greatly, dependent on zinc content and diet composition [9].

Generally, 33% is considered to be the average zinc absorption in humans [9]. More recent studies have determined different absorption rates for various populations based on their type of diet and phytate to zinc molar ratio. Zinc absorption is concentration dependent and increases linearly with dietary zinc up to a maximum rate [L20902].

Additionally zinc status may influence zinc absorption. Zinc-deprived humans absorb this element with increased efficiency, whereas humans on a high-zinc diet show a reduced efficiency of absorption [9].

Volume of distribution

A pharmacokinetic study was done in rats to determine the distribution and other metabolic indexes of zinc in two particle sizes. It was found that zinc particles were mainly distributed to organs including the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender [7].

Protein binding

Approximately 60-70% of the zinc in circulation is bound to albumin. Any condition that alters serum albumin concentration may have a secondary effect on serum zinc levels [A2092], [29].

Metabolism

Zinc is released from food as free ions during its digestion. These freed ions may then combine with endogenously secreted ligands before their transport into the enterocytes in the duodenum and jejunum. [9]. Selected transport proteins may facilitate the passage of zinc across the cell membrane into the hepatic circulation. With high intake, zinc may also be absorbed through a passive paracellular route [9].

The portal system carries absorbed zinc directly into the hepatic circulation, and then it is released into systemic circulation for delivery to various tissues. Although, serum zinc represents only 0.1% of the whole body zinc, the circulating zinc turns over rapidly to meet tissue needs [9].

Route of elimination

The excretion of zinc through gastrointestinal tract accounts for approximately one-half of all zinc eliminated from the body [9].

Considerable amounts of zinc are secreted through both biliary and intestinal secretions, however most is reabsorbed. This is an important process in the regulation of zinc balance. Other routes of zinc excretion include both urine and surface losses (sloughed skin, hair, sweat) [9].

Zinc has been shown to induce intestinal metallothionein, which combines zinc and copper in the intestine and prevents their serosal surface transfer. Intestinal cells are sloughed with approximately a 6-day turnover, and the metallothionein-bound copper and zinc are lost in the stool and are thus not absorbed [21].

Measurements in humans of endogenous intestinal zinc have primarily been made as fecal excretion; this suggests that the amounts excreted are responsive to zinc intake, absorbed zinc and physiologic need [9].

In one study, elimination kinetics in rats showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, however, most of the nanoparticles were excreted via the feces [18].

Half life

The half-life of zinc in humans is approximately 280 days [26].

Clearance

In one study of healthy patients, the clearance of zinc was found to be 0.63 ± 0.39 μg/min [19].

Toxicity

According to the Toxnet database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the oral LD50 for zinc is close to 3 g/kg body weight, more than 10-fold higher than cadmium and 50-fold higher than mercury [17].

The LD50 values of several zinc compounds (ranging from 186 to 623 mg zinc/kg/day) have been measured in rats and mice [16].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Retinol MetabolismMetabolic
Oxaprozin Action PathwayDrug action
Ramipril Action PathwayDrug action
Trandolapril Action PathwayDrug action
AICA-RibosiduriaDisease
Cystathionine beta-Synthase DeficiencyDisease
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)Disease
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)Disease
Lansoprazole Action PathwayDrug action
Diflunisal Action PathwayDrug action
Acute Intermittent PorphyriaDisease
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDisease
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencyDisease
Fc Epsilon Receptor I Signaling in Mast CellsSignaling
Azathioprine Action PathwayDrug action
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Ethanol DegradationMetabolic
Hyperphenylalaniemia Due to Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase DeficiencyDisease
Ureidopropionase DeficiencyDisease
Carnosinuria, CarnosinemiaDisease
Galactosemia II (GALK)Disease
beta-Mercaptolactate-Cysteine DisulfiduriaDisease
Fabry DiseaseDisease
FructosuriaDisease
Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Angiotensin MetabolismPhysiological
Antipyrine Action PathwayDrug action
Fenoprofen Action PathwayDrug action
Flurbiprofen Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Zinc.
AclidiniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Aclidinium.
AgmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Agmatine.
AlcuroniumThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Alcuronium.
AlfentanilThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Alfentanil.
AlmasilateThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Almasilate.
AloglutamolThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Aloglutamol.
AlphacetylmethadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlphaprodineThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Alphaprodine.
AluminiumThe therapeutic efficacy of Zinc can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminium.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Robert Nicaise, "Production of zinc powder for electrochemical batteries." U.S. Patent US4104188, issued 1877.

US4104188
General References
  1. Berni Canani R, Buccigrossi V, Passariello A: Mechanisms of action of zinc in acute diarrhea. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan;27(1):8-12. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32833fd48a. [PubMed:20856116]
  2. Fukunaka A, Fujitani Y: Role of Zinc Homeostasis in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes and Obesity. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Feb 6;19(2). pii: ijms19020476. doi: 10.3390/ijms19020476. [PubMed:29415457]
  3. Prasad AS: Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Mol Med. 2008 May-Jun;14(5-6):353-7. doi: 10.2119/2008-00033.Prasad. [PubMed:18385818]
  4. Dardenne M: Zinc and immune function. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Aug;56 Suppl 3:S20-3. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601479. [PubMed:12142956]
  5. Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS: Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Wound Repair Regen. 2007 Jan-Feb;15(1):2-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2006.00179.x. [PubMed:17244314]
  6. Prakash A, Bharti K, Majeed AB: Zinc: indications in brain disorders. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Apr;29(2):131-49. doi: 10.1111/fcp.12110. Epub 2015 Mar 12. [PubMed:25659970]
  7. Baek M, Chung HE, Yu J, Lee JA, Kim TH, Oh JM, Lee WJ, Paek SM, Lee JK, Jeong J, Choy JH, Choi SJ: Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:3081-97. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S32593. Epub 2012 Jun 26. [PubMed:22811602]
  8. McCall KA, Huang C, Fierke CA: Function and mechanism of zinc metalloenzymes. J Nutr. 2000 May;130(5S Suppl):1437S-46S. [PubMed:10801957]
  9. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative review [Link]
  10. The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health [Link]
  11. Dietary factors affecting Zinc bioavailability [Link]
  12. Zinc [Link]
  13. Zinc Transporters, Mechanisms of Action and Therapeutic Utility: Implications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus [Link]
  14. Zinc, future mono/adjunctive therapy for depression: Mechanisms of antidepressant action [Link]
  15. MeSH Zinc [Link]
  16. HEALTH EFFECTS [Link]
  17. ZINC COMPOUNDS - National Library of Medicine HSDB ... - Toxnet - NIH [Link]
  18. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles [Link]
  19. Net renal tubular reabsorption of zinc in healthy man and impaired handling in sickle cell anemia [Link]
  20. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A review [Link]
  21. Treatment of Wilson’s Disease with Zinc. I. Oral Zinc Therapy Regimens [Link]
  22. Zinc for the treatment of the common cold: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [Link]
  23. Zinc Supplementation in treating diarrhea in children [Link]
  24. Zinc homeostasis in humans [Link]
  25. ZINC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD [Link]
  26. Zinc Toxicity in Humans [Link]
  27. Chapter 16. Zinc [Link]
  28. Zinc metabolism [Link]
  29. Copper and Zinc, Biological Role and Significance of Copper/Zinc Imbalance [Link]
  30. The emerging role of zinc transporters [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015532
KEGG Compound
C00038
PubChem Compound
23994
PubChem Substance
46506903
ChemSpider
22430
ChEBI
30185
PharmGKB
PA451956
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Zinc
ATC Codes
C05AX04 — Zinc preparations
AHFS Codes
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
  • 40:12.00 — Replacement Preparations
MSDS
Download (49.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableZinc Deficiency1
1CompletedTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Neovascular Maculopathy1
1CompletedTreatmentAutism, Early Infantile / Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentChildren, Only / Pneumonia1
1CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Prophylaxis of cardiomyopathy1
1CompletedTreatmentHospitalization / Severe or persistent diarrhea1
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1RecruitingTreatmentPompe's Disease1
1RecruitingTreatmentTransplantation, Liver1
1TerminatedNot AvailableHealthy Male Volunteers1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceDrug Metabolism, Poor, CYP2D6-RELATED1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentKidney Diseases / Transplantation, Kidney1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia, Acute Lymphocytic (ALL) / Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous (AML) / Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous (CML) / Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdult Living Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients / Living Kidney Donors / Transplant, Kidney1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLiver Transplanted Patients / Living Donor (of the Respective Liver Transplant Recipient)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancers1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPostpartum Anemia1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentFemale Pattern Alopecia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNephritis, Lupus1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRenal Cancers1
2CompletedNot AvailableMalignancies / Tumors, Solid1
2CompletedTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
2CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Accident, Acute / Edema of the cerebrum1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Idiopathic Urticaria1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentLupus Erythematosus, Systemic1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
2CompletedTreatmentNon-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentRejection, Transplant1
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Cell Adenocarcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentRestless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2CompletedTreatmentSquamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN)1
2CompletedTreatmentTinnitus1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Dependence1
2RecruitingTreatmentCocaine-Related Disorders1
2RecruitingTreatmentCoughing1
2RecruitingTreatmentTransplant, Kidney1
2TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBacterial Infections / Pneumonia / Sepsis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentLupus Erythematosus, Systemic1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPneumonia2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentVesicular Stomatitis1
2, 3RecruitingPreventionOral Mucositis1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentLupus Erythematosus, Systemic1
3CompletedPreventionNutrition / Pregnancy1
3CompletedPreventionRespiratory Infections, Acute1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Urticaria1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Watery Diarrhoea1
3CompletedTreatmentCholera1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Idiopathic Urticaria1
3CompletedTreatmentDiarrheal Illnesses / Growth Faltering / Respiratory Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentDiarrhoea1
3CompletedTreatmentElective Caesarean Section Surgeries1
3CompletedTreatmentNephritis, Lupus1
3CompletedTreatmentPneumonia1
3CompletedTreatmentTuberculosis Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentWison's Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentSevere or persistent diarrhea1
3TerminatedPreventionSepsis1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentRespiratory Infections, Acute1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentDiarrheal Disorder1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareAdjunct Anesthesia Medication / Colonoscopy1
4CompletedBasic SciencePremature Births1
4CompletedDiagnosticAsthma Bronchial1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections / Pneumonia / Severe or persistent diarrhea1
4CompletedPreventionHypnotic / Specified Sedative1
4CompletedPreventionMucositis1
4CompletedTreatmentBacterial Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentMigraines1
4CompletedTreatmentMigrainous Headache / Nausea / Restlessness1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentWilson's Disease1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAge Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) / Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) / Macular Edema (ME) / Retinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)2
4TerminatedTreatmentAnemias1
4TerminatedTreatmentHpv / Venereal Warts1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingScreeningAlcohol Dependence1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableTrisiomy 21 (Down Syndrome)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHyperalgesia1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherPain, Neuropathic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHeadaches1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionMorbidity / Pneumonia / Severe or persistent diarrhea / The Mortality Rate1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVisceral Leishmaniasis1
Not AvailableCompletedScreeningGlaucoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Tract Infections / Pneumonia / Severe or persistent diarrhea1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBenign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEndoscopy / Sedation therapy1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHearing Loss, Noise-Induced / Tinnitus, Noise Induced / Zinc Deficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHospitalization / Severe or persistent diarrhea / The Mortality Rate1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLow Birth Weight / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI) / Severe or persistent diarrhea1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMalnutrition1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPneumonia1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAlcohol-Related Disorders / Brain Injury / Depression / Disease, Chronic / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) / Pain NOS / Posttraumatic Stress Disorders / Quality of Life / Substance-Related Disorders / Suicidal Thoughts / Wounds and Injuries1
Not AvailableSuspendedDiagnosticBulimia Nervosa (BN) / Catechol-O-methyltransferase / Dopamine / Eating Disorders / Reward1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusSupportive CareEndoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) / Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • AG Marin Pharmaceuticals
  • Alaven Pharmaceutical
  • American Regent
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Arbor Pharmaceuticals Incorporated
  • Atley Pharmaceuticals
  • Auriga Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Bio Pharm Inc.
  • Bradley Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Centurion Labs
  • Chemins Co. Inc.
  • Confab Laboratories Inc.
  • Contract Pharm
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Equipharm Inc.
  • Ethex Corp.
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • Fielding Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Gate Pharmaceuticals
  • Gil Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • Gorbec Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • H and H Laboratories
  • Hawkeye Jensen Inc.
  • Heel Inc.
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Hyrex Pharmaceuticals
  • JLM Pharmatech
  • Key Co.
  • Kowa Pharmaceuticals America Inc.
  • KV Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Laser Pharmaceuticals
  • Llorens Pharmaceutical
  • Loma Lux Laboratories
  • Luar Laboratories
  • Luitpold Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Marlop Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Marnel Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Medecor Pharma LLC
  • Midlothian Labs
  • Mission Pharmacal
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Nexgen Pharma Inc.
  • Novavax Inc.
  • Novis PR Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • Pascal Co. Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • Pecos Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Pharmelle LLC
  • Pharmics Inc.
  • Phoenix Labs Rising LLC
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Provident Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Qualitest
  • Remedy Repack
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Sagmel Inc.
  • Seneca Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Seyer Pharmatec Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Upsher Smith Laboratories
  • US Pharmaceutical Corp.
  • V Sab Medical Labs Inc.
  • Warner Chilcott Co. Inc.
  • Wyeth Pharmaceuticals
  • Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Granule, effervescentOral
KitOral
TabletOral75 mg
TabletOral25 mg
Kit
Tablet, extended releaseOral
WaferOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, chewableOral
LozengeOral5.5 mg
LozengeOral5 mg
SyrupOral
LiquidOral
SolutionIntravenous
CapsuleOral5 mg
SolutionIntravenous1 mg
SolutionIntravenous5 mg
LiquidIntravenous
TabletOral25.0 mg
PillOral
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral2.5 mg
CreamTopical
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
PowderOral
LipstickTopical
Tablet, coatedOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
TabletOral
LozengeOral13.3 mg
TabletOral90 mg
TabletOral10 mg
CapsuleOral50 mg
TabletOral50 mg
TabletOral15 mg
TabletOral30 mg
CapsuleOral30 mg
TabletOral1.37 mg
LiquidOral15 mg
LozengeOral9.9 mg
LozengeOral10 mg
LiquidOral5 mg
TabletOral20 mg
LozengeOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)419MSDS
boiling point (°C) 907MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9838
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9733
Caco-2 permeable+0.7354
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.881
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9787
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9858
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.911
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8466
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8259
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8158
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8584
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9241
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9638
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9452
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9834
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.882
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9633
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.6621
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7326
Rat acute toxicity2.0135 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9547
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9746
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
elemental zinc (CHEBI:30185)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptide binding
Specific Function
This is a receptor for bradykinin. Could be a factor in chronic pain and inflammation.
Gene Name
BDKRB1
Uniprot ID
P46663
Uniprot Name
B1 bradykinin receptor
Molecular Weight
40494.29 Da
References
  1. Ignjatovic T, Tan F, Brovkovych V, Skidgel RA, Erdos EG: Novel mode of action of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors: direct activation of bradykinin B1 receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10;277(19):16847-52. Epub 2002 Mar 5. [PubMed:11880373]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the cellular defense against the biological effects of O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) in DNA. Repairs alkylated guanine in DNA by stoichiometrically transferring the alkyl group at the O-6 p...
Gene Name
MGMT
Uniprot ID
P16455
Uniprot Name
Methylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
21645.83 Da
References
  1. Rasimas JJ, Kanugula S, Dalessio PM, Ropson IJ, Fried MG, Pegg AE: Effects of zinc occupancy on human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 4;42(4):980-90. [PubMed:12549918]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tubulin binding
Specific Function
Plays a key role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, may also function as scaffolding protein (By similarity).
Gene Name
ALDOA
Uniprot ID
P04075
Uniprot Name
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A
Molecular Weight
39419.675 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Trna binding
Specific Function
This protein promotes the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes during protein biosynthesis. With PARP1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T helper 1 (Th1) cell-sp...
Gene Name
EEF1A1
Uniprot ID
P68104
Uniprot Name
Elongation factor 1-alpha 1
Molecular Weight
50140.565 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transcription factor activity, sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Multifunctional enzyme that, as well as its role in glycolysis, plays a part in various processes such as growth control, hypoxia tolerance and allergic responses. May also function in the intravas...
Gene Name
ENO1
Uniprot ID
P06733
Uniprot Name
Alpha-enolase
Molecular Weight
47168.555 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Nadp binding
Specific Function
May play an important role in regulating the switch between different pathways for energy production during spermiogenesis and in the spermatozoon. Required for sperm motility and male fertility (B...
Gene Name
GAPDHS
Uniprot ID
O14556
Uniprot Name
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, testis-specific
Molecular Weight
44500.835 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ribosomal small subunit binding
Specific Function
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-sit...
Gene Name
NME1
Uniprot ID
P15531
Uniprot Name
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A
Molecular Weight
17148.635 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This multifunctional protein catalyzes the formation, breakage and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. At the cell surface, seems to act as a reductase that cleaves disulfide bonds of proteins attach...
Gene Name
P4HB
Uniprot ID
P07237
Uniprot Name
Protein disulfide-isomerase
Molecular Weight
57115.795 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase activity
Gene Name
PDIA3
Uniprot ID
P30101
Uniprot Name
Protein disulfide-isomerase A3
Molecular Weight
56781.84 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thioredoxin peroxidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Reduces peroxides with reducing equivalents provided through the thioredoxin system but not from glutaredoxin. May play an important role in eliminating pe...
Gene Name
PRDX1
Uniprot ID
Q06830
Uniprot Name
Peroxiredoxin-1
Molecular Weight
22110.19 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of serine from carbohydrates. The reaction mechanism proceeds via the formation of a phosphoryl-enzyme intermediates.
Gene Name
PSPH
Uniprot ID
P78330
Uniprot Name
Phosphoserine phosphatase
Molecular Weight
25007.49 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
TPI1
Uniprot ID
P60174
Uniprot Name
Triosephosphate isomerase
Molecular Weight
30790.785 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Translation elongation factor activity
Specific Function
This protein promotes the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes during protein biosynthesis.
Gene Name
TUFM
Uniprot ID
P49411
Uniprot Name
Elongation factor Tu, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
49541.145 Da
References
  1. She YM, Narindrasorasak S, Yang S, Spitale N, Roberts EA, Sarkar B: Identification of metal-binding proteins in human hepatoma lines by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1306-18. Epub 2003 Oct 7. [PubMed:14534351]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissu...
Gene Name
ESR1
Uniprot ID
P03372
Uniprot Name
Estrogen receptor
Molecular Weight
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Payne JC, Rous BW, Tenderholt AL, Godwin HA: Spectroscopic determination of the binding affinity of zinc to the DNA-binding domains of nuclear hormone receptors. Biochemistry. 2003 Dec 9;42(48):14214-24. [PubMed:14640689]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Interleukin-3 receptor binding
Specific Function
Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors are cytokines that act in hematopoiesis by controlling the production, differentiation, and function of 2 related white cell populations of the blo...
Gene Name
IL3
Uniprot ID
P08700
Uniprot Name
Interleukin-3
Molecular Weight
17232.905 Da
References
  1. Smit V, van Veelen PA, Tjaden UR, van der Greef J, Haaijman JJ: Human interleukin-3 contains a discontinuous zinc binding domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Sep 16;187(2):859-66. [PubMed:1530641]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Metallothioneins have a high content of cysteine residues that bind various heavy metals; these proteins are transcriptionally regulated by both heavy metals and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name
MT2A
Uniprot ID
P02795
Uniprot Name
Metallothionein-2
Molecular Weight
6042.05 Da
References
  1. Palumaa P, Tammiste I, Kruusel K, Kangur L, Jornvall H, Sillard R: Metal binding of metallothionein-3 versus metallothionein-2: lower affinity and higher plasticity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Mar 14;1747(2):205-11. Epub 2004 Dec 19. [PubMed:15698955]
  2. Yang F, Zhou M, He Z, Liu X, Sun L, Sun Y, Chen Z: High-yield expression in Escherichia coli of soluble human MT2A with native functions. Protein Expr Purif. 2007 May;53(1):186-94. Epub 2006 Dec 15. [PubMed:17224279]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Delivers copper to copper zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1).
Gene Name
CCS
Uniprot ID
O14618
Uniprot Name
Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase
Molecular Weight
29040.445 Da
References
  1. Stasser JP, Eisses JF, Barry AN, Kaplan JH, Blackburn NJ: Cysteine-to-serine mutants of the human copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase reveal a copper cluster at a domain III dimer interface. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 8;44(9):3143-52. [PubMed:15736924]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transcription regulatory region sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC1
Uniprot ID
Q13547
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 1
Molecular Weight
55102.615 Da
References
  1. Bhuiyan MP, Kato T, Okauchi T, Nishino N, Maeda S, Nishino TG, Yoshida M: Chlamydocin analogs bearing carbonyl group as possible ligand toward zinc atom in histone deacetylases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 May 15;14(10):3438-46. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16439135]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC4
Uniprot ID
P56524
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 4
Molecular Weight
119038.875 Da
References
  1. Bhuiyan MP, Kato T, Okauchi T, Nishino N, Maeda S, Nishino TG, Yoshida M: Chlamydocin analogs bearing carbonyl group as possible ligand toward zinc atom in histone deacetylases. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 May 15;14(10):3438-46. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [PubMed:16439135]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Hydrolysis of the deoxyribose N-glycosidic bond to excise 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine from the damaged DNA polymer formed by alkylation lesions.
Specific Function
Alkylbase dna n-glycosylase activity
Gene Name
MPG
Uniprot ID
P29372
Uniprot Name
DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase
Molecular Weight
32868.365 Da
References
  1. Massiah MA, Simmons BN, Short KM, Cox TC: Solution structure of the RBCC/TRIM B-box1 domain of human MID1: B-box with a RING. J Mol Biol. 2006 Apr 28;358(2):532-45. Epub 2006 Feb 20. [PubMed:16529770]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function
Predominant protein in semen. It participates in the formation of a gel matrix entrapping the accessory gland secretions and ejaculated spermatozoa. Fragments of semenogelin and/or fragments of the...
Gene Name
SEMG1
Uniprot ID
P04279
Uniprot Name
Semenogelin-1
Molecular Weight
52130.885 Da
References
  1. Jonsson M, Lundwall A, Linse S, Frohm B, Malm J: Truncated semenogelin I binds zinc and is cleaved by prostate-specific antigen. J Androl. 2006 Jul-Aug;27(4):542-7. Epub 2006 Apr 1. [PubMed:16582407]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Krishnan U, Son M, Rajendran B, Elliott JL: Novel mutations that enhance or repress the aggregation potential of SOD1. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jul;287(1-2):201-11. Epub 2006 Apr 1. [PubMed:16583143]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC8
Uniprot ID
Q9BY41
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 8
Molecular Weight
41757.29 Da
References
  1. Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA: Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6170-8. [PubMed:16681389]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Induces CD27-mediated apoptosis. Inhibits BCL2L1 isoform Bcl-x(L) anti-apoptotic activity. Inhibits activation of NF-kappa-B and promotes T-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis.
Gene Name
SIVA1
Uniprot ID
O15304
Uniprot Name
Apoptosis regulatory protein Siva
Molecular Weight
18694.45 Da
References
  1. Nestler M, Martin U, Hortschansky P, Saluz HP, Henke A, Munder T: The zinc containing pro-apoptotic protein siva interacts with the peroxisomal membrane protein pmp22. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jul;287(1-2):147-55. Epub 2006 May 9. [PubMed:16683188]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name
GLRA1
Uniprot ID
P23415
Uniprot Name
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1
Molecular Weight
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Chen Z, Dillon GH, Huang R: Identification of residues critical for Cu2+-mediated inhibition of glycine alpha1 receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2006 Sep;51(4):701-8. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16842826]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates ubiquitination of p53/TP53, leading to its degradation by the proteasome. Inhibits p53/TP53- and p73/TP73-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by bindi...
Gene Name
MDM2
Uniprot ID
Q00987
Uniprot Name
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
Molecular Weight
55232.39 Da
References
  1. Kostic M, Matt T, Martinez-Yamout MA, Dyson HJ, Wright PE: Solution structure of the Hdm2 C2H2C4 RING, a domain critical for ubiquitination of p53. J Mol Biol. 2006 Oct 20;363(2):433-50. Epub 2006 Aug 14. [PubMed:16965791]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protease binding
Specific Function
Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen s...
Gene Name
INS
Uniprot ID
P01308
Uniprot Name
Insulin
Molecular Weight
11980.795 Da
References
  1. Huus K, Havelund S, Olsen HB, van de Weert M, Frokjaer S: Chemical and thermal stability of insulin: effects of zinc and ligand binding to the insulin zinc-hexamer. Pharm Res. 2006 Nov;23(11):2611-20. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16969698]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play a role in anchoring the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane.
Gene Name
UTRN
Uniprot ID
P46939
Uniprot Name
Utrophin
Molecular Weight
394463.09 Da
References
  1. Hnia K, Zouiten D, Cantel S, Chazalette D, Hugon G, Fehrentz JA, Masmoudi A, Diment A, Bramham J, Mornet D, Winder SJ: ZZ domain of dystrophin and utrophin: topology and mapping of a beta-dystroglycan interaction site. Biochem J. 2007 Feb 1;401(3):667-77. [PubMed:17009962]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the deacetylation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) to produce acetate and L-aspartate. NAA occurs in high concentration in brain and its hydrolysis NAA plays a significant part in the maint...
Gene Name
ASPA
Uniprot ID
P45381
Uniprot Name
Aspartoacylase
Molecular Weight
35734.79 Da
References
  1. Herga S, Berrin JG, Perrier J, Puigserver A, Giardina T: Identification of the zinc binding ligands and the catalytic residue in human aspartoacylase, an enzyme involved in Canavan disease. FEBS Lett. 2006 Oct 30;580(25):5899-904. Epub 2006 Oct 2. [PubMed:17027983]
  2. Bitto E, Bingman CA, Wesenberg GE, McCoy JG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure of aspartoacylase, the brain enzyme impaired in Canavan disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 9;104(2):456-61. Epub 2006 Dec 28. [PubMed:17194761]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S100A8 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex directs selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of GAPDH and probably multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif; S100A8 seems to contribute to S-nitrosylation site selectivity.
Specific Function
Arachidonic acid binding
Gene Name
S100A8
Uniprot ID
P05109
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A8
Molecular Weight
10834.43 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
S100A9 is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. It can induce neutrophil chemotaxis, adhesion, can increase the bactericidal activity of neutrophils by promoting phagocytosis via activation of SYK, PI3K/AKT, and ERK1/2 and can induce degranulation of neutrophils by a MAPK-dependent mechanism. Predominantly found as calprotectin (S100A8/A9) which has a wide plethora of intra- and extracellular functions. The intracellular functions include: facilitating leukocyte arachidonic acid trafficking and metabolism, modulation of the tubulin-dependent cytoskeleton during migration of phagocytes and activation of the neutrophilic NADPH-oxidase. Activates NADPH-oxidase by facilitating the enzyme complex assembly at the cell membrane, transferring arachidonic acid, an essential cofactor, to the enzyme complex and S100A8 contributes to the enzyme assembly by directly binding to NCF2/P67PHOX. The extracellular functions involve proinfammatory, antimicrobial, oxidant-scavenging and apoptosis-inducing activities. Its proinflammatory activity includes recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to TLR4 and AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways resulting in the amplification of the proinflammatory cascade. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi and exerts its antimicrobial activity probably via chelation of Zn(2+) which is essential for microbial growth. Can induce cell death via autophagy and apoptosis and this occurs through the cross-talk of mitochondria and lysosomes via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the process involves BNIP3. Can regulate neutrophil number and apoptosis by an anti-apoptotic effect; regulates cell survival via ITGAM/ITGB and TLR4 and a signaling mechanism involving MEK-ERK. Its role as an oxidant scavenger has a protective role in preventing exaggerated tissue damage by scavenging oxidants. Can act as a potent amplifier of inflammation in autoimmunity as well as in cancer development and tumor spread. Has transnitrosylase activity; in oxidatively-modified low-densitity lipoprotein (LDL(ox))-induced S-nitrosylation of GAPDH on 'Cys-247' proposed to transfer the NO moiety from NOS2/iNOS to GAPDH via its own S-nitrosylated Cys-3. The iNOS-S100A8/A9 transnitrosylase complex is proposed to also direct selective inflammatory stimulus-dependent S-nitrosylation of multiple targets such as ANXA5, EZR, MSN and VIM by recognizing a [IL]-x-C-x-x-[DE] motif.
Specific Function
Antioxidant activity
Gene Name
S100A9
Uniprot ID
P06702
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A9
Molecular Weight
13241.955 Da
References
  1. Vogl T, Leukert N, Barczyk K, Strupat K, Roth J: Biophysical characterization of S100A8 and S100A9 in the absence and presence of bivalent cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov;1763(11):1298-306. Epub 2006 Aug 25. [PubMed:17050004]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves...
Gene Name
MMP9
Uniprot ID
P14780
Uniprot Name
Matrix metalloproteinase-9
Molecular Weight
78457.51 Da
References
  1. Martens E, Leyssen A, Van Aelst I, Fiten P, Piccard H, Hu J, Descamps FJ, Van den Steen PE, Proost P, Van Damme J, Liuzzi GM, Riccio P, Polverini E, Opdenakker G: A monoclonal antibody inhibits gelatinase B/MMP-9 by selective binding to part of the catalytic domain and not to the fibronectin or zinc binding domains. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Feb;1770(2):178-86. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17137715]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Participates in the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Isoforms containing the transactivation domain are pro-apoptotic, isoforms lacking the domain are anti-apoptotic and block the function of p53 and transactivating p73 isoforms. May be a tumor suppressor protein.
Specific Function
Chromatin binding
Gene Name
TP73
Uniprot ID
O15350
Uniprot Name
Tumor protein p73
Molecular Weight
69622.865 Da
References
  1. Lokshin M, Li Y, Gaiddon C, Prives C: p53 and p73 display common and distinct requirements for sequence specific binding to DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(1):340-52. Epub 2006 Dec 14. [PubMed:17170001]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
May function as calcium sensor and modulator, contributing to cellular calcium signaling. May function by interacting with other proteins, such as TPR-containing proteins, and indirectly play a rol...
Gene Name
S100A2
Uniprot ID
P29034
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A2
Molecular Weight
11116.695 Da
References
  1. Koch M, Bhattacharya S, Kehl T, Gimona M, Vasak M, Chazin W, Heizmann CW, Kroneck PM, Fritz G: Implications on zinc binding to S100A2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Mar;1773(3):457-70. Epub 2006 Dec 19. [PubMed:17239974]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
TP53
Uniprot ID
P04637
Uniprot Name
Cellular tumor antigen p53
Molecular Weight
43652.79 Da
References
  1. Wang Y, Rosengarth A, Luecke H: Structure of the human p53 core domain in the absence of DNA. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Mar;63(Pt 3):276-81. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17327663]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Binds heavy metals. Contains three zinc and three copper atoms per polypeptide chain and only a negligible amount of cadmium. Inhibits survival and neurite formation of cortical neurons in vitro.
Gene Name
MT3
Uniprot ID
P25713
Uniprot Name
Metallothionein-3
Molecular Weight
6926.855 Da
References
  1. Meloni G, Faller P, Vasak M: Redox silencing of copper in metal-linked neurodegenerative disorders: reaction of Zn7metallothionein-3 with Cu2+ ions. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 1;282(22):16068-78. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [PubMed:17389590]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein dimerization activity
Specific Function
Calcium-binding protein required for T-cell receptor-, Fas-, and glucocorticoid-induced cell death. May mediate Ca(2+)-regulated signals along the death pathway (By similarity). Calcium-dependent a...
Gene Name
PDCD6
Uniprot ID
O75340
Uniprot Name
Programmed cell death protein 6
Molecular Weight
21868.32 Da
References
  1. Suzuki H, Kawasaki M, Kakiuchi T, Shibata H, Wakatsuki S, Maki M: Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of N-terminally truncated human ALG-2. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008 Nov 1;64(Pt 11):974-7. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108030297. Epub 2008 Oct 31. [PubMed:18997320]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Morphogen activity
Specific Function
Seems to play a role in the correct specification of the left-right axis. May antagonize NODAL and BMP4 signaling. Cystine knot-containing proteins play important roles during development, organoge...
Gene Name
DAND5
Uniprot ID
Q8N907
Uniprot Name
DAN domain family member 5
Molecular Weight
20179.56 Da
References
  1. Kothinti R, Blodgett A, Tabatabai NM, Petering DH: Zinc finger transcription factor Zn3-Sp1 reactions with Cd2+. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010 Feb 15;23(2):405-12. doi: 10.1021/tx900370u. [PubMed:20073493]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Metallothioneins have a high content of cysteine residues that bind various heavy metals; these proteins are transcriptionally regulated by both heavy metals and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name
MT1A
Uniprot ID
P04731
Uniprot Name
Metallothionein-1A
Molecular Weight
6120.19 Da
References
  1. Sutherland DE, Willans MJ, Stillman MJ: Single domain metallothioneins: supermetalation of human MT 1a. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Feb 15;134(6):3290-9. doi: 10.1021/ja211767m. Epub 2012 Feb 6. [PubMed:22242602]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
A1BG
Uniprot ID
P04217
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1B-glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
54253.0 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Tumor necrosis factor binding
Specific Function
Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique 'trapping' mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the 'bait region' which contains specific cleavage sites for differen...
Gene Name
A2M
Uniprot ID
P01023
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-macroglobulin
Molecular Weight
163289.945 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Type 2 angiotensin receptor binding
Specific Function
Essential component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a potent regulator of blood pressure, body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.Angiotensin-2: acts directly on vascular smooth muscle as a p...
Gene Name
AGT
Uniprot ID
P01019
Uniprot Name
Angiotensinogen
Molecular Weight
53153.73 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Promotes endocytosis, possesses opsonic properties and influences the mineral phase of bone. Shows affinity for calcium and barium ions.
Specific Function
Cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
AHSG
Uniprot ID
P02765
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein
Molecular Weight
39324.35 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virion binding
Specific Function
Can interact with DNA and histones and may scavenge nuclear material released from damaged circulating cells. May also function as a calcium-dependent lectin.
Gene Name
APCS
Uniprot ID
P02743
Uniprot Name
Serum amyloid P-component
Molecular Weight
25386.92 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid transporter activity
Specific Function
Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol ac...
Gene Name
APOA1
Uniprot ID
P02647
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein A-I
Molecular Weight
30777.58 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
May stabilize HDL (high density lipoprotein) structure by its association with lipids, and affect the HDL metabolism.
Gene Name
APOA2
Uniprot ID
P02652
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein A-II
Molecular Weight
11174.925 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May have a role in chylomicrons and VLDL secretion and catabolism. Required for efficient activation of lipoprotein lipase by ApoC-II; potent activator of LCAT. Apoa-IV is a major component of HDL and chylomicrons.
Specific Function
Antioxidant activity
Gene Name
APOA4
Uniprot ID
P06727
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein A-IV
Molecular Weight
45398.775 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor activity
Specific Function
Macrophage receptor that binds to the apolipoprotein B48 (APOB) of dietary triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) or to a like domain of APOB in hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoprotein...
Gene Name
APOBR
Uniprot ID
Q0VD83
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein B receptor
Molecular Weight
114873.425 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding
Specific Function
Mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. It can serve as a ligand for the LDL (apo B/E) receptor and for the specific apo-E receptor (chylomicron remnant) of ...
Gene Name
APOE
Uniprot ID
P02649
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein E
Molecular Weight
36153.83 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May play a role in lipid exchange and transport throughout the body. May participate in reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells to the liver.
Specific Function
Chloride channel activity
Gene Name
APOL1
Uniprot ID
O14791
Uniprot Name
Apolipoprotein L1
Molecular Weight
43973.805 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QB
Uniprot ID
P02746
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit B
Molecular Weight
26721.62 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QC
Uniprot ID
P02747
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit C
Molecular Weight
25773.56 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function
C1r B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1s to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system.
Gene Name
C1R
Uniprot ID
P00736
Uniprot Name
Complement C1r subcomponent
Molecular Weight
80118.04 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
C1s B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1r to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system. C1r activates C1s so that it can, in turn, activat...
Gene Name
C1S
Uniprot ID
P09871
Uniprot Name
Complement C1s subcomponent
Molecular Weight
76683.905 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C...
Gene Name
C3
Uniprot ID
P01024
Uniprot Name
Complement C3
Molecular Weight
187146.73 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Non-enzymatic component of the C3 and C5 convertases and thus essential for the propagation of the classical complement pathway. Covalently binds to immunoglobulins and immune complexes and enhances the solubilization of immune aggregates and the clearance of IC through CR1 on erythrocytes. C4A isotype is responsible for effective binding to form amide bonds with immune aggregates or protein antigens, while C4B isotype catalyzes the transacylation of the thioester carbonyl group to form ester bonds with carbohydrate antigens.
Specific Function
Carbohydrate binding
Gene Name
C4B
Uniprot ID
P0C0L5
Uniprot Name
Complement C4-B
Molecular Weight
192749.785 Da
References
  1. Blom AM, Kask L, Ramesh B, Hillarp A: Effects of zinc on factor I cofactor activity of C4b-binding protein and factor H. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct 15;418(2):108-18. [PubMed:14522582]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Controls the classical pathway of complement activation. It binds as a cofactor to C3b/C4b inactivator (C3bINA), which then hydrolyzes the complement fragment C4b. It also accelerates the degradation of the C4bC2a complex (C3 convertase) by dissociating the complement fragment C2a. Alpha chain binds C4b. It interacts also with anticoagulant protein S and with serum amyloid P component.
Specific Function
Rna binding
Gene Name
C4BPA
Uniprot ID
P04003
Uniprot Name
C4b-binding protein alpha chain
Molecular Weight
67032.63 Da
References
  1. Blom AM, Kask L, Ramesh B, Hillarp A: Effects of zinc on factor I cofactor activity of C4b-binding protein and factor H. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct 15;418(2):108-18. [PubMed:14522582]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Controls the classical pathway of complement activation. It binds as a cofactor to C3b/C4b inactivator (C3bINA), which then hydrolyzes the complement fragment C4b. It also accelerates the degradation of the C4bC2a complex (C3 convertase) by dissociating the complement fragment C2a. It also interacts with anticoagulant protein S and with serum amyloid P component. The beta chain binds protein S.
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
C4BPB
Uniprot ID
P20851
Uniprot Name
C4b-binding protein beta chain
Molecular Weight
28357.215 Da
References
  1. Blom AM, Kask L, Ramesh B, Hillarp A: Effects of zinc on factor I cofactor activity of C4b-binding protein and factor H. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct 15;418(2):108-18. [PubMed:14522582]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor binding
Specific Function
Activation of C5 by a C5 convertase initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the membrane attack complex. C5b has a transient binding site for C6. The C5b-C...
Gene Name
C5
Uniprot ID
P01031
Uniprot Name
Complement C5
Molecular Weight
188303.705 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metalloprotease that specifically cleaves 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains (PubMed:19214193, PubMed:20656690, PubMed:24075985, PubMed:26344097). Does not have activity toward 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitin chains. Component of the BRCA1-A complex, a complex that specifically recognizes 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitinated histones H2A and H2AX at DNA lesions sites, leading to target the BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer to sites of DNA damage at double-strand breaks (DSBs). In the BRCA1-A complex, it specifically removes 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin on histones H2A and H2AX, antagonizing the RNF8-dependent ubiquitination at double-strand breaks (DSBs) (PubMed:20656690). Catalytic subunit of the BRISC complex, a multiprotein complex that specifically cleaves 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin in various substrates (PubMed:20656690, PubMed:24075985, PubMed:26344097, PubMed:26195665). Mediates the specific 'Lys-63'-specific deubiquitination associated with the COP9 signalosome complex (CSN), via the interaction of the BRISC complex with the CSN complex (PubMed:19214193). The BRISC complex is required for normal mitotic spindle assembly and microtubule attachment to kinetochores via its role in deubiquitinating NUMA1 (PubMed:26195665). Plays a role in interferon signaling via its role in the deubiquitination of the interferon receptor IFNAR1; deubiquitination increases IFNAR1 activity by enhancing its stability and cell surface expression (PubMed:24075985, PubMed:26344097). Down-regulates the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via its role in IFNAR1 deubiquitination (PubMed:24075985).
Specific Function
Enzyme regulator activity
Gene Name
BRCC3
Uniprot ID
P46736
Uniprot Name
Lys-63-specific deubiquitinase BRCC36
Molecular Weight
36071.695 Da
References
  1. Zeqiraj E, Tian L, Piggott CA, Pillon MC, Duffy NM, Ceccarelli DF, Keszei AF, Lorenzen K, Kurinov I, Orlicky S, Gish GD, Heck AJ, Guarne A, Greenberg RA, Sicheri F: Higher-Order Assembly of BRCC36-KIAA0157 Is Required for DUB Activity and Biological Function. Mol Cell. 2015 Sep 17;59(6):970-83. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.07.028. Epub 2015 Sep 3. [PubMed:26344097]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Constituent of the membrane attack complex (MAC) that plays a key role in the innate and adaptive immune response by forming pores in the plasma membrane of target cells. C8A inserts into the target membrane, but does not form pores by itself.
Specific Function
Complement binding
Gene Name
C8A
Uniprot ID
P07357
Uniprot Name
Complement component C8 alpha chain
Molecular Weight
65162.685 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Constituent of the membrane attack complex (MAC) that plays a key role in the innate and adaptive immune response by forming pores in the plasma membrane of target cells.
Specific Function
Protein complex binding
Gene Name
C8B
Uniprot ID
P07358
Uniprot Name
Complement component C8 beta chain
Molecular Weight
67046.35 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Retinol binding
Specific Function
C8 is a constituent of the membrane attack complex. C8 binds to the C5B-7 complex, forming the C5B-8 complex. C5-B8 binds C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9. The gamma subunit se...
Gene Name
C8G
Uniprot ID
P07360
Uniprot Name
Complement component C8 gamma chain
Molecular Weight
22277.285 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Factor B which is part of the alternate pathway of the complement system is cleaved by factor D into 2 fragments: Ba and Bb. Bb, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor 3b to genera...
Gene Name
CFB
Uniprot ID
P00751
Uniprot Name
Complement factor B
Molecular Weight
85532.325 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Factor H functions as a cofactor in the inactivation of C3b by factor I and also increases the rate of dissociation of the C3bBb complex (C3 convertase) and the (C3b)NBB complex (C5 convertase) in the alternative complement pathway.
Specific Function
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding
Gene Name
CFH
Uniprot ID
P08603
Uniprot Name
Complement factor H
Molecular Weight
139095.31 Da
References
  1. Nan R, Farabella I, Schumacher FF, Miller A, Gor J, Martin AC, Jones DT, Lengyel I, Perkins SJ: Zinc binding to the Tyr402 and His402 allotypes of complement factor H: possible implications for age-related macular degeneration. J Mol Biol. 2011 May 13;408(4):714-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.03.006. Epub 2011 Mar 17. [PubMed:21396937]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Responsible for cleaving the alpha-chains of C4b and C3b in the presence of the cofactors C4-binding protein and factor H respectively.
Specific Function
Metal ion binding
Gene Name
CFI
Uniprot ID
P05156
Uniprot Name
Complement factor I
Molecular Weight
65749.78 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Isoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. Secreted isoform 1 protects cells against apoptosis and against cytolysis by complement. Intracellular isoforms interact with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Promotes proteasomal degradation of COMMD1 and IKBKB. Modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation.
Specific Function
Chaperone binding
Gene Name
CLU
Uniprot ID
P10909
Uniprot Name
Clusterin
Molecular Weight
52494.22 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Protects the body from potent vasoactive and inflammatory peptides containing C-terminal Arg or Lys (such as kinins or anaphylatoxins) which are released into the circulation.
Gene Name
CPN1
Uniprot ID
P15169
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase N catalytic chain
Molecular Weight
52285.935 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Enzyme regulator activity
Specific Function
The 83 kDa subunit binds and stabilizes the catalytic subunit at 37 degrees Celsius and keeps it in circulation. Under some circumstances it may be an allosteric modifier of the catalytic subunit.
Gene Name
CPN2
Uniprot ID
P22792
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase N subunit 2
Molecular Weight
60556.01 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
DCD-1 displays antimicrobial activity thereby limiting skin infection by potential pathogens in the first few hours after bacterial colonization. Highly effective against E.coli, E.faecalis, S.aureus and C.albicans. Optimal pH and salt concentration resemble the conditions in sweat. Also exhibits proteolytic activity.
Specific Function
Peptidase activity
Gene Name
DCD
Uniprot ID
P81605
Uniprot Name
Dermcidin
Molecular Weight
11283.745 Da
References
  1. Song C, Weichbrodt C, Salnikov ES, Dynowski M, Forsberg BO, Bechinger B, Steinem C, de Groot BL, Zachariae U, Zeth K: Crystal structure and functional mechanism of a human antimicrobial membrane channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 19;110(12):4586-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1214739110. Epub 2013 Feb 20. [PubMed:23426625]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Major high molecular weight protein of desmosomes. Involved in the organization of the desmosomal cadherin-plakoglobin complexes into discrete plasma membrane domains and in the anchoring of intermediate filaments to the desmosomes.
Specific Function
Cell adhesion molecule binding
Gene Name
DSP
Uniprot ID
P15924
Uniprot Name
Desmoplakin
Molecular Weight
331771.16 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Factor XII is a serum glycoprotein that participates in the initiation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and the generation of bradykinin and angiotensin. Prekallikrein is cleaved by factor XII t...
Gene Name
F12
Uniprot ID
P00748
Uniprot Name
Coagulation factor XII
Molecular Weight
67791.53 Da
References
  1. Rojkaer R, Schousboe I: Partial identification of the Zn2+-binding sites in factor XII and its activation derivatives. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Jul 15;247(2):491-6. [PubMed:9266689]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
The B chain of factor XIII is not catalytically active, but is thought to stabilize the A subunits and regulate the rate of transglutaminase formation by thrombin.
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
F13B
Uniprot ID
P05160
Uniprot Name
Coagulation factor XIII B chain
Molecular Weight
75510.1 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Thrombospondin receptor activity
Specific Function
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostas...
Gene Name
F2
Uniprot ID
P00734
Uniprot Name
Prothrombin
Molecular Weight
70036.295 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May function in innate immunity through activation of the lectin complement pathway. Calcium-dependent and GlcNAc-binding lectin. Has affinity with GalNAc, GlcNAc, D-fucose, as mono/oligosaccharide and lipopolysaccharides from S.typhimurium and S.minnesota.
Specific Function
Antigen binding
Gene Name
FCN3
Uniprot ID
O75636
Uniprot Name
Ficolin-3
Molecular Weight
32902.74 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function
Cleaved by the protease thrombin to yield monomers which, together with fibrinogen beta (FGB) and fibrinogen gamma (FGG), polymerize to form an insoluble fibrin matrix. Fibrin has a major function ...
Gene Name
FGA
Uniprot ID
P02671
Uniprot Name
Fibrinogen alpha chain
Molecular Weight
94972.455 Da
References
  1. Marx G: Zinc binding to fibrinogen and fibrin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988 Oct;266(1):285-8. [PubMed:3178229]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protease binding
Specific Function
Fibronectins bind cell surfaces and various compounds including collagen, fibrin, heparin, DNA, and actin. Fibronectins are involved in cell adhesion, cell motility, opsonization, wound healing, an...
Gene Name
FN1
Uniprot ID
P02751
Uniprot Name
Fibronectin
Molecular Weight
262623.095 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein domain specific binding
Specific Function
Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembl...
Gene Name
GSN
Uniprot ID
P06396
Uniprot Name
Gelsolin
Molecular Weight
85696.935 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an...
Gene Name
HBB
Uniprot ID
P68871
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit beta
Molecular Weight
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Gilman JG, Brewer GJ: The oxygen-linked zinc-binding site of human haemoglobin. Biochem J. 1978 Mar 1;169(3):625-32. [PubMed:646791]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Primate-specific plasma protein associated with apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL). This HDL particle, termed trypanosome lytic factor-1 (TLF-1), mediates human innate immune protection against many species of African trypanosomes. Binds hemoglobin with high affinity and may contribute to the clearance of cell-free hemoglobin to allow hepatic recycling of heme iron.
Specific Function
Hemoglobin binding
Gene Name
HPR
Uniprot ID
P00739
Uniprot Name
Haptoglobin-related protein
Molecular Weight
39029.345 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Component of the epidermal cornified cell envelopes.
Specific Function
Calcium ion binding
Gene Name
HRNR
Uniprot ID
Q86YZ3
Uniprot Name
Hornerin
Molecular Weight
282390.185 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Involved in protein-protein interactions that result in protein complexes, receptor-ligand binding or cell adhesion.
Specific Function
Insulin-like growth factor binding
Gene Name
IGFALS
Uniprot ID
P35858
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit
Molecular Weight
66034.13 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Antigen binding
Specific Function
Ig alpha is the major immunoglobulin class in body secretions. It may serve both to defend against local infection and to prevent access of foreign antigens to the general immunologic system.
Gene Name
IGHA1
Uniprot ID
P01876
Uniprot Name
Ig alpha-1 chain C region
Molecular Weight
37654.29 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Antigen binding
Specific Function
IgM antibodies play an important role in primary defense mechanisms. They have been shown to be involved in early recognition of external invaders like bacteria and viruses, cellular waste and modi...
Gene Name
IGHM
Uniprot ID
P01871
Uniprot Name
Ig mu chain C region
Molecular Weight
49306.215 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
V region of the variable domain of immunoglobulin light chains that participates in the antigen recognition (PubMed:24600447). Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:20176268, PubMed:22158414). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for a particular antigen (PubMed:20176268, PubMed:17576170).
Specific Function
Antigen binding
Gene Name
IGKV1-17
Uniprot ID
P01599
Uniprot Name
Immunoglobulin kappa variable 1-17
Molecular Weight
12778.39 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Antigen binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P01619
Uniprot Name
Ig kappa chain V-III region GOL
Molecular Weight
11830.17 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
V region of the variable domain of immunoglobulin light chains that participates in the antigen recognition (PubMed:24600447). Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens (PubMed:20176268, PubMed:22158414). The antigen binding site is formed by the variable domain of one heavy chain, together with that of its associated light chain. Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains are assembled by a process called V-(D)-J rearrangement and can then be subjected to somatic hypermutations which, after exposure to antigen and selection, allow affinity maturation for a particular antigen (PubMed:17576170, PubMed:20176268).
Specific Function
Antigen binding
Gene Name
IGLV3-21
Uniprot ID
P80748
Uniprot Name
Immunoglobulin lambda variable 3-21
Molecular Weight
12445.65 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May act as a carrier of hyaluronan in serum or as a binding protein between hyaluronan and other matrix protein, including those on cell surfaces in tissues to regulate the localization, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan which are essential to cells undergoing biological processes.
Specific Function
Calcium ion binding
Gene Name
ITIH1
Uniprot ID
P19827
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1
Molecular Weight
101388.49 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May act as a carrier of hyaluronan in serum or as a binding protein between hyaluronan and other matrix protein, including those on cell surfaces in tissues to regulate the localization, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan which are essential to cells undergoing biological processes.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
ITIH2
Uniprot ID
P19823
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H2
Molecular Weight
106462.725 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May act as a carrier of hyaluronan in serum or as a binding protein between hyaluronan and other matrix protein, including those on cell surfaces in tissues to regulate the localization, synthesis and degradation of hyaluronan which are essential to cells undergoing biological processes.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
ITIH3
Uniprot ID
Q06033
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3
Molecular Weight
99848.575 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Type II acute-phase protein (APP) involved in inflammatory responses to trauma. May also play a role in liver development or regeneration.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
ITIH4
Uniprot ID
Q14624
Uniprot Name
Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4
Molecular Weight
103356.645 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serves to link two monomer units of either IgM or IgA. In the case of IgM, the J chain-joined dimer is a nucleating unit for the IgM pentamer, and in the case of IgA it induces larger polymers. It also help to bind these immunoglobulins to secretory component.
Specific Function
Antigen binding
Gene Name
JCHAIN
Uniprot ID
P01591
Uniprot Name
Immunoglobulin J chain
Molecular Weight
18098.39 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Common junctional plaque protein. The membrane-associated plaques are architectural elements in an important strategic position to influence the arrangement and function of both the cytoskeleton and the cells within the tissue. The presence of plakoglobin in both the desmosomes and in the intermediate junctions suggests that it plays a central role in the structure and function of submembranous plaques. Acts as a substrate for VE-PTP and is required by it to stimulate VE-cadherin function in endothelial cells. Can replace beta-catenin in E-cadherin/catenin adhesion complexes which are proposed to couple cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton (By similarity).
Specific Function
Alpha-catenin binding
Gene Name
JUP
Uniprot ID
P14923
Uniprot Name
Junction plakoglobin
Molecular Weight
81743.98 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
The enzyme cleaves Lys-Arg and Arg-Ser bonds. It activates, in a reciprocal reaction, factor XII after its binding to a negatively charged surface. It also releases bradykinin from HMW kininogen an...
Gene Name
KLKB1
Uniprot ID
P03952
Uniprot Name
Plasma kallikrein
Molecular Weight
71369.205 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
(1) Kininogens are inhibitors of thiol proteases; (2) HMW-kininogen plays an important role in blood coagulation by helping to position optimally prekallikrein and factor XI next to factor XII; (3)...
Gene Name
KNG1
Uniprot ID
P01042
Uniprot Name
Kininogen-1
Molecular Weight
71956.965 Da
References
  1. Herwald H, Morgelin M, Svensson HG, Sjobring U: Zinc-dependent conformational changes in domain D5 of high molecular mass kininogen modulate contact activation. Eur J Biochem. 2001 Jan;268(2):396-404. [PubMed:11168375]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May regulate the activity of kinases such as PKC and SRC via binding to integrin beta-1 (ITB1) and the receptor of activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1). In complex with C1QBP is a high affinity receptor for kininogen-1/HMWK.
Specific Function
Carbohydrate binding
Gene Name
KRT1
Uniprot ID
P04264
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1
Molecular Weight
66038.505 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Structural constituent of epidermis
Gene Name
KRT10
Uniprot ID
P13645
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 10
Molecular Weight
58826.915 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
The nonhelical tail domain is involved in promoting KRT5-KRT14 filaments to self-organize into large bundles and enhances the mechanical properties involved in resilience of keratin intermediate filaments in vitro.
Specific Function
Keratin filament binding
Gene Name
KRT14
Uniprot ID
P02533
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 14
Molecular Weight
51561.075 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Epidermis-specific type I keratin that plays a key role in skin. Acts as a regulator of innate immunity in response to skin barrier breach: required for some inflammatory checkpoint for the skin barrier maintenance.
Specific Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Gene Name
KRT16
Uniprot ID
P08779
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 16
Molecular Weight
51267.39 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Probably contributes to terminal cornification. Associated with keratinocyte activation, proliferation and keratinization.
Specific Function
Cytoskeletal protein binding
Gene Name
KRT2
Uniprot ID
P35908
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 2 epidermal
Molecular Weight
65432.65 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Scaffold protein binding
Gene Name
KRT5
Uniprot ID
P13647
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 5
Molecular Weight
62377.985 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Epidermis-specific type I keratin involved in wound healing. Involved in the activation of follicular keratinocytes after wounding, while it does not play a major role in keratinocyte proliferation or migration. Participates in the regulation of epithelial migration by inhibiting the activity of SRC during wound repair.
Specific Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Gene Name
KRT6A
Uniprot ID
P02538
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 6A
Molecular Weight
60044.525 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
May serve an important special function either in the mature palmar and plantar skin tissue or in the morphogenetic program of the formation of these tissues. Plays a role in keratin filament assembly.
Specific Function
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Gene Name
KRT9
Uniprot ID
P35527
Uniprot Name
Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 9
Molecular Weight
62064.29 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and ava...
Gene Name
ORM2
Uniprot ID
P19652
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2
Molecular Weight
23602.43 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
May play a scavenger role by digesting biologically active peptidoglycan (PGN) into biologically inactive fragments. Has no direct bacteriolytic activity.
Gene Name
PGLYRP2
Uniprot ID
Q96PD5
Uniprot Name
N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase
Molecular Weight
62216.365 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxyl...
Gene Name
PON1
Uniprot ID
P27169
Uniprot Name
Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
Molecular Weight
39730.99 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique 'trapping' mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the 'bait region' which contains specific cleavage sites for different proteinases. When a proteinase cleaves the bait region, a conformational change is induced in the protein which traps the proteinase. The entrapped enzyme remains active against low molecular weight substrates (activity against high molecular weight substrates is greatly reduced). Following cleavage in the bait region a thioester bond is hydrolyzed and mediates the covalent binding of the protein to the proteinase.
Specific Function
Endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
PZP
Uniprot ID
P20742
Uniprot Name
Pregnancy zone protein
Molecular Weight
163861.765 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
S100A7
Uniprot ID
P31151
Uniprot Name
Protein S100-A7
Molecular Weight
11470.87 Da
References
  1. Brodersen DE, Nyborg J, Kjeldgaard M: Zinc-binding site of an S100 protein revealed. Two crystal structures of Ca2+-bound human psoriasin (S100A7) in the Zn2+-loaded and Zn2+-free states. Biochemistry. 1999 Feb 9;38(6):1695-704. [PubMed:10026247]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Selenium binding
Specific Function
Might be responsible for some of the extracellular antioxidant defense properties of selenium or might be involved in the transport of selenium. May supply selenium to tissues such as brain and tes...
Gene Name
SEPP1
Uniprot ID
P49908
Uniprot Name
Selenoprotein P
Molecular Weight
43173.37 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Inhibitor of serine proteases. Its primary target is elastase, but it also has a moderate affinity for plasmin and thrombin. Irreversibly inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasminogen activator. T...
Gene Name
SERPINA1
Uniprot ID
P01009
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-antitrypsin
Molecular Weight
46736.195 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Although its physiological function is unclear, it can inhibit neutrophil cathepsin G and mast cell chymase, both of which can convert angiotensin-1 to the active angiotensin-2.
Specific Function
Dna binding
Gene Name
SERPINA3
Uniprot ID
P01011
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin
Molecular Weight
47650.36 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Inhibits human amidolytic and kininogenase activities of tissue kallikrein. Inhibition is achieved by formation of an equimolar, heat- and SDS-stable complex between the inhibitor and the enzyme, and generation of a small C-terminal fragment of the inhibitor due to cleavage at the reactive site by tissue kallikrein.
Specific Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Gene Name
SERPINA4
Uniprot ID
P29622
Uniprot Name
Kallistatin
Molecular Weight
48541.51 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
Major transport protein for glucocorticoids and progestins in the blood of almost all vertebrate species.
Gene Name
SERPINA6
Uniprot ID
P08185
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
45140.49 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Thrombin inhibitor activated by the glycosaminoglycans, heparin or dermatan sulfate. In the presence of the latter, HC-II becomes the predominant thrombin inhibitor in place of antithrombin III (AT...
Gene Name
SERPIND1
Uniprot ID
P05546
Uniprot Name
Heparin cofactor 2
Molecular Weight
57070.16 Da
References
  1. Eckert R, Ragg H: Zinc ions promote the interaction between heparin and heparin cofactor II. FEBS Lett. 2003 Apr 24;541(1-3):121-5. [PubMed:12706831]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Androgen binding
Specific Function
Functions as an androgen transport protein, but may also be involved in receptor mediated processes. Each dimer binds one molecule of steroid. Specific for 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone...
Gene Name
SHBG
Uniprot ID
P04278
Uniprot Name
Sex hormone-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
43778.755 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name
TTR
Uniprot ID
P02766
Uniprot Name
Transthyretin
Molecular Weight
15886.88 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Scavenger receptor activity
Specific Function
Vitronectin is a cell adhesion and spreading factor found in serum and tissues. Vitronectin interact with glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Is recognized by certain members of the integrin fami...
Gene Name
VTN
Uniprot ID
P04004
Uniprot Name
Vitronectin
Molecular Weight
54305.135 Da
References
  1. Wang F, Chmil C, Pierce F, Ganapathy K, Gump BB, MacKenzie JA, Metchref Y, Bendinskas K: Immobilized metal affinity chromatography and human serum proteomics. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2013 Sep 1;934:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.06.032. Epub 2013 Jul 5. [PubMed:23896426]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
May play a role in postsynaptic function. The C-terminal gamma-secretase processed fragment, ALID1, activates transcription activation through APBB1 (Fe65) binding (By similarity). Couples to JIP signal transduction through C-terminal binding. May interact with cellular G-protein signaling pathways. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I.
Specific Function
Alpha-2a adrenergic receptor binding
Gene Name
APLP1
Uniprot ID
P51693
Uniprot Name
Amyloid-like protein 1
Molecular Weight
72175.825 Da
References
  1. Mayer MC, Kaden D, Schauenburg L, Hancock MA, Voigt P, Roeser D, Barucker C, Than ME, Schaefer M, Multhaup G: Novel zinc-binding site in the E2 domain regulates amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4;289(27):19019-30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570382. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24855651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
May play a role in the regulation of hemostasis. The soluble form may have inhibitory properties towards coagulation factors. May interact with cellular G-protein signaling pathways. May bind to the DNA 5'-GTCACATG-3'(CDEI box). Inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin, factor XIA and plasma and glandular kallikrein. Modulates the Cu/Zn nitric oxide-catalyzed autodegradation of GPC1 heparan sulfate side chains in fibroblasts (By similarity).
Specific Function
Dna binding
Gene Name
APLP2
Uniprot ID
Q06481
Uniprot Name
Amyloid-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
86955.2 Da
References
  1. Mayer MC, Kaden D, Schauenburg L, Hancock MA, Voigt P, Roeser D, Barucker C, Than ME, Schaefer M, Multhaup G: Novel zinc-binding site in the E2 domain regulates amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4;289(27):19019-30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570382. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24855651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transition metal ion binding
Specific Function
Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and tra...
Gene Name
APP
Uniprot ID
P05067
Uniprot Name
Amyloid beta A4 protein
Molecular Weight
86942.715 Da
References
  1. Mayer MC, Kaden D, Schauenburg L, Hancock MA, Voigt P, Roeser D, Barucker C, Than ME, Schaefer M, Multhaup G: Novel zinc-binding site in the E2 domain regulates amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jul 4;289(27):19019-30. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.570382. Epub 2014 May 22. [PubMed:24855651]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
Activator/cofactor
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This ...
Gene Name
PARP1
Uniprot ID
P09874
Uniprot Name
Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
Molecular Weight
113082.945 Da
References
  1. Bossak K, Goch W, Piatek K, Fraczyk T, Poznanski J, Bonna A, Keil C, Hartwig A, Bal W: Unusual Zn(II) Affinities of Zinc Fingers of Poly(ADP-ribose)Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) Nuclear Protein. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 Feb 16;28(2):191-201. [PubMed:25549802]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name
CA1
Uniprot ID
P00915
Uniprot Name
Carbonic anhydrase 1
Molecular Weight
28870.0 Da
References
  1. McCall KA, Huang C, Fierke CA: Function and mechanism of zinc metalloenzymes. J Nutr. 2000 May;130(5S Suppl):1437S-46S. [PubMed:10801957]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Removes residual C-terminal Arg or Lys remaining after initial endoprotease cleavage during prohormone processing. Processes proinsulin.
Gene Name
CPE
Uniprot ID
P16870
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase E
Molecular Weight
53150.185 Da
References
  1. Zinc metabolism [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ADH1C
Uniprot ID
P00326
Uniprot Name
Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C
Molecular Weight
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Zinc metabolism [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by A...
Gene Name
IDE
Uniprot ID
P14735
Uniprot Name
Insulin-degrading enzyme
Molecular Weight
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Zinc metabolism [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Zinc metabolism [Link]

Drug created on August 29, 2007 10:03 / Updated on November 12, 2018 07:30